1948-54:Marcus Garvey (Workers) 1954-55: C.L.R. James (Workers) 1955-63: Marcus Garvey (Workers) 1963-69: George Padmore (Workers/People's) 1969-69: Daniel Fignole (People's) 1969-74: Harriette Moore (People's)
1974-77: Medgar Evers (People's) 1977-83: Benjamin Davis (Liberal)
1983-84: Richard Henries (Liberal) 1984-86: James Lawson (People's) 1986-92: Richard Henries (Liberal) 1992-95: Medgar Evers (People's) 1995-96: James Lawson (People's) 1996-99: Clarence Thomas (Liberal) 1999-01: Colin Powell (One Zion) 2001-06: Luckner Cambronne (Liberal/Change) 2006-09: Herman Cain (Change) 2009-19: Clarence Thomas (Liberal)
The Back to Africa movement did not begin in the 20th century, but the settlements of Sierra Leone and Liberia were small in scale, with the returned slaves living under native rulers. Zion as a project did not truly take off until the collapse of the Sokoto Empire in 1919 where under the auspices of the German Colonials, large scale settlement began. This increasingly led to tension with the local Africans, who resented the increasingly influence of these strangers. One of the ironies of the Back to Africa movement is that they defined themselevs by their vodou faith, which had become a symbol of their cultural resiliance in the slave fields but it was a religion that was only a tiny minority in Africa itself thanks to centuries of muslim rule. In 1936, when a large scale revolt broke out against the German, the Americo-Africans supported the colonial government and so earned their increasingly trust at the cost of a further poisioning of their relations with the locals. And in the aftermath of the terrible massacres of Vodun worshipers in the New World by Trujillo's Louisianaian Empire during the 1940s, the Return to Africa movement was seen as the only way for the black population of the Americas to be guarenteed safety.
In 1944 the Vodun Revolt against the German rule in Guinea began, in 1947 the vodun fought a civil war against the muslim africans that saw thousands expelled and in 1948, after defeating most of their neighbours in war, the Republic of Zion was declared.
I was hinting that a UK setting would indeed be fun.
Also here's my attempt at an ATLF for AGB that I wrote last year...
1940-47: William Graham (Labour)
1947-53: Rab Butler (Conservative)
1953-62: David Maxwell Fife (Conservative)
1962-64: Reggie Maudling (Conservative)
1964-73: George Brown (Labour)
1973-78: Enoch Powell (Conservative)
1978-83: Roy Jenkins (Labour)
1983- : Alan Clark (Labour)
In the spirit of what Japhy's working on, I started thinking about the archetypical seventies conspiracy thriller- Capricorn One, which in many ways perfectly shows why there aren't many films of that genre today. I ended up really overthinking this, and it became a wider exploration of that AH trope of "JFK Lives; Space Race forever!", which strikes me as the most obvious PoD for a Mars Mission by the late 70s/80s as well as a bunch of other related ideas.
1961-1965: John F. Kennedy / Lyndon B. Johnson (Democratic) 1960: Richard Nixon / Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. (Republican) 1965-1967: John F. Kennedy / George Smathers (Democratic) 1964: Richard Nixon / John J. Williams (Republican), George Wallace / Various (State's Rights) 1967-1969: George Smathers /Vacant (Democratic)
1969-1973: George Romney / John Tower (Republican) 1968: George Smathers / Terry Sanford (Democratic) 1973-1977: George Smathers / Fred Harris (Democratic) 1972: George Romney / John Tower (Republican), George Wallace / Ezra Taft Benson (Independent), Eugene McCarthy / Benjamin Spock (Independent) 1977-1982: Howard Baker / Donald Rumsfeld (Republican) 1976: Fred Harris / John Glenn (Democratic)
1980: Reubin Askew / Robert Morgenthau (Democratic) 1982: Donald Rumsfeld /Vacant (Republican)
1982-1986: Donald Rumsfeld / Marshall Coleman (Republican) 1984: Robert Kennedy / Neil Goldschmidt (Democratic) 1986: Marshall Coleman / Vacant (Republican)
1986-1989: Marshall Coleman / Charles Evers (Republican)
1989-1993: George McGovern / Leon Panetta (Democratic) 1988: Marshall Coleman / Anne Gorsuch (Republican), Jim Bakker / John K. Singlaub (Moral Majority) 1993-2001: Jim Webb / Larry McDonald (Republican) 1992: Leon Panetta / Mike Espy (Democratic), LaDonna Harris / Ralph Nader (Independent)
1996: Jim Mattox / Booth Gardner (Democratic), Jim Hightower / Karen Silkwood (Peace and Freedom) 2001-: Kathleen Kennedy Townsend / Max Baucus (Democratic) 2000: Carroll Campbell / Clarence Thomas (Republican), Rosie Castro / Karen Silkwood (Peace and Freedom)
Historians argue whether Kennedy's dropping of Lyndon Johnson in favour of an old friend is what nearly cost him the election or just about pushed him over the line in several key states. Either way, Governor Nixon's meltdown of a concession speech sealed the Republican's fate and set the tone for the next few years. Johnson was an asset Kennedy could've used in trying to push more of the Civil Rights and New Frontier Agenda through an increasingly truculent Congress with a Vice President who increasingly sided with those in congress who sought to water down such measures, watering down that only worsened following Kennedy's abrupt resignation, as his long-hidden illnesses became near-impossible to cover up.
Liberals would have to wait for a Republican to push through the more liberal civil rights measures and de-escalation in Vietnam. And while Romney is remembered positively today, at the time his tenure was marked by riots and civil strife. Famously, when attending a parade to commemorate Gus Grissom and the other recently returned heroes of Apollo 1, Romney was booed by the crowd. Robert Kennedy opted not to run against Smathers, instead deciding that going to Albany to challenge Governor Buckley was a better way to honour his late brother's legacy. The social strife of the Romney years forced Smathers to the left on many matters- it was in his second term that much of the ambitious welfare state proposals of the New Frontier came into being. Large investments in NASA (promising skylabs and Mars missions) and advisors like Henry Kissinger shepherding detente with Premier Kosygin, for whom the Space Race was less urgent.
Howard Baker functioned as a continuation of the Smathers consensus, barely touching the established welfare programmes and resisting calls from the right and left to go either way on Civil Rights measures. Early in his term were several scandals in the nuclear industry, including some terrifying near-misses in California; and while he was admired for the handling of the near-crisis few faced consequences for it. His assassination in 1982 set off a six month nationwide manhunt which was only resolved when John Paul Franklin, under arrest for an attempt on the life of the ailing Reverend King, confessed to Chattanooga shooting. He had come to view President Baker as a "race traitor" for appointing former Senator Charles Evers Attorney General.
Rumsfeld successfully brought the country together following the tragedy and resultant tragedy, and easily saw off Governor Kennedy as well. His term was dominated by re-escalating tensions with the East and Premier Suslov, of which a re-energised Space Race was just one proxy in an increasingly expensive fight. The increasing pressure from all the way up is what led to the Capricorn Affair. The appearance of one of the crew members of the Capricorn One at his own memorial service unwound the entire conspiracy very quickly, with much of the increasingly militarised and politicised leadership of NASA finding themselves facing criminal charges. While Rumsfeld wasn't personally responsible, he had created the culture that had led to the Capricorn Affair and had a greater hand in other mounting scandals and war crimes that were bubbling to the surface in the increasingly irreverent eighties. The sum total of this was to disgrace the United States on the world stage, and Rumsfeld resigned before he could be impeached.
The Democrats sailed to victory in 1988 on a platform of open government and general anti-establishment feeling, but not with the candidate they wanted. George McGovern's aggressive reformist bent, taking an axe to NASA and the Pentagon’s budget and establishing "truth commissions" to properly get to the bottom of the crimes of the Rumsfeld Administration and even earlier. This left much of Washington unsettled, and soon he found himself under attack from all sides: a tepid Congress, financial markets constantly betting against him and his commissions and allies stonewalled and marginalised. While Pyotr Masherov's grip was loosening on the Eastern Bloc, it felt very much like America was losing the Cold War. Arms reductions were standard policy, a re-unified Germany left NATO, and the Soviets landed their own moon mission in 1991. Much has been written and alleged about McGovern's abrupt declining of a second term- the most common allegation being some sort of blackmail, even though the recession would have likely sunk him had he ran. McGovern never publicly commented on the allegations beyond his vague statement of health and family reasons, and campaigned tepidly for his disloyal Vice President as many of his supporters rushed to the campaign of the former Second Lady.
Webb, elected on a "return to normalcy" after the chaotic eighties, accomplished just that, delivering pardons for many caught up in the Capricorn Affair and other scandals of that era, shutting down the truth commissions and once again turning on the taps to NASA and the Pentagon, even as the Cold War seemed less and less urgent of a concern. He was able to govern comfortably as the Democrats feuded amongst themselves and had their vote split by a left that had been irreversibly empowered by the McGovern Administration. Aggressive deregulation and free trade policies were pursued, as were sanctions against the regimes of Winnie Mandela and other nascent Marxist states. It was a time of division and dirty tricks, and there weren't many capable of uniting the country.
A Kennedy could do that job. And while the Peace and Freedom Party (now with a whole three Congressmen and a dusting of state legislators) hates the Governor's daughter and president's niece almost as much Webb, her administration maintains high approval ratings and several Webb appointees. Early into her term, she made a historic visit to Moscow to meet recently elected Soviet Premier Gorbachev Among the many topics discussed to bring the two superpowers together, a joint mission to Mars was formally proposed- "for real this time".
Was going to write a PMs list about a horribly fractured british politics (Lab, Labour but lead by Tom Watson or some shit, Lib Dems, Greens, Independent Cons, Cons, Brexit, plus nats etc) but there have been so many good lists on this forum anyway
 "EngSynd" is a retroactive term from the 1950s
 The term used by foreign observers of the 'Workers War', as the Indian Workers' Republic - too large and powerful to be held down under the federal system - asserted its might (the Browns).
 Driberg reformed the position into a two-year rotating job, to prevent further nationalist conflict. The line for the proles was "we had always been undermined by Asia"
 The position became dangerously close to going to the West Indian Workers Republic, so Driberg and allies pulled a fast one. Instability broke out.
 The Kray twins were Driberg's men in the Ministry of Public Safety ("MiniSafe" officially or "MiniLove" as people darkly joked), part of the generation who'd only ever known Syndicalism and who'd cut their teeth on the purges of Scottish dissidents. They'd decided they didn't need him, officially dissolved the Anglo-Irish republics into a single British Workers' Republic, and waged terror and low-level warfare to keep the Federation under the boot.
 Derogatory term for the rump federation after a series of revolts and foreign interventions had reduced it to merely Britain and Ireland. (Airstrip One was a white elephant military site for the Worker's Air Force new Frighteners bomber fleet, allegedly scaring off German, Chinese, and South African foes)
 Military governor following the South African/Chinese invasion of the British Isles, under temporary command until elections could be held. Due to the chaos in London at the time, General de Valéra established her command (and the residence of the returning monarch) in Dublin - this would remain the capital of the Second United Kingdom of Britain and Ireland due to intertia.