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Mazda's Maps and Mwikiboxes

Uhura's Mazda

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Counties by quantity of English PMs born therein.

Not pictured: New Brunswick - 1 (Bonar Law), County Dublin - 2 (Wellington and Shelburne), Midlothian - 3 (Bute, Aberdeen, Blair), East Lothian - 1 (Balfour), Morayshire - 1 (MacDonald) and Lanarkshire - 1 (Campbell-Bannerman).

Only one of the Northern English PMs has been from the Labour Party, hence the immortal slogan "What does the Whig Party offer an aristocrat from just outside Rotherham?"

PM Birth Counties.png
 

Uhura's Mazda

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The decades since the introduction of STV in the Australian Senate has led to a profusion of minor parties, and the reason why this experiment has not been repeated in any of the state parliaments is obvious.

Yes, I know the Tasmanian lower house has had Hare-Clark since 1907 and New South Wales gave it a trial run in their own lower house in the 1920s, you don't need to @ me.

For the first few decades, it seemed obvious that the balance of power would only ever be held by Independents and the DLP, a Catholic and Anti-Communist splinter from the Labor Party. These Senators generally used their powers responsibly, never going so far as to deny supply to a Government with the confidence of the House of Representatives. However, the 1970s saw the DLP erode - for starters, their raison d'etre of keeping the ALP out of government was made obsolete by the majority won by Gough Whitlam, and then the Gair Affair proved an embarrassment to a struggling party. In the double-dissolution election of 1974, only Queensland's Condon Byrne held onto a seat, although he was joined by Brian Harradine from Tasmania the next year. But this was the point at which the DLP ceased to be a national force, losing both seats in their former stronghold of Victoria and falling back in the other large state, New South Wales.

There was a brief resurgence in 1977, thanks to a deal with the Country Party finally paying off. The Country and Democratic Labor parties in Western Australia had entered into a 'National Alliance' for the 1974 and 1975 elections, both of which returned a single Country Senator, and in 1977 William Sullivan of the DLP was begrudgingly given the top spot on the list, and served until the double dissolution of 1983.

However, by this time, there was another third party on the scene. Don Chipp had formed a new centre-line, small-l liberal party out of the wreckage of Steele Hall's party in 1977, and quickly attracted protest votes (largely from social-liberals and environmentalists) in Victoria and South Australia. The Australian Democrats were much more forthright than the DLP, and brought down the Fraser Government over the GST issue in 1983, precipitating a double-dissolution in which they took seats in New South Wales and Western Australia. For a moment, the ADs were the dominant third party - but another election in 1984, in which the Nuclear Disarmament Party took 8% of the vote from almost a standing start, cost them the gains from their brief ascendancy.

The NDP, led by the rock musician Peter Garrett, married peace activism with environmentalism, and elected two Senators in 1984 - Garrett himself in NSW and Jo Vallentine in Western Australia. This pair took the third-party vote from under the Democrats' noses in those states, but fared less well elsewhere. Now, the NDP and the Democrats have a lot of ideological common ground, but all attempts to unite the parties have foundered on several issues - such as the NDP's feeling that the Democrats aren't sufficiently strong on 'green' issues and the ADs' feeling that the NDP are a bunch of flakes. Their Senators have made a habit of being expelled from the Senate after finding that they're ineligible on citizenship grounds, the most recent example being Scott Ludlam. Another issue is the contention that the NDP are riddled with entryists from the Socialist Workers' Party and other Communist sects, with Lee Rhiannon's leftist heritage being a common cry from centrist Democrat spokespeople such as Fiona Patten and Nick Xenophon.

Another proposed solution to AD/NDP relations has been electoral reform to allow 'Group Voting Tickets' which would make it easier for parties to transfer votes between one another without the voters getting a word in edgeways, but this has never passed a second reading because it would obviously lead to even greater electoral fragmentation.

The DLP, by contrast, have not been in demand for mergers with the other minor parties. However, they have benefited in Queensland from a deal with the Nationals along similar lines to the short-lived deal in WA. The Queensland Nats didn't share Senate lists with the Liberals, and instead arranged to have DLP candidates heading their list at every second half-Senate election. This is how Condon Byrne and Geoffrey Maule managed to stay in the Senate and keep Brian Harradine (very popular in Tasmania thanks to his firm stance on the Franklin Dam) company in the lean years. However, tensions grew from the mid-90s on, when Senator Pauline Hanson became genuinely popular in the state and the DLP started winning seats in the Queensland Parliament. The feeling was that the party could win a second Queensland Senate seat if they left the comfortable arrangement with the Nationals - this feeling proved to be accurate in 2010, by which time the Nationals (jumping from one extreme to another) had entered into a full merger with the Liberals.

Hanson's leadership was a golden age for the DLP, but caused a certain amount of internal friction. Hanson's leadership style was autocratic - too much so for Steve Martin, the Tasmanian Senator, who resigned in outrage at some slight or other and was succeeded by Jacqui Lambie - and her focus was too much on anti-Asian rhetoric which didn't easily mesh with the focus on reproduction that most of the Catholic DLP voters wanted to hear. The biggest success of the Hanson period, ironically, was her seduction of Bob Katter as the Party's first member of the House of Representatives since the 1950s - and as a more suitable leader.

Under Katter, the DLP has become a consistent winner of the final seats in Queensland and Tasmania, but fortune has eluded them in the other states, where the Democrats and the Nuclear Disarmament Party have dug themselves in. In the last couple of decades, the Senate has become home to frequent attention-seeking minor-party stunts and (more seriously) threats to block supply, with only the Democrats really aspiring to make the committee system work to scrutinise the lower house - although how much of this attitude is centrist sanctimony is up for debate. In the recent debate on introducing PR to the South Australian upper house, spear-headed by Nick Xenophon, the overwhelming response was "The Council's a joke, but why would we want to fix it by making it like the Senate?"


ContDLP.png
 

Uhura's Mazda

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The 1961 Victorian election wasn't particularly interesting, but I haven't mapped an AV election in quite some time, so here you go.

The Independent Liberal was the incumbent, who came third in the first round but leapfrogged the official Liberal and the Labor challenger with the aid of DLP preferences. In the Country seat with the asterisk, the Country Party winner beat the Liberal candidate in the final tally, and as the Labor candidate had come fourth with 15%, it presumably wasn't seen as being particularly worthwhile to count the two-party preferred vote.

2CP also differs from 2PP in the 13 seats where the DLP came second to Labor. This was the best result the DLP ever achieved on a state level (which was the reason I chose this one to map) with 17% but no seats. The effect of this was to split the anti-Labor vote two or even three ways, making it look like Labor are doing alright on the first preference map - but the DLP preferences flowed overwhelmingly to the Coalition, who won 48 seats out of 66. By exploiting the DLP's appeal to working class Catholics and their eagerness to direct preferences away from the Communist-riddled ALP, the Coalition managed to retain power from 1955 to 1982 in Victoria, with a similar effect taking place federally until 1972.

On another note, Swan Hill - the pale green seat on the 1st prefs which turns to very dark green on the 2PP map - was contested by two officially endorsed Country Party candidates, who came a very close first and second on the first round. The final count on the two-candidate preferred vote was between the two of them (60%-40%), but I've depicted the two-party vote between the Coalition and Labor, which the Country candidate won: 85.4 to 14.6. I reckon that's where the hicks live.

Apologies for the zoominess - the Adam Carr map I adapted this from is split into four separate maps, which have another six insets between them.

DLP61.png
 

Uhura's Mazda

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Election results of Queensland-based ALP splinter parties (before the Queensland Labor Party/DLP).

Protestant Labor Party (Qld) election results

1938 Queensland state election (Contingent Vote)
  • Albert: Robert Elliott - 1,542 (16.8%)
  • Baroona: Ralph Powell - 2,539 (27.9%)
  • Bundaberg: Ernest Miles - 1,439 (14.6%)
  • Buranda: Joseph Webster - 2,207 (21.7%)
  • Cairns: Robert Smith - 1,740 (21.3%)
  • Enoggera: James Underhill - 2,390 (23.0%)
  • Fortitude Valey: Andrew Knox - 1,476 (16.2%)
  • Gympie: William Millett - 2,264 (32.0%) - close result
  • Herbert: Ernest Malin - 1,121 (12.2%)
  • Ithaca: George Webb - 3,448 (33.4%) - close result
  • Kelvin Grove: George Morris - 3,684 (35.8%, GAIN after distribution of preferences)
  • Kurilpa: Joseph Moore - 2,313 (24.0%)
  • Logan: John Becconsall - 1,746 (16.3%)
  • Merthyr: Frederick Brown - 2,042 (20.9%)
  • Mundingburra: Lionel Parsons - 1,733 (18.3%)
  • Nundah: Thomas Denovan - 2,707 (26.1%) - close result
  • Sandgate: Richard Vane-Millbank - 1,237 (12.5%)
  • South Brisbane: James McCann - 2,016 (19.7%)
  • Toowong: Joseph West - 1,639 (16.7%)
  • Toowoomba: James Neil - 1,331 (13.4%)
  • Townsville: Alfred Loveridge - 2,378 (27.2%)
  • Windsor: Cecil Maxwell - 1,291 (13.0%)
  • Wynnum: Samuel Greene - 2,290 (20.7%
1939 Charters Towers state by-election (Contingent Vote)
  • Charters Towers: William Hocking - 1,689 (25.9%)
1939 Townsville state by-election (Contingent Vote)
  • Townsville: George Webb - 2,047 (23.0%, -4.2%)
1941 Queensland state election (Contingent Vote)
  • Charters Towers: Syd Williams - 2,344 (36.8%, +10.1% from by-election)
  • Maryborough: Robert McDowell - 3,959 (40.9%)
  • Mundingburra: Lionel Parsons - 2,735 (27.4%, +9.1%)
 

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Frank Barnes Labor Party election results

1941 Queensland state election (Contingent Vote)
  • Bundaberg: Frank Barnes (Andrew Fisher Labor) - 5,476 (51.1%, GAIN)
1942 Cairns state by-election (Contingent Vote)
  • Cairns: Lou Barnes (King O'Malley Labor) - 2,101 (30.5%, GAIN after distribution of preferences)
1944 Queensland state election (FPTP)
  • Bundaberg: Frank Barnes (Frank Barnes Labor) - 4,180 (40.0%, -11.1%, HOLD)
  • Cairns: Lou Barnes (Frank Barnes Labor) - 5,790 (65.6%, +30.1%, HOLD from by-election)
1947 Queensland state election (FPTP)
  • Barcoo: Reginald Parnell (Frank Barnes Labor) - 323 (5.2%)
  • Bundaberg: Frank Barnes (Frank Barnes Labor) - 4,828 (40.4%, +0.4%, HOLD)
  • Cairns: Lou Barnes (Frank Barnes Labor) - 3,061 (28.8%, -36.8%, LOSS)
  • Cooroora: Bill Gresham (Frank Barnes Labor) - 2,693 (27.6%) - close result
  • Fitzroy: Gordon Loukes (Frank Barnes Labor) - 103 (1.0%)
  • Gympie: Ray Smith (Frank Barnes Labor) - 875 (11.7%)
  • Keppel: John Harding (Frank Barnes Labor) - 1,717 (19.7%)
  • Maryborough: Mary De Mattos (Frank Barnes Labor) - 2,184 (20.3%)
  • Nanango: Phil Cameron (Frank Barnes Labor) - 2,164 (24.4%)
  • Normanby: Cecil Chandler (Frank Barnes Labor) - 998 (12.9%)
  • Port Curtis: Peter Neilson (Frank Barnes Labor) - 1,520 (15.0%)
  • Rockhampton: Arthur Webb (Frank Barnes Labor) - 1,060 (10.0%)
  • Wide Bay: N. F. Spence (Frank Barnes Labor) - 2,150 (23.9%)
  • Wynnum: Thomas Ebbage (Frank Barnes Labor) - 1,208 (7.8%)
1950 Queensland state election (FPTP)
  • Bundaberg: Frank Barnes (Frank Barnes Labor) - 2,759 (29.6%, LOSS after boundary changes)
 

Uhura's Mazda

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North Queensland Labor Party election results

1944 Queensland state election (FPTP)
  • Mundingburra: Tom Aikens (Hermit Park Labor) - 3,658 (35.6%, GAIN)
  • Townsville: Ernest O'Brien (Hermit Park Labor) - 1,863 (21.0%)
1947 Queensland state election (FPTP)
  • Mundingburra: Tom Aikens (Hermit Park Labor) - 4,541 (39.6%, +4.0%, HOLD)
1950 Queensland state election (FPTP)
  • Charters Towers: Victor Hay (North Queensland Labor Party) - 201 (4.4%)
  • Flinders: Victor Casey (North Queensland Labor Party) - 291 (7.3%)
  • Haughton: Ernest O'Brien (North Queensland Labor Party) - 1,463 (19.6%)
  • Mourilyan: William Batchelor (North Queensland Labor Party) - 1,028 (14.1%)
  • Mulgrave: George Groth (North Queensland Labor Party) - 345 (4.7%)
  • Mundingburra: Tom Aikens (North Queensland Labor Party) - 3,348 (42.6%, +3.0%, HOLD)
  • Tablelands: Tom Mackey (North Queensland Labor Party) - 496 (6.6%)
  • Townsville: Pat Rooney (North Queensland Labor Party) - 517 (7.2%)
1953 Queensland state election (FPTP)
  • Haughton: Ernest O'Brien (North Queensland Labor Party) - 1,526 (19.6%, +0%)
  • Mundingburra: Tom Aikens (North Queensland Labor Party) - 4,372 (52.5%, +9.9%, HOLD)
  • Townsville: Kevin Gormley (North Queensland Labor Party) - 783 (12.1%, +4.9%)
1956 Queensland state election (FPTP)
  • Mundingburra: Tom Aikens (North Queensland Labor Party) - 7,296 (77.9%, +25.4%, HOLD)
1957 Queensland state election (FPTP)
  • Mundingburra: Tom Aikens (North Queensland Labor Party) - 7,488 (75.1%, -2.8%, HOLD)
1960 Queensland state election (FPTP)
  • Townsville South: Tom Aikens (North Queensland Labor Party) - 8,501 (66.8%, HOLD on new boundaries)
1963 Queensland state election (FPTP)
  • Townsville South: Tom Aikens (North Queensland Labor Party) - 8,229 (60.2%, -6.6%, HOLD)
1966 Queensland state election (AV)
  • Townsville South: Tom Aikens (North Queensland Labor Party) - 9,260 (63.2%, +3.0%, HOLD)
1969 Queensland state election (AV)
  • Townsville South: Tom Aikens (North Queensland Labor Party) - 8,085 (53.1, -10.1%, HOLD)
1972 Queensland state election (AV)
  • Townsville South: Tom Aikens (North Queensland Labor Party) - 5,500 (51.0%, -2.1%, HOLD)
1974 Queensland state election (AV)
  • Townsville South: Tom Aikens (North Queensland Party) - 5,881 (48.5%, -2.5%, HOLD after distribution of preferences)
1977 Queensland state election (AV)
  • Townsville South: Tom Aikens (North Queensland Party) - 6.173 (46.0%, -2.5%, LOSS)
 

Uhura's Mazda

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Also Social Credit, because they were the other interesting micro-party of the time (other than the Communists, that is) and they randomly sprouted back up again on two separate occasions later on - with, er, diminishing returns.

Social Credit Party (Qld) election results

1932 Queensland state election
  • Maree: Hugh Phair - 133 (1.4%)
1935 Queensland state election
  • Albert: George Gray - 3,875 (46.5%) - close result, later ALP federal MP
  • Baroona: Julius Streeter - 2,600 (30.8%)
  • Brisbane: Charles Martin - 1,118 (13.1%)
  • Bundaberg: Henry Clegton - 3,029 (33.5%)
  • Buranda: John Read - 860 (9.0%)
  • Cairns: John Clayton - 1,910 (25.1%)
  • Carnarvon: Ernest Hall - 605 (7.7%)
  • Cook: Richard Boorman - 1,528 (20.3%)
  • Keppel: John Harding - 1,392 (17.6%) - later stood for Frank Barnes Labor
  • Mackay: Arthur Williams - 614 (7.1%)
  • Maranoa: Herman Brus - 2,158 (29.5%)
  • Mirani: Philip Kirwan - 392 (4.6%)
  • Normanby: Albert Webb - 2,155 (32.0%)
  • Port Curtis: Bill Gresham - 1,172 (13.4%) - later stood for Frank Barnes Labor
  • Rockhampton: Vivian Pugh - 2,481 (27.6%)
  • Toowong: Charles Hallick - 766 (8.4%)
  • Toowoomba: Denis Hannay - 871 (7.6%)
  • Wide Bay: John Rex - 3,655 (44.4%) - close result
  • Wynnum: Joanna Helbach - 1,466 (14.8%)
1935-8 Queensland state by-elections
  • Toowoomba, 1935: Denis Hannay - 747 (9.0% +1.4%)
  • Bowen, 1936: Henry Madden - 449 (6.2%)
  • Brisbane, 1936: Charles Martin - 770 (10.7%, -2.4%)
  • Keppel, 1936: John Harding - 1,897 (24.3%, +6.7%)
  • Maryborough, 1937: Noel Bromiley - 1,563 (19.5%)
1938 Queensland state election
  • Albert: George Gray - 1,289 (14.1%, -32.4%)
  • Bowen: Henry Beck - 355 (4.5%, -1.8% from by-election)
  • Bulimba: Julius Streeter - 1,221 (12.5%)
  • Bundaberg: Henry Clegton - 1,699 (17.2%, 16.3%)
  • Buranda: Harold Tapper - 358 (3.5%, -5.5%)
  • Cook: Joseph Mears - 547 (7.2%, -13.1%)
  • Cooroora: Denis Hannay - 1,364 (15.1%)
  • Fitzroy: Sidney Cooper - 650 (6.9%)
  • Gympie: Alfred Taylor - 246 (3.5%)
  • Keppel: John Harding - 2,484 (30.7%, +13.1%)
  • Mackay: John Neville - 1,717 (19.4%, +12.2%)
  • Maree: Charles Martin - 727 (7.5%)
  • Maryborough: Noel Bromiley - 834 (9.0%)
  • Mirani: Edwin Hill - 952 (10.7%, +6.1%)
  • Murrumba: Geoffrey Nichols - 2,733 (29.4%)
  • Nanango: Henry Madden (Independent Social Credit) - 2,524 (29.0%) - close result
  • Normanby: Albert Webb - 693 (9.2%, -22.8%)
  • Rockhampton: Vivian Pugh - 1,086 (11.1%, 16.5%)
  • Sandgate: Leonard Jones - 336 (3.4%)
  • West Moreton: James Kidman - 2,296 (27.7%)
  • Wide Bay: John Rex - 2,597 (30.7, -13.7%)
  • Wynnum: Thomas Ebbage - 1,050 (9.5%, -5.3%) - later stood for Frank Barnes Labor
1953 Queensland state election
  • Brisbane: Colin Nonmus - 1,598 (19.3%)
  • Fortitude Valley: John Marion - 2,156 (23.2%)
  • Kurilpa: Richard Boorman - 349 (3.4%)
1960 Queensland state election
  • Greenslopes: Eric Allen - 116 (1.1%)
1963 Queensland state election
  • Greenslopes: Eric Allen - 111 (1.0%, -0.1%)
  • Ipswich East: Vic Robb - 67 (0.5%)
  • Isis: Arnold Jones - 432 (4.9%)
  • Ithaca: Bruce Tannock - 159 (1.5%)
  • Kurilpa: Paul Kenealy - 134 (1.3%)
  • Maryborough: Douglas Devenish - 491 (4.5%)
  • Norman: David Gray - 275 (3.0%)
  • Wavell: Merv Goldstiver - 184 (1.4%)
  • Yeronga: Roy Phipps - 81 (0.8%)
1963-1966 Queensland state by-elections
  • Yeronga, 1964: Eric Allen - 137 (1.4%, +0.6%)
1966 Queensland state election
  • Burke: John Donaldson - 909 (12.9%)
  • Fassifern: Vic Robb - 206 (2.3%)
  • Kurilpa: William Smith - 89 (0.9%, -0.4%)
  • Logan: Paul Kenealy - 135 (1.2%)
  • Maryborough: Arnold Jones - 402 (3.6%, -0.9%)
  • Norman: David Gray - 107 (1.2%, -1.8%)
  • Wavell: Merv Goldstiver - 113 (0.8%, -0.6%)
1969 Queensland state election
  • Burke: John Donaldson - 777 (9.2%, -3.8%)
  • Fassifern: Vic Robb - 183 (2.0%, -0.3%)
  • Nudgee: Herbert Giesberts - 335 (2.3%)
 
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Uhura's Mazda

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The Victorian Liberal Party/Electoral Reform League, aka the Hollway Liberals, were a splinter from the Liberal and Country Party (i.e. the Liberal Party in Victoria) who were opposed to the fact that rural areas were over-represented - the political effect of which was to make the Victorian Country Party over-represented. The Vic Country Party were, of course, not the same as the Liberal and Country Party, and the two parties weren't even in Coalition with one another. Confused?

Hollway's electoral reform plan was implemented by the short-lived Labor government which took power in 1952, so they changed their name to be more generic - but they couldn't find a niche and the lot of them were defeated.

Victorian Liberal Party election results

1952 Victorian state election
  • Brighton: Ray Tovell (Electoral Reform League) - 12,167 (48.2%, HOLD from defection, after preferences)
  • Camberwell: Vernon Wilcox (Electoral Reform League) - 5,564 (21.1%)
  • Caulfield: Alexander Dennett (Electoral Reform League) - 12,493 (62.6%, HOLD from defection)
  • Dandenong: William Dawnay-Mould (Electoral Reform League) - 14,609 (34.7%, LOSS from defection)
  • Elsternwick: John Don (Electoral Reform League) - 8,389 (42.1%, HOLD from defection, after preferences)
  • Evelyn: Lindsay Gown (Electoral Reform League) - 1,477 (8.5%)
  • Glen Iris: Thomas Hollway (Electoral Reform League) - 15,152 (56.4%, HOLD from defection)
  • Hawthorn: Charles Calderwood (Electoral Reform League) - 3,677 (18.0%)
  • Ivanhoe: Harcourt Bell (Electoral Reform League) - 1,372 (4.1%)
  • Kew: John Eddy (Electoral Reform League) - 6,303 (30.3%)
  • Korong: Wallace Lunn (Electoral Reform League) - 409 (3.4%)
  • Malvern: Roy Schilling (Electoral Reform League) - 3,959 (20.4%)
  • Mornington: Gerard Hirst (Electoral Reform League) - 2,918 (15.1%)
  • St Kilda: Geoffrey Kiddle (Electoral Reform League) - 3,378 (17.1%)
  • Swan Hill: John Hipworth (Electoral Reform League) - 4,082 (30.9%, LOSS from defection)
  • Toorak: Mabel Brookes (Electoral Reform League) - 4,068 (19.9%)
1955 Victorian state election (new boundaries)
  • Brighton: Ray Tovell (Victorian Liberal Party) - 4,947 (28.1%, LOSS)
  • Caulfield: Alexander Dennett (Victorian Liberal Party) - 7,133 (45.6%, LOSS)
  • Elsternwick: John Don (Victorian Liberal Party) - 8,401 (43.5%, LOSS)
  • Geelong: Charles Plummer (Victorian Liberal Party) - 1,081 (5.0%)
  • Malvern: Mascotte Brown (Victorian Liberal Party) - 4,796 (29.5%)
  • Moorabbin: William Dawnay-Mould (Victorian Liberal Party) - 2,985 (10.1%)
  • Mornington: Fred Jarman (Victorian Liberal Party) - 7,646 (34.8%)
  • Ripponlea: Thomas Hollway (Victorian Liberal Party) - 3,723 (24.2%, LOSS)
  • St Kilda: Arnold Blashki (Victorian Liberal Party) - 1,755 (10.7%)
  • Toorak: Geoffrey Kiddle (Victorian Liberal Party) - 2,225 (13.7%)
 

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The Australian Douglas Credit party is largely overlooked, especially compared to its sister parties in Canada and NZ, which actually won seats. Nevertheless, there was a bit of genuine popularity for Social Credit in the mid-30s, peaking in a fairly wild lecture tour from the Cliffster himself. However, Douglas dictated in 1935 that Social Crediters should avoid standing in elections - and most of the movement in Australia did as they were told. The Queensland branch split over the issue and the pro-representative-democracy faction contested the 1937 general election, along with a few others from the rest of the country. This election was the closest Social Credit got to winning a seat in Australia, with Geoffrey Nichols failing to gain Wide Bay by just 1% on the Two-Candidate Preferred vote.

Then Australia started to recover from the Depression and the Second World War happened, so the remaining vigorous sections of the Douglasite movement withered away. There was, however, a re-emergence of the Queensland party in the 50s and 60s and a new generation of Social Crediters in South Australia, neither of which got anywhere. The last Social Credit candidates in Australia were a slate of Senate candidates in NSW in 1974.

Social Credit election results

Federal House of Representatives


1931 Australian federal election
  • Lilley, Qld: Frank Mason - 7,185 (12.7%)
1934 Australian federal election
  • Barton, NSW: John Macara - 5,824 (11.1%)
  • Calare, NSW: Ethel Arthur-Smith - 1,664 (3.4%)
  • Cook, NSW: Florence Cochrane - 2,409 (4.7%)
  • Cowper, NSW: Hereward Kesteven - 6,958 (14.4%)
  • Dalley, NSW: Henry Giles - 2,079 (3.9%)
  • Lang, NSW: Colin Barclay-Smith - 5,687 (11.0%)
  • Macquarie, NSW: Edward Smythe - 1,099 (2.3%)
  • Martin, NSW: William Stones - 5,395 (10.3%)
  • North Sydney, NSW: Vincent Kelly - 6,385 (11.7%)
  • Parkes, NSW: Harold Bondeson - 5,564 (10.5%)
  • Parramatta, NSW: Henry Miscamble - 3,357 (6.5%)
  • Reid, NSW: Harry Barnes - 4,453 (8.6%)
  • Warringah, NSW: Robert Pearson - 6,749 (12.4%)
  • Watson, NSW: Vincent Murtagh - 2,371 (4.5%)
  • Wentworth, NSW: Ralph Fretwell - 4,466 (8.6%)
  • West Sydney, NSW: Frederick Taylor - 2,529 (5.0%)
  • Fawkner, Vic: Frederick Paice - 2,592 (5.7%)
  • Henty, Vic: Lockhart Stewart - 6,030 (7.7%)
  • Kooyong, Vic: Leslie Hollins - 12,980 (19.1%) - elected to Victorian Legislative Assembly as Independent in 1940
  • Maribyrnong, Vic: Alexander Amess - 2,773 (5.0%)
  • Brisbane, Qld: Patrick Madden - 2,147 (4.1%)
  • Griffith, Qld: Julius Streeter - 6,076 (11.5%)
  • Lilley, Qld: Clayton Keir (Independent Social Credit) - 4,423 (8.7%, -4.0%)
  • Maranoa, Qld: William Argaet - 3,493 (7.3%)
  • Moreton, Qld: William Worley - 5,794 (10.6%)
  • Wide Bay, Qld: Geoffrey Nichols - 5,723 (11.7%)
  • Adelaide, SA: Ernst Hergstrom - 2,403 (4.4%)
  • Barker, SA: John Maycock - 6,598 (12.7%)
  • Boothby, SA: Norman Truscott - 3,293 (5.9%)
  • Hindmarsh, SA: Charles Brock - 6,787 (12.3%)
  • Wakefield, SA: Will Duggan - 7,615 (15.7%)
  • Forrest, WA: Harry Squance - 4,734 (11.8%)
  • Fremantle, WA: William Buchan - 6,782 (13.9%)
  • Denison, Tas: James Guthrie - 2,020 (8.7%)
  • Franklin, Tas: John Modridge - 2,221 (8.8%)
  • Wilmot, Tas: Henry Bye - 5,182 (23.1%) and William Laird Smith (19.4%) - Smith was a former Labor and Nationalist MP, close result
1934-7 Australian federal by-elections
  • 1935 Newcastle, NSW federal by-election: Hilton Sykes - 4,302 (8.3%)
  • 1936 Kennedy, Qld federal by-election: James Killoran - 3,565 (8.8%)
  • 1936 Darling Downs, Qld federal by-election: Denis Hannay - 2,929 (6.4%)
1937 Australian federal election
  • Barton, NSW: Stanley Allen - 5,563 (9.7%, -1.4%)
  • Lang, NSW: Ernest Carr - 2,435 (4.3, -6.7%) - former Labor and Nationalist MP
  • Martin, NSW: George Carruthers - 4,009 (7.3%, -3.0%) - former Independent MHA in Tasmania
  • North Sydney, NSW: Percival Minahan - 3,568 (6.1%, -5.6%)
  • Flinders, Vic: Alexander Amess - 6,884 (13.5%)
  • Brisbane, Qld: Ambrose Sawtell - 2,362 (4.2%, -0.1%)
  • Capricornia, Qld: John Harding - 6,235 (11.5%)
  • Darling Downs, Qld: Arthur Rushton - 2,617 (5.2%, -1.2% from by-election)
  • Grifftih, Qld: William Moore - 6,108 (10.6%, -0.9%)
  • Herbert, Qld: Henry Beck - 3,622 (6.1%)
  • Kennedy, Qld: Herbert Price - 2,269 (4.8%, -4.0% from by-election)
  • Lilley, Qld: Harry Cash - 3,040 (5.4%, -3.3%)
  • Maranoa, Qld: Henry Madden - 5,357 (10.2%, +2.9%)
  • Moreton, Qld: Henry Hogg - 4,508 (7.6%, -3.0%)
  • Wide Bay, Qld: Geoffrey Nichols - 20,356 (39.6%, +27.9%) - close result
  • Denison, Tas: Athol Smith - 600 (2.4%, -6.3%)
1943 Australian federal election
  • Newcastle, NSW: Arthur Clarke - 360 (0.6%)
1958 Australian federal election
  • Bowman, Qld: Noel Condie (Australian Nationalist Party) - 331 (0.8%)
  • Brisbane, Qld: John Morgan (Australian Nationalist Party) - 363 (1.0%)
  • Lilley, Qld: Merv Goldstiver (Australian Nationalist Party) - 312 (0.8%)
  • Petrie, Qld: Horace Burge (Australian Nationalist Party) - 1,776 (3.8%)
  • Ryan, Qld: Ronald Edmonds (Australian Nationalist Party) - 795 (1.8%)
1963 Australian federal election
  • Ryan, Qld: Robert Hooker - 588 (1.2%)
  • Wide Bay, Qld: Geoffrey Nichols - 700 (1.7%)
1966 Australian federal election
  • Bonython, SA: Luke Horan - 4,549 (5.6%)
  • Port Adelaide, SA: Denis McEvoy - 1,803 (4.4%)
1969 Australian federal election
  • Bonython, SA: Frank Lawrence - 3,757 (7.7%, +2.1%)
  • Port Adelaide, SA: Denis McEvoy - 1,399 (2.8%, -1.6%)
New South Wales

1935 New South Wales state election
  • Croydon: Harold Bondeson - 1,996 (11.7%)
Western Australia

1936 Western Australian state election
  • South Fremantle: David Byers - 1,385 (31.9%)
South Australia

1965 South Australian state election
  • Adelaide: Thomas Ellis - 774 (5.4%)
  • Barossa: David Wood - 165 (1.4%)
  • Burnside: William Carruthers - 1,624 (5.3%)
  • Enfield: David Beavan - 2,947 (8.2%)
  • Gumeracha: Marcus Dodd - 375 (5.6%)
  • Mitcham: Ernst Hergstrom - 454 (2.0%)
  • Onkaparinga: Harvey Burns - 278 (4.1%)
  • Semaphore: George Heritage - 1,821 (8.7%)
  • Torrens: Russell Sellars - 310 (1.7%)
1968 South Australian state election
  • Enfield: Edwin Meier - 724 (1.7%, -6.5%)
  • Gawler: Frank Lawrence - 1,374 (4.3%)
  • Gouger: Albert Apponyi - 579 (5.0%)
  • Port Adelaide: Denis McEvoy - 1,246 (6.1%)
  • Semaphore: Edward Wright - 731 (3.3%, -5.4%)
1970 South Australian state election
  • Elizabeth: Thomas Keyes - 736 (5.5%)
  • Playford: Frank Lawrence - 1,078 (7.4%)
  • Sailsbury: Philip Hobbs - 587 (4.5%)
1973 South Australian state election
  • Mawson: George Gater - 841 (3.7%)
 

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These guys weren't very nice. They believed that the ALP were controlled by a secretive web of Catholic hierarchs who were out to steal the precious bodily fluids of good honest White Australians. As about half the voter base of the ALP was Catholic at the time, this was a bold move.

Protestant Labor Party (for Qld results see above)

Australian House of Representatives

1922 Australian federal election
  • West Sydney, NSW: Thomas Bryde – 3,631 (20.1%)
1928 Australian federal election
  • Newcastle, NSW: Walter Skelton – 20,212 (42.9%) – close result
South Australia

1927 South Australian state election (Bloc vote)
  • Port Adelaide: Thomas Thompson – 10,560 (42.1%, GAIN)
1930 South Australian state election (Bloc vote)
  • Port Adelaide: Harold Butler and Joshua Pedlar – 4132 (21.0%, -21.1%, LOSS)
New South Wales

1925 New South Wales state election (STV)
  • Balmain: James Johnston – 439 (1.0%)
  • Botany: Walter Bateman – 370 (0.8%)
  • Cootamundra: George Davey – 966 (3.4%)
  • Eastern Suburbs: James Gillespie – 1,489 (2.8%)
  • Maitland: George Batey – 1,490 (5.1%)
  • Newcastle: Walter Skelton, James Pendlebury and James Hestelow – 10,943 (19.0%, ONE HOLD from defection)
  • North Shore: Raymond Campbell-Cowan – 542 (1.0%)
  • Parramatta: William Chalson – 515 (1.4%)
  • Ryde: James Chamberlain and William Featherstone – 2,072 (3.2%)
  • St George: Walter Anderson, Arthur Jones, Roy Hindwood, William Goulden and James Dunlop – 2,627 (4.1%)
  • Sydney: Laurence Raw – 323 (0.9%)
  • Western Suburbs: Frederick Armstrong and Alfred Millington – 1,068 (2.1%)
1927 New South Wales state election (AV)
  • Eastwood: William Featherstone – 463 (3.9%)
  • Hamilton: James Pendlebury – 1,204 (8.3%)
  • Wallsend: Walter Skelton – 5,597 (42.2%, LOSS)
 

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Parties Which Have Been Elected To The European Parliament But Not To A National Legislature

1979
- People's Movement Against the EEC (Denmark) - 4 seats (20.9%)

1981
- Party of Democratic Socialism (Greece) - 1 (4.3%) - later joined Synapsismos

1984
- People's Movement Against the EEC (Denmark) - 4 (20.7%)
- National Political Union (Greece) - 1 (2.3%)

1989
- People's Movement Against the EEC (Denmark) - 4 (18.9%)
- The Republicans (Germany) - 6 (7.1%)
- Rainbow Greens (Italy) - 2 (2.4%) - later joined Federation of Greens
- Antiprohibitionists on Drugs (Italy) - 1 (1.2%) - front for the Radical Party
- Ruiz-Mateos Group (Spain) - 2 (3.8%)

1994
- June Movement (Denmark) - 2 (15.2%)
- People's Movement Against the EEC (Denmark) - 2 (10.3%)

1999
- June Movement (Denmark) - 3 (16.1%)
- People's Movement Against the EU (Denmark) - 1 (7.3%)
- Hunting, Fishing, Nature, Traditions (France) - 6 (6.8%)
- Lutte Ouvriere and Revolutionary Communist Party (France) - 5 (5.2%)
- Bonino List (Italy) - 7 (8.5%) - front for the Radical Party
- The Democrats (Italy) - 6 (7.7%) - later joined The Daisy
- Basque Citizens (Spain) - 1 (1.5%)

2004
- Hans-Peter Martin's List (Austria) - 3 (14.0%)
- For Europe (Cyprus) - 1 (10.8%)
- Independent Democrats (Czechia) - 2 (8.2%)
- June Movement (Denmark) - 1 (9.1%)
- People's Movement Against the EU (Denmark) - 1 (5.2%)
- Bonino List (Italy) - 2 (2.3%) - front for the Radical Party
- Social Alternative (Italy) - 1 (1.2%)
- Europe Transparent (Netherlands) - 2 (7.3%)
- June List (Sweden) - 3 (14.5%)

2007
- Liberal Democratic Party (Romania) - 3 (7.8%) - later joined the Democratic Liberal Party

2009
- Hans-Peter Martin's List (Austria) - 3 (17.7%)
- People's Movement Against the EU (Denmark) - 1 (7.2%)
- Pirate Party (Sweden) - 1 (7.1%) - 2 seats after Lisbon
- British National Party (United Kingdom) - 2 (6.2%)

2014
- Sustainable Development of Croatia (Croatia) - 1 (9.4%)
- Party of Free Citizens (Czechia) - 1 (5.2%)
- People's Movement Against the EU (Denmark) - 1 (8.1%)
- Free Voters (Germany) - 1 (1.5%)
- Pirate Party (Germany) - 1 (1.5%)
- Human Environment Animal Protection (Germany) - 1 (1.3%)
- National Democratic Party of Germany (Germany) - 1 (1.0%)
- Family Party of Germany (Germany) - 1 (0.7%)
- Ecological Democratic Party (Germany) - 1 (0.6%)
- Die PARTEI (Germany) - 1 (0.6%)
- New Centre-Right (Italy) - 2 (4.4% on NCD-UDC list) - split from People of Freedom
- Earth Party (Portugal) - 2 (7.2%)
- Verjamem (Slovenia) - 1 (10.3%)
- New Catalan Left (Spain) - 1 (4.0% on EPDD list)
- Feminist Initiative (Sweden) - 1 (5.5%)

2019
- Croatian Conservative Party (Croatia) - 1 (8.5% on Croatian Sovereignists list)
- Independent Ecologist Alliance (France) - 2 (13.5% on EELV list)
- Party of the Corsican Nation (France) - 1 (13.5% on EELV list)
- Republican and Socialist Left (France) - 1 (6.3% on France Insoumise list)
- Place Publique (France) - 2 (6.2% on Socialist list)
- New Deal (France) - 1 (6.2% on Socialist list)
- Die Partei (Germany) - 2 (2.4%)
- Free Voters (Germany) - 2 (2.2%)
- Human Environment Animal Protection (Germany) - 1 (1.5%)
- Ecological Democratic Party (Germany) - 1 (1.0%)
- Family Party of Germany (Germany) - 1 (0.7%)
- Volt Europa (Germany) - 1 (0.7%)
- Pirate Party (Germany) - 1 (0.7%)
- Greek Solution (Greece) - 1 (4.2%)
- Momentum Movement (Hungary) - 2 (9.9%)
- Spring (Poland) - 3 (6.1%)
- Freedom, Unity and Solidarity Party (Romania) - 4 (22.4% on Alliance 2020 list)
- PRO Romania (Romania) - 2 (6.4%)
- Progressive Slovakia (Slovakia) - 2 (20.1% on PS/SPOLU list)
- TOGETHER - Civic Democracy (Slovakia) - 2 (20.1% on PS/SPOLU list)
- Brexit Party (United Kingdom) - 29 (30.5%)
 
Last edited:

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OTL:

Social Credit (NZ) by-election results
  • Raglan, 1927: Cornelius Augustus Magner (Country Party) - 532 (8.8%)
  • Bay of Islands, 1929: Harold Rushworth (Country Party) - 3,820 (47.8%) - won
  • Hauraki, 1931: Alexander Ross (Country Party) - 513 (6.3%)
  • Waitemata, 1941: Norman Douglas (Democratic Labour Party) - 909 (9.9%)
  • Christchurch East, 1943: Horace Herring (Democratic Labour Party) - 2,578 (26.7%) - second place
  • Awarua, 1944: Robert Henderson (Real Democracy Movement) - 249 (3.3%)
  • Hamilton, 1945: John A. Lee (Democratic Labour Party) - 1,229 (8.9%)
  • Dunedin North, 1946: Cornelius Machin Ross (Democratic Labour Party) - 262 (1.8%)
---
  • Riccarton, 1956: Wilfrid Owen - 1,379 (12.9%)
  • Riccarton, 1956: Ernest Yealands (Independent Social Credit) - 28 (0.3%)
  • Hamilton, 1959: Frederick Charles Roberts - 852 (6.3%)
  • Hurunui, 1961: J. Clark - 1,153 (9.2%)
  • Waitaki, 1962: Alfred William Barwood - 1,664 (11.9%)
  • Buller, 1962: Pressly Hemingway Matthews - 1,566 (13.4%)
  • Timaru, 1962: Maurice John Hayes - 572 (4.0%)
  • Northern Maori, 1963: W. Clarke - 340 (4.6%)
  • Grey Lynn, 1963: William Alexander Ross - 246 (3.9%)
  • Southern Maori, 1967: J. H. MacDonald - 347 (5.2%)
  • Fendalton, 1967: J. J. Foster - 1,451 (9.5%)
  • Petone, 1967: Colin James Whitmill - 1,888 (14.6%)
  • Eastern Maori 1967: C. M. Paul - 1,219 (13.5%)
  • Palmerston North, 1967: John O'Brien - 2,410 (15.3%)
  • Hutt, 1968: Tom Weal - 1,649 (13.2%)
  • Marlborough, 1970: G. R. Kerr - 1,171 (7.9%)
  • Sydenham, 1974: Joe Poundsford - 1,778 (16.8%) - second place due to National not standing
  • Nelson, 1976: Rudolph Muller - 452 (2.6%)
  • Mangere, 1977: Bill Owens - 1,026 (6.1%)
  • Pahiatua, 1977: Graeme Hislop - 855 (5.9%)
  • Rangitikei, 1978: Bruce Beetham - 6,804 (48.0%) - won
  • Christchurch Central, 1979: Terry Heffernan - 1,759 (18.4%) - second place
  • Northern Maori, 1980: H. Te K. Toia - 560 (8.2%)
  • Onehunga, 1980: Thomas Keith Park - 1,535 (11.3%)
  • East Coast Bays, 1980: Gary Knapp - 8,061 (43.3%) - won
  • Timaru, 1985: Lynley Simmons - 1,628 (7.4%)
---
  • Tamaki, 1992: Chris Leitch (Alliance) - 6,649 (38.3%) - second place
  • Tamaki, 1992: Colin Maloney (Continuity Social Credit) - 34 (0.2%)
  • Selwyn, 1994: John Wright (Alliance) - 8,488 (40.3%) - second place
  • Taranaki-King Country, 1998: Avon James Harris (Continuity Social Credit) - 17 (0.1%)
  • Christchurch East, 2013: Jenner Lichtwark (Democrats for Social Credit) - 20 (0.2%)
  • Mount Roskill, 2016: Andrew Leitch (Democrats for Social Credit) - 126 (0.7%)
  • Northcote, 2018: Tricia Cheel (Democrats for Social Credit) - 31 (0.1%)