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Lists of Heads of Government and Heads of State

Catalunya

Well-known member
When you repeal Article 2 Clause 5 of the Constitution for Arnie, but get Techno-Fascism instead.

2001 - 2009: George W. Bush / Dick Cheney (Republican)

2000: Al Gore / Joe Lieberman (Democrat)
2004: Howard Dean / Bob Graham (Democrat)

2009 - 2017: Hillary Clinton / Evan Bayh (Democrat)
2008: Rudy Giulliani / Jim DeMint (Republican)
2012: Richard Tisei (Replacing Tom Tancredo) / David Petraeus (Replacing Richard Tisei) (Republican)

2017 - 2021: Peter Thiel / Dino Rossi (Republican)
2016: Anthony Weiner / Richard Cordray (Democrat)
2021 - 2025: Evan Bayh / Malcolm Kenyatta (Democrat)
2020: Peter Thiel / Dino Rossi (Republican)
2025 - 2029: Peter Thiel / Michael Scheuer (Republican)
2024: Evan Bayh / Malcolm Kenyatta (Democrat), Levi Sanders / Sara Nelson (Socialist)
2029 - 20XX: Glen Jacobs / Allen West (Republican)
2028: Malcolm Kenyatta / Ilhan Omar (Democrat / Socialist)
 

AndrewH

I was hospitalized for approaching perfection
Location
Tampa, FL
Class I Senators from New York, 1965 - present:
1965 - 1969: Robert F. Kennedy (Democratic)
defeated, 1964: Kenneth Keating (Republican), Clare Luce (Conservative)
1969 - 1971: Howard W. Leary (Republican)
1971 - 1991: Arthur M. Schlesinger (Democratic)
defeated, 1970: James F. Buckley (Conservative), Howard W. Leary (Republican)
defeated, 1976: Jed Babbin (Conservative Fusion)
defeated, 1982: Ned Regan (Conservative), Jess Present (Independent Republican)
defeated, 1988: Ed Koch (Conservative)

1995 - 2001: Carl McCall (Democratic)
defeated, 1994: Ron Lauder (Conservative)

2001 - 2015: Lawrence Summers (Democratic)
defeated, 2000: Ron Lauder (Conservative)

defeated, 2006: John E. Sweeney (Conservative)
defeated, 2012: Walter Mead (Conservative)
2019 - present: Lawrence Summers (Independent)
defeated, 2018 (running as Democratic nominee): Ben Walsh (Conservative)

2019: Changes party affiliation to Independent, begins caucusing with Conservatives / National Patriots in Senate, Michael Pillsbury (C - CA) named Majority Leader
 

Aolbain

All he has managed to do is make himself sad
Class I Senators from New York, 1965 - present:
1965 - 1969: Robert F. Kennedy (Democratic)
defeated, 1964: Kenneth Keating (Republican), Clare Luce (Conservative)
1969 - 1971: Howard W. Leary (Republican)
1971 - 1991: Arthur M. Schlesinger (Democratic)
defeated, 1970: James F. Buckley (Conservative), Howard W. Leary (Republican)
defeated, 1976: Jed Babbin (Conservative Fusion)
defeated, 1982: Ned Regan (Conservative), Jess Present (Independent Republican)
defeated, 1988: Ed Koch (Conservative)

1995 - 2001: Carl McCall (Democratic)
defeated, 1994: Ron Lauder (Conservative)

2001 - 2015: Lawrence Summers (Democratic)
defeated, 2000: Ron Lauder (Conservative)

defeated, 2006: John E. Sweeney (Conservative)
defeated, 2012: Walter Mead (Conservative)
2019 - present: Lawrence Summers (Independent)
defeated, 2018 (running as Democratic nominee): Ben Walsh (Conservative)

2019: Changes party affiliation to Independent, begins caucusing with Conservatives / National Patriots in Senate, Michael Pillsbury (C - CA) named Majority Leader
god damn you
 

Turquoise Blue

Onfortuinlijk Tibby
Patreon supporter
Location
UK (for now), Netherlands (in the future)
Pronouns
she/her
Ode to Joy...
Winston Churchill (Conservative-led Wartime Cabinet) 1940-1946*
Joe Anderson (Independent-led Wartime Cabinet) 1946-1947
Ernie Bevin (Labour-led Wartime Cabinet) 1947-1951*
Anthony Eden (Conservative-led Wartime Cabinet) 1951-1954*
Harold Nicolson (National Labour-led Wartime Cabinet, then National Labour-led National Government) 1954-1957

It has been 18 years of unrelenting war.

Britain refused to surrender, even as London itself faded to rubble, children were forced to work in the fields, people were put on starvation rations, the Navy acquired more and more of the monetary funding to the point where the Army was barely an afterthought at the worst times.

Even the arch-imperialist Ernie Bevin had to, after fighting off a bad case of indigestion from the latest National Bread, sign the agreement to give further concessions to the colonies to ensure their further recruitment for the British Armed Forces. More bodies were needed after all.

America proved intransigent yet again and refused to bail out Britain or even help it. Free France suffered a major morale hit when De Gaulle was killed in yet another London bombing. Even a fumbled plea for a deal from Japan received no response.

Britain was alone. It had to fight Germany, Italy, Russia and Japan. Surely it would perish?

The emaciated figure of Harold Nicolson, dressed in a tatty suit and with a thousand-yard stare, looked as if he would sooner fall over and die than announce victory. But due to a series of lucky breaks, including Italy suddenly declaring it was out of the Axis, the Japanese armed forces turning against each other, Germany and Russia going to war, and massive massive promises made to secure the final, tantalising, victory.

The Treaty of London was at once the declaration of Britain's final victory in the brutal Second World War and its Empire's death warrant. Just as promised, the exhausted Britain in the following years gave independence to what was regarded as 'Dominions', but they quickly acquired republican governments and declared Queen Elizabeth II no longer their monarch, even if it was all done in very polite terms.

However, in exchange for losing its second Empire, Britain has acquired a third. With the Nazis and Soviets done for, Europe is Britain's oyster, its bloated imperial armed forces currently setting up new states with help from some governments-in-exile. The thinking in Chequers [Downing Street is just... gone] is that Britain's new dominion will be one of... economic association, instead of the costly imperium that was the old thinking. Lots of people to employ in those countries, it'll have to be emphasised as one of equals, just with Britain at the helm naturally.

After so much years of Britain standing alone in the Second World War, it now has its new European Union standing with it.

[this is a silly list off the idea of twisting the gammon idea of WW2 into a 'Britain-led EU' outcome].
 

ZeroFrame

A talentless person
Hell or High Water: Buddy Cianci and the Decade of Malice

Presidents of Italy

7. Sandro Pertini 1978-1985 (PSI)
8. Bettino Craxi 1985-1990 (PSI)
*
9. Aldo Moro 1990-2004 (CD)
10. Paolo Savona 2004-2011 (Independent)
11. Giorgi La Malfa 2011-2018 (Italian Freedom Party)
12. Luciana Castellina 2018-2022 (PCI)
13. Rocco Buttiglione 2022-XXX (Italian People’s Party)

*=resigned after being indicted for corruption. Fled to Egypt.
 

AnActualFam

Well-known member
Location
Somewhere at Sea
Pronouns
He/Him
Hell or High Water: Buddy Cianci and the Decade of Malice

Presidents of Italy

7. Sandro Pertini 1978-1985 (PSI)
8. Bettino Craxi 1985-1990 (PSI)
*
9. Aldo Moro 1990-2004 (CD)
10. Paolo Savona 2004-2011 (Independent)
11. Giorgi La Malfa 2011-2018 (Italian Freedom Party)
12. Luciana Castellina 2018-2022 (PCI)
13. Rocco Buttiglione 2022-XXX (Italian People’s Party)

*=resigned after being indicted for corruption. Fled to Egypt.
What's the ideology of the Italian Freedom Party and the Italian People's Party?
 

ZeroFrame

A talentless person
What's the ideology of the Italian Freedom Party and the Italian People's Party?
The Italian Freedom Party is a quasi libertarian party that is socially progressive and economically conservative. It’s like the OTL Radical Party.

The Italian People’s Party is a Christian Democratic Party that came about after the collapse of the Christian Democrats in 1999. They’re a center-right party and are socially conservatives and economically conservative.
 

claybaskit

Well-known member
Gone Fishing
1980 :Billy Graham Republican Charles Manson
Def: James Earl Carter Democratic Walter Mondale
1984: Billy Graham Republican Charles Manson
Def: Gary Hart Democratic John Glenn
1988: Patrick Buchanan Republican George H.Bush
Def: Jay Rockefeller Democratic Michael Dukasis

1992: Donald Trump Democratic William Jefferson Clinton

Def: H.Ross Perrot Republican Dan choate
1996: Jack Kemp Republican Liz Dole

Def: Donald Trump Republican William Jefferson Clinton
2000: William Jefferson Clinton (1) Democratic Bill Bradley
Def: Jack Kemp Republican Liz Dole
2004: Bill Bradley Democratic Linda Carter (2)
George Lucas Republican Barry Goldwater jr.
1
Died of heart attack 3rd year in office.
2.
2nd non elected v.p. in u.s. history.first female v.p.
In this world Frank Zappa became a serial killer.manson became a folk singer turned congressman.
The actress from the original tv piolet.

played wonder woman and in 1977 the series space patrol was revived as a film franchise with linda carter and Lucas becoming senators.
 
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Time Enough

"Enthusiastic Cis Male Partner"
Pronouns
He/Him
A New Agenda, or how the Democratic Left survived;

Taoiseach of Ireland:

1991-1992: Albert Reynolds (Fianna Fáil-Progressive Democrats Coalition)
1992-1996: Alan Dukes (Fine Gael)

1992 (Coalition with Labour) def: Albert Reynolds (Fianna Fáil), Dick Spring (Labour), Desmond O'Malley (Progressive Democrats), Proinsias De Rossa (Democratic Left)
1996-: Bertie Ahern (Fianna Fáil)
1996 (Coalition with Labour) def: Alan Dukes (Fine Gael), Dick Spring (Labour), Proinsias De Rossa (Democratic Left), Mary Haughey (Progressive Democrats), Collective Leadership (Green)
2001 (Coalition with Labour) def: Richard Bruton (Fine Gael), Liz McManus (Democratic Left), Brendan Howlin (Labour), Mary Haughey (Progressive Democrats), John Goodwillie (Green)


President of Ireland:
1990-1995: Brian Lenihan (Fianna Fáil)†
1990 def: Austin Currie (Fine Gael), Noël Browne (Labour)
1995-2002: Mary Banotti (Fine Gael)
1995 def: Albert Reynolds (Fianna Fáil), Adi Roche (Independent), Dana Rosemary Scallon (Independent)
2002-: Dick Spring (Labour)
2002 def: Jim Mitchell (Fine Gael), Tommy Broughan (Democratic Left), Dana Rosemary Scallon (Independent)

The failure to get anyone other than Noël Browne to be the Labour Candidate for President was deemed a misstep on Dick Spring’s mostly successful path. Spring would spend much of the intervening few years between elections putting the small Labour Left in it’s place, eventually leading to Emmett Stagg sitting as an Independent in disgust.

Meanwhile, Fianna Fáil was suffering from the fact that Charles Haughey was increasingly unpopular, Albert Reynolds successful Non-Confidence vote against him and leadership victory just means that he gets to see the OTL fag end of the Haughey administration play out himself instead. Alan Dukes, hanging on by a thread since Austin Currie’s near victory in 1990 and a slow regain in the polls manages to see off an awkward attempt by John Bruton against him. Dick Spring too manages to become increasingly popular as the Reynolds’s administration stumbles from scandal to scandal.

In the midst of this, a new party is formed. The New Agenda and then Democratic Left manages to stumble out of the chaotic end of the Workers Party of Ireland with seven TDs after Emmett Stagg is convinced to join the party, allowing for Federal Funding and Speaking time. The Democratic Left, free from the ongoing scandals of the OIRA/Workers Party manages to cut a niche for themselves attacking the Reynolds administration. As polling for them increases, polling for Labour and Fine Gael stagnates.

Seeing an opportunity to maybe establish his own administration with a fresh mandate and dealing with the corruption obsessed Progressive Democrats in his cabinet, Reynolds calls an election.

Fine Gael does decently making mild gains of about 4 seat but Labour is the stand out winning about 30 seats with gains from FF Working Class support swinging to them, whilst the Progressive Democrats stumble hard. Democratic Left manages to just keep its seven TDs and this allows them to continue gaining federal funding and additionally the space to grow as an organisation.

The Fine Gael-Labour Government on paper is seemingly united on the ideals of Social Democracy but what Alan Dukes says is very different from what the rest of Fine Gael says. The Dukes Cabinet mainly consists of Dick Spring’s successes in the foreign field and attempts to improve Ireland’s welfare state being hampered by the Conservative Wing of Fine Gael demanding cuts and austerity measures to deal with Ireland’s floundering economy as the 90s roll on.

Democratic Left manage to make hay out of these problems and begin courting the Labour Left, frustrated by Spring’s Social Democratic offensive against them. In 1994, Tommy Broughan defected to the Democratic Left after losing the whip for being against the selling of Team Aer Lingus from public control, with by-elections and euro elections indicating that year that whilst the public was mostly favourable on the Fine Gael-Labour Government, that support for them was slowly bleeding away to the Democratic Left and Greens.

Worry’s spread amongst the Labour Party and frustrations emerge when Fine Gael manages to force Labour to support there Presidential candidate in the aftermath of Lenihan’s death. Whilst the choice of Mary Banotti is fairly uncontroversial given her past of investigating the problems of Ireland’s Welfare State, the Labour Left caucus with Democratic Left and Greens and manage to nominate Adi Roche as there Presidential Candidate.

Whilst Fine Gael emerges the winner, after Fianna Fáil decide that picking Albert Reynolds is a smart choice and spirited campaign of Catholicism by Dana Rosemary Scallon sucking much of the air out of there campaign, the frustrations that some have in Labour that Fine Gael is unwilling to concede to Labour on certain issues bubbles up.

Labour decides to make there annoyances with Fine Gael known when attempts to move around a hearing over the Hepatitis-C tainted blood scandal cause backlash amongst the press and Irish public as Democratic Left milks the issue for what it’s worth. Seeing the public outrage, Labour calls for the resignation of the Minister of Health, Michael Noonan and calls for an inquiry to be brought forward as Dick Spring talks to Brigid McCole about how they could help her.

Fine Gael declines to create an inquiry until Autumn 1996 as pressure mounts. Labour decides to rebel against the government and vote with opposition parties for an inquiry to be held in the Spring. Alan Dukes under pressure from the parties Right-Wing (with several threatening to defect to the PDs) decides to call an early election in the hope that he can get the Government back in line.

The 1996 election is a disaster for Fine Gael, who’s support begins to slump against Fianna Fáil, Progressive Democrats, Labour and even Democratic Left in some cases. Democratic Left attack’s the coalition government for it’s failures, though the public have a fairly positive view of Labour due to there handling of the Hepatitis-C scandal. Fine Gael sees there vote management scheme fail to deliver as Progressive Democrats, Greens and Democratic Left gain votes and a couple of seats.

With Fine Gael crumbling down to 40 seats, Fianna Fáil sees itself as the obvious victor though due to a relatively succesful Labour Campaign (that only sees them lose five seats), Bertie Ahern decides to form a strong majority coalition with the help of Labour who are won over by promises of increased spending on welfare and the foundation of a new comprehensive national health insurance.

A couple of Labour Left TDs would defect to Democratic Left as a result but the Ahern-Spring Government forms anyway.

Meanwhile Democratic Left, having gained activists and supporters from Labour must now deal with it’s own problems, as De Rossa is accused of having collaborated with Soviet agencies as a Workers Party member and his defence of Serbian forces in the Collapse of Yugoslavia proving mildly embarrassing for the party. De Rossa would resign as leader in 1997, to concentrate on becoming a MEP and dealing with the Libel case.

Liz McManus manages to just squeak a victory against Pat Rabbitte and decides to seek out an Anti-Labour electoral pact with the Greens now lead by Ireland’s first openly Gay Leader and EcoSocialist John Goodwille and the Progressive Democrats who feel like they should have been Fianna Fáil’s coalition partner.

Meanwhile Dick Spring, after successfully managing to help organise the Good Friday Agreement bows out with aplomb and heads out to do the inspirational speaker circuit and pal around with Clinton and Brown. Labour elect Brendan Howlin, as Ruairi Quinn is seen as being more friendly towards Fine Gael. With Fianna Fáil and Labour gaining in the polls as the money saved by Fine Gael’s austere Government is now spent on benefits, health insurance and helping to support a consumer boom like never seen in Ireland’s as hopes of an Irish Millennium hits the coalition as the 2000s emerge.

The 2001 election is seen as the coalition cementing it’s popularity, as whilst Labour loses a couple of seats it manages to stay above the 20 seat threshold as Fine Gael flounders under it’s Conservative leadership, though the Democratic Left Electoral strategy pays off as it manages to gain 23 seats off Labour and Fine Gael with Progressive Democrats also seeing itself making gains too. The capping of Democratic Left’s raise in popularity is there relative success in the 2002 Presidential election in which they manage to come third after Fine Gael and the refreshed and every charismatic Dick Spring.

As the 2000s dawned, New and fascinating opportunities would emerge for Democratic Left in ways they wouldn’t imagine.
 

Time Enough

"Enthusiastic Cis Male Partner"
Pronouns
He/Him
Why yes I just created the most ‘90s Ireland List’ possible here. A thing I find interesting about Alan Dukes is that comparatively to his successors he was quite successful as he actually managed to gain seats (probably because he didn’t go mask off and be like ‘Yes we want to implement austere Government’) But he was ousted because Austin Currie lost hard to a Labour candidate which was rather embarrassing for Fine Gael.

Additionally John Goodwille is a very hipster choice for me, but symbolises what the Greens are here.

Edit: Also originally I was pondering that’s FF go with PDs before shacking up with Labour but I found out that Labour could have done fairly well in OTL 1997, which whilst a going down on there seats would have seen them above twenty. The problem was mainly that FF and FG got there ‘vote management’ schemes in order and kneecapped Labour, who actually fairly popular (the coalition itself was considered fairly popular, apart from the FG side of it).
 
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Callan

Racist name by the way,
Published by SLP
Location
Kingston, ON
1984-1993: Brian Mulroney (Progressive Conservative)
1984: John Turner (Liberal), Ed Broadbent (New Democratic)
1988: John Turner (Liberal), Ed Broadbent (New Democratic)
1992 Charlottetown Accord Referendum: 45% YES, 55% NO

1993: Kim Campbell (Progressive Conservative)
1993-1999: Jean Chrétien (Liberal)

1993 (Minority): Kim Campbell (Progressive Conservative), Lucien Bouchard (Bloc Quebecois), Preston Manning (Reform), Audrey McLaughlin (New Democratic)
1995 Quebec Independence Referendum: 45% OUI, 55% NON
1995: Bernard Valcourt (Progressive Conservative), Michel Gauthier (Bloc Quebecois), Preston Manning (Reform), Lorne Nystrom (New Democratic)

1999-2005: John Manley (Liberal)
2000: Jim Prentice (Progressive Conservative), Francine Lalonde (Bloc Quebecois), Preston Manning (Reform), Lorne Nystrom (New Democratic)
2004 (Minority): Jim Flaherty (Progressive Conservative), Francine Lalonde (Bloc Quebecois), Frances Lankin (New Democratic), Grant Hill (Reform)

2005-: Liza Frulla (Liberal)
2006 (Minority): Jim Flaherty (Progressive Conservative), Louis Plamondon (Bloc Quebecois), Frances Lankin (New Democratic), Grant Hill (Reform)

Brian Mulroney announces his resignation a week after the defeat of the Charlottetown Accord, as was expected by many of his colleagues at the time. Kim Campbell goes into the snap leadership election as the overwhelming frontrunner and easily defeats Barbara McDougall and Benoit Bouchard early in the new year. With nearly a year before needing to call the election, the first female prime minister uses the remaining parliamentary sessions and the spring and summer of 1993 to establish her (somewhat vague) policy platform and governing priorities, as well has putting together her own campaign managers and inner circle, leaving Mulroney's team behind. While personally popular and often leading in the polls, the recession and the rise of regional parties are too great for the Tories to overcome; the Liberals' strong campaign and the Campbell's gaffe-prone nature tipped the balance. Campbell was however credited for bringing the Tories back from brink and denying the Liberals a majority.

Chrétien faced an immense challenge - a divided parliament, many prospective cabinet members losing their races and thus unable to become ministers and an imminent financial crisis. He is helped more than anything else by his opponents. Kim Campbell, after holding her seat on the third recount, indicated that she wanted to lead her party into the next election; which resulted only in open warfare on the opposition benches and a backroom coup orchestrated by PC headquarters. Meanwhile the forces of Quebec sovereignty feuded among each other equally openly, and Parizeau's calling a snap referendum early in 1995 proved to be a great blunder that broke his relationship with the enormously popular Lucien Bouchard. Basking in the aftermath, Chrétien calls a snap election and wins a landslide, winning a majority of seats in Quebec. While the PCs fall backwards they make minor gains in Ontario and the West, properly reasserting themselves as the main part of opposition.

Chrétien retires in 1999 on a high with a booming economy, a balanced budget and a united party. Finance Minister John Manley easily beats Deputy PM Sheila Copps and former Industry Minister Paul Martin to the leadership and the Liberals are returned with another majority, if a surprisingly narrow one. Manley's term is relatively unremarkable but is beset by constant scandals from the Quebec branch of the party and mounting criticism over his fiscal restraint in a time of economic growth and rising poverty and inequality, and comes to be regarded as a "do-nothing" leader. The Progressive Conservatives lurch to the right in the early 2000s as they take up more and more ground from the Reform Party. By 2000 it was clear that Reform had failed in its goal in becoming a truly national party and Manning resigned shortly after the 2000 election as it became clear that he was unable to control the social conservatives and right-wing extremists in his party's ranks.

The first coup of Jim Flaherty's leadership was fifteen Reform MPs, led by Stephen Harper, defecting to the PC caucus. The second coup was denying the Liberals another majority, which spelled the end of Manley's time as prime minister as Liberal MPs revolted against him. However his successor was able to make up much lost ground, especially in Quebec, and a string of ambitious reforms and social programmes that had been long-promised and delayed by Chrétien and Manley finally begin to come to fruition. While both the Liberals and the Tories go into the 2006 election with ambitions of majority government, the result is a messy draw. The new parliamentary arithmetic is almost identical to the old one. With the fragmentation of Canadian politics by two regional parties that just won't go away, some pundits wonder if the era of majority governments is over.
 

Tsar of New Zealand

it’s spontaneous and it’s called ‘wit’
Location
the Suede-Denim Secret Police
Pronouns
He/him/his
Crosspost from the last HoS list contest thread:

The Ecstasy of Gold

Governors of the Free State of Alta California

1836 - 1838[/ 37 (disputed)]: Juan Bautista Alvarado
1836: Californio Revolt; Declaration of Independence of Alta California
1837 - 1842 (de jure): Carlos Antonio Carrillo
1837: Mexico City dismisses Alvarado, appoints Carrillo
1837 - 1838 (de facto): Juan Bautista Alvarado †
1838: Battle of San Buenaventura, death of Governor Alvarado
1838 - 1839 [/40 (disputed)]: Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo
1839 presidential election: Mariano Vallejo (nonpartisan, "Independentist"; 75.3%)
def. Carlos Antonio Carrillo (nonpartisan, "Anti-Independentist" or "Centralist"; 22.6%), John B. R. Cooper (nonpartisan, "Americanist" or "Annexationist"; 2.1%)
1839 - 1840: "Pastry War" between Mexico and France; de facto recognition of Californio independence by Mexico as hostilities cease


Presidents of the Free State of Upper California

1840 - 1842: Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo (Independentist)
1842 - 1845: Pío de Jesús Pico (Independentist - Anglophile faction)
1842 def. José Antonio Carrillo (Centralist), Santiago Argüello (Independentist - Americophile faction)
1845 - 1848: José Antonio Castro (Anglophile)
1845 def. Juan Bandini (Americophile), José Loreto Sepúlveda (Partido Californio)
1847: Mormon Expedition
1848: Utah Conflict: dispute over settlements in the Valle del Timpanogos leads to undeclared state of insurrection against Californian government
1848: California Gold Rush begins

1848 - 1851: Pío de Jesús Pico (Anglophile)
1848 def. José de los Santos Berreyesa (Americophile), Manuel Domínguez (Californio), Louis Rubidoux (Annexationist)
1849: Utah Dispute; Deseret territorial government begins petitioning United States Congress for admission as Territory
1851: Utah Bill enters U.S. Congress with support of Acting-President Buchanan; Northern Whig and Free Soil parties currently blocking passage in the House

1851 election, declared candidates: Ygnacio Palomares (Independentist), John Bisler (Annexationist), José de los Santos Berreyesa (Californio), Agustín Haraszthy (nonpartisan)

The 'independence' of Upper California started as a kind of political stunt taken too far. When Alvarado's faction in Monterey declared independence, it was a gesture intended to demonstrate the state's opposition to the centralising influence of the Seven Laws, and gain leverage against the government in Mexico City that could be used to negotiate a governing arrangement more favourable to Californio interests.

Then Santa Anna's loyalists in Los Angeles started a small-scale civil war, Governor Alvarado got shot at San Buenaventura, and Californio sentiment began turning from aloof to sour.


Vallejo, who had long agitated for Upper Californian autonomy and served as Comandante General of Alvarado's Free State, was the natural successor to the martyred Governor, and being the richest man in the young country didn't hurt.

Under his leadership, the strange twilight regime of Upper California would continue in quasi-independence, staging its own presidential election (largely boycotted by the Centralists loyal to Mexico City) and acting increasingly like a real nation. Similarly to Texas on the other side of the continent, the state was theoretically vast and land barons wasted no time in carving the blank white spaces on the map into ranchos, but the European population was outnumbered more than ten-to-one by the natives and remained clustered on the coast.

Also similarly to Texas, there was a decision to be made between seeking British protection and capital, or lobbying for closer ties to the United States. Unlike Texas, California was geographically and ethnically (by the reckoning of the 1840s) distinct from the U.S., and the proximity of British North America (and the colossal ambivalence of the Clay Administration) saw the Anglophiles win the day. Even when the Centralists, with their powerbase among the Mexicophile elite of Los Angeles, made an appeal to nationalism by rebranding themselves as 'Californios', they were unable to meaningfully dent the dominance of the Anglo faction. Castro won handily in 1845, and Pico was easily reelected three years later. The Moronites in the disputed territories of the east were a nuisance, yes, but a distant one. In its splendid isolation west of everywhere, the youngest part of the New World thrived.

Then someone found gold in the foothills, and the immigrants began coming. The four or five thousand arrivals in the second half of 1848 came as a massive shock to the system of the small republic - that modest number alone was half the local Californio population - but they were only a portent of what was to come in the next two years.

The forty-niners, undeterred by the theoretical, disputed and ill-guarded frontiers of California, came in by boatload and wagonful, some ninety thousands in twelve months. Unlike the first wave, who were mostly Hispanos from elsewhere in Spanish America, the succeeding waves of immigrants were mostly Anglos from the U.S., lured eastwards by promises of gold and egged on first by Clay (who was only too happy to see the frustrated Young Americans leave the voting parts of the country in the runup to an election) and then Polk (who in his short term proved only too happy to establish facts on the ground in the same manner as had been achieved in Texas). This was followed by a further hundred thousand in 1850, and there is no sign of a tapering off anytime soon.

The Californio ruling class, who had come to fancy themselves a vaquero gentry lording it over a noble frontier republic, now represent a voting population that in three years has found itself outnumbered twenty-to-one by immigrants, many of whom have no intention of leaving after they got their gold. The economic and social structures of California are being upended as the Americans bring their own languages and commercial relationships and even, in Yerba Buena and Sutterville, branches of the Bank of the United States.

This presents a problem. Technically, most of the newcomers are ineligible to vote in this year’s elections, but if the fringe Annexationist movement can count on even the tepid support of even a tenth of the migrant population, California will almost certainly vote to join the U.S., which has already digested Texas, is considering petitions from Deseret, and is eyeing the lawless borderland of New Mexico.

The would-be Canute trying to turn the American tide is Ygnacio Palomares, an independentist landowner tied to the powerful Los Angeles cliqueappeal to old-line Centralists and Anglophiles alike.

What Palomares doesn't have is John Frémont’s cavalry waiting in the wings, nor the backing of John Marsh, an American immigrant who is now one of the largest landowners in the country and could probably mobilise a distressingly large number of those Yankee miners if the vote doesn’t go the way he wants it to.

And regardless of what happens in California, there is a non-zero chance that the U.S. will find a way to surprise everyone. While Clay and Polk are both dead, sectoral tensions live on. If Acting-President Buchanan can’t overcome the resistance of the Free Soilers and Whigs who are trying to string him out until next year’s election, North and South may find themselves further divided over what to do with California - and wherever that path leads, it’s probably nowhere good…

BONUS: Presidents of the United States of America

1837 - 1841: Martin Van Buren (Democratic)
1836 (with Richard Mentor Johnson) def. William Harrison (Whig), Hugh White (Whig), Daniel Webster (Whig), Willie Mangum (Whig)
1841 - 1845: William Henry Harrison (Whig)
1840 (with John Tyler) def. Martin Van Buren (Democratic)
1845 - 1849: Henry Clay (Whig)
1844 (with John Sergeant) def. James Buchanan, Jr. (Democratic), John Tyler (New Democratic-Republican)
1849 - 1850: James Polk (Democratic)
1848 (with James Buchanan, Jr.) def. Daniel Webster (Whig), Martin van Buren (Free-Soil Democratic)
1850 - 0000 (Acting): James Buchanan, Jr. (Democratic)
 

Indicus

<insert title here>
Location
Trawno
Pronouns
he/him
Presidents of the United States

1801-1809: Thomas Jefferson (Republican)

1800: (with Aaron Burr) def. John Adams/Charles C. Pinckney (Federalist)
1804: (with George Clinton) def. Charles C. Pinckney/Rufus King (Federalist)


1809-1817: James Madison (Republican)
1808: (with George Clinton) def. Charles C. Pinckney/Rufus King (Federalist)
1812: (with Elbridge Gerry) def. Charles C. Pinckney/Rufus King (Federalist)


In office, Madison broadly continued the policies of his predecessor. He continued Jeffersonian economic policy, and in this period the Federalists collapsed. The First Bank of the United States was allowed to lapse. While tensions with the United Kingdom proved worrying to some, with impressment and British alliances with the Shawnee in the Old West, ultimately nothing came of them. However, he was faced with much tensions - Spanish control over Louisiana and with it New Orleans led to Kentucky and Tennessee feeling semi-detached from the republic, and though the Wilkinson conspiracy was uncovered and halted, dissatisfaction continued. Nevertheless, Madison left office a general success.

1817-1825: James Monroe (Republican)
1816: (with Daniel D. Tompkin) def. Rufus King/John E. Howard (Federalist)
1820: (with Daniel D. Tompkin) def. DeWitt Clinton/John E. Howard (Federalist)


At first, Monroe continued to follow Republican doctrine, and he proved more of a rigid constructionist than Madison ever was. Republican dominance over the nation's politics continued - but that changed when, in 1820, over the Aroostook dispute in Maine, violence broke out and war seemed imminent. This sparked much resent in New England, deeply tied to the British economy, including discussion of secession among some Federalists. The 1820 election saw a slight Federalist revival, but afterwards tensions with Britain cooled and the Federalists in practice became a regional New England party. Monroe sought to unify the nation and end partisanship, and to many it was a goal he seemed to be successful in. But the 1824 election chaos proved this wrong.

1825-1829: William H. Crawford (Republican)
1824: (with Nathaniel Macon) def. John Quincy Adams/Samuel Smith (Republican), Smith Thompson/Samuel Smith (Republican), John C. Calhoun/Nathan Sanford (Republican)

In this election, the congressional nominating caucus failed to impose its selection of Crawford as the official Republican candidate, and instead state conventions nominated their own candidates. The resulting chaos ended up with a hung Electoral College, and in the ensuing contingent election Crawford got elected by the House as President. This controversy would result in the Thirteenth Amendment, which amended the presidential election process so that the president was elected by "presidential districts" carved out by each state, the electors were abolished entirely, and both the president and vice president were simply elected by a joint session of Congress in the case of a hung college.

Crawford's tenure was immediately met with tensions; not only did British impressment return with its war with France in this period, but more pertinently Spain closed New Orleans to American access. With Secretary of State Henry Clay a firm expansionist, this came to be regarded as a reason for war, and Clay successfully got a resolution of war through Congress. American troops swiftly crossed the Mississippi and took over Saint Louis from Spanish forces. An attempt at a more southern approach to New Orleans at first succeeded, but Spanish ships took it back; the United States lacked the fleet to combat this. A Spanish bombardment of Charleston scared many, even if an attempt at landing troops failed. But nevertheless, a great number of towns in Luisiana were taken over by American troops, even if the Spanish remained firm in the lower region. An American charge into the Floridas proved a great deal more successful, Spanish control always being more tenous. This war proved to be a victory, even if more hard-fought than expected; in the peace settlement, Spanish negotiators attempted to keep Lower Luisiana, while American negotiators attempted to get a Rio Grande border for Luisiana; these efforts were met in compromise when the Sabine was agreed to be the border between American Luisana and Spanish Texas.

This election also changed the party. The flaws of the Jeffersonian system were exposed with the war, and Secretary of State Henry Clay in particular changed from being a strict constructionist to a supporter of a restored Bank of the United States, internal improvements, and a tarriff. A stroke in 1828 meant Crawford ruled out a second term; this left its result for grabs.

1829-1837: Henry Clay (Republican, then Reform)
1828 (with John Sergeant) def. John C. Calhoun/Nathan Sanford (Republican), Thomas Hart Benton/Philip P. Barbour (Republican)
1832 (with John Sergeant) def. Thomas Hart Benton/Francis Granger (Old Republican), Solomon Southwick/William Jackson (Anti-Catholic), John C. Calhoun/None (Nullifier)


Winning on his successful record prosecuting a war as Secretary of State, Clay also had support from Federalist remnants for his newly nationalist agenda. His tenure saw much industrial growth as the Market Revolution and the full benefits of Mississippi access were achieved. Clay made Orleans, known to the Spanish as Lower Luisiana, a state with a striking guarantee of Catholic rights. Furthermore, in 1830, with Britain ruled by a newly revolutionary regime, Clay launched into negotiations with it, and in a convention successfully set the border between the United States and British North America west of the Lake of the Woods at the 49th Parallel, and the border between Maine and Nova Scotia to include the entire Aroostook region. He wrapped up his supporters as the "Reform Party", and successfully restored the Bank of the United States. He also established a quite high tariff, which South Carolina was quick to attempt to nullify. He also attempted to attract Irish voters, who came as refugees following the famine of the 1820s, but this effort failed. The 1832 election saw Henry Clay win over an opposition consisting of Martin Van Buren's unification of anti-Clayite interests, the Anti-Catholic Party that emerged as nativist backlash, and a Nullifier Party. South Carolinian interests were mollified when Clay got passed a less high tariff.

In the wake of this election, Henry Clay sought to unify with the Anti-Catholic Party. He sought to redirect Irish immigrants to Orleans to blunt the impact of their immigration and Anglify the state, but in the long term they turned French and Spanish. In practice this process did succeed, and the Anti-Catholics did merge with the Reformers. Clay's tenure proved successful. But then, in 1836, during the routine admission of Missouri as a state, an antislavery congressman added a rider requiring it manumit its slaves; it passed the House amidst controversy, but died in the Senate. This controversy ultimately forced Clay himself to speak on the issue. Though he was anti-slavery, he was a slaveowner and a Southerner, a fact which was already clear when he looked the other way when he looked the other way at the South illegally exporting slaves to Portuguese Brazil. And this came here as well. He asserted the "inviolability of this species of property", spoke of the contendedness and "convenience" of slaves in Kentucky, favourably compared the "black slaves" of the south with the "white slaves" of the north, and asked gentlemen if they would "set their wives and daughters to brush their boots and shoes, and subject them to the menial offices of the family". It proved alienating to the North, and it resulted in the Reform party convention being ill-attended; instead northern states agreed on their own presidential slate.

1837-1841: Zebulon Pike (Old Republican, then Patriot)
1836: (with Martin Van Buren) def. John Quincy Adams/Richard Rush (Northern Reform), Willie Person Mangum/Richard M. Johnson (Southern Reform)

The Old Republicans, later known as the Patriots, were a party formed out of the opposition to Henry Clay, and it was formed ultimately thanks to Martin Van Buren's great skills as a party leader. Finding Zebulon Pike, a hero of exploration and of war, Van Buren ensured that he would be the leader of this new party, intended to oppose Clay's "neo-Federalism". It proved successful amid the Reform split and Pike's popularity. But first of all, it needed to resolve the Missouri issue. Henry Clay, having returned to Congress, proved far more conciliatory and he proposed a compromise according to which Missouri would be made a free state in exchange for slavery in Arkansaw Territory being assured upon its statehood, as well as a stronger Fugitive Slave Law. Pike also immediately became controversial when he proposed removing Indians east of the Mississippi, in contrast to Clay's support of letting them be killed by settlers. To prevent Southern interests from being irked further, he also ensured they'd be expelled in the north of the remaining Luisiana Territory rather than in the area adjacent to Arkansaw. This proved very controversial, and very brutal towards the indigenous peoples themselves, but he got this act passed.

However, Pike proved less successful when it came to the Bank of the United States. He failed to get reforms of it past Congress, and when an economic panic hit, caused by overspeculation in the new western territories, bad relations with the Bank of the United States were pointed to as a cause. Pike was defeated in the next election, but nevertheless he remained a very well-respected man for his career prior to his presidency.

1841-1849: Daniel Webster (Reform)
1840: (with John Bell) def. Zebulon Pike/Martin Van Buren (Patriot)
1844: (with John Bell) def. John Tyler/George M. Dallas (Patriot)


In power, Webster restored Clay's economic policies to their full extent. He focused on foreign policy far more in practice during his tenure. He attempted to buy San Francisco, but Spain rebuffed this offer quite harshly, believing it would be the first step towards an American conquest of their empire. But still wanting a Pacific port, he instead moved on to Britain, attempting to get a piece of the Columbia region despite the Southern interest wanting no part in this. Furthermore, the United States had little claim, of discovery or otherwise, over the region. But after much skillful negotiation, Webster got Britain to agree to giving the United States a perpetual lease over the Olympic Peninsula in return for a payment; Webster nevertheless hoped to bring the rest of Columbia under American rule through migration, to that end helping carve out a trail to the Rockies. This immediately boosted American commerce in the Pacific. It is generally considered a success.

In his second term, however, the southern slaver interest sought its own expansion. It organized a filibuster attempt in Cuba, which included support from some American troops volunteering, with the alleged aim of stopping a race war. But this filibuster failed. Webster had those who participated prosecuted, which proved controversial among those southerners who supported it. But other Southerners viewed Spain as fellow slaveowners and thus a natural ally, and they found new reasons to align themselves with the Reform Party as a result. It helped ensure a Reform victory in 1848.

1849-1853: John J. Crittenden (Reform)
1848: (with Rufus Choate) def. Levi Woodbury/John A. Quitman (Patriot)

Crittenden's term was mired by a large corruption scandal related to the Bank of the United States, and though he immediately attempted to fix the issue, many alleged the issue was fundamentally deeper. It crashed his popularity, as well as the Bank of the United States more generally; furthermore, a sudden influx of gold from the California Gold Rush occurring in the Viceroyalty of New Spain after 1851, made the Bank of the United States look a lot less necessary. The boom this gold influx caused was one which the Reformers received little credit for. It all resulted in a defeat to a popular Navy man.

1853-1861: Robert F. Stockton (Patriot)
1852: (with Thomas Jefferson Rusk) def. John J. Crittenden/Rufus Choate (Reform)
1856: (with Thomas Jefferson Rush) def. John McLean/Millard Fillmore (Reform)


Stockton was already a well-known name. He fought in the Luisana War in a hopelessly outmatched navy, and later he fought against slavers in Liberia in accord to his very moderate antislavery principles. He was also a member of the fiercely expansionist Young America movement. In power, he reformed and de-emphasized the Bank of the United States in accord with Patriot principles, which the gold influx from California made much more viable, while at the same time backing internal improvements and helping to create a railroad boom that he himself was invested in. American ships in this period went around the world, all the while Stockton talked a big game about international revolution, including sending a fleet to Buenos Aires to prevent Spain from reconquering it during the Third Platinean War of Independence. He also sought expansion, in accord with elements of the slave interest despite his separate goal of American prestige; to that end, after an American ship was seized in Galveztown by Spanish authorities, Stockton ignited an outrage and successfully had the Neutrality Act repealed to allow filibusters, in practice often consisting volunteers from the American army, to be done legally. Filibuster attempts failed in Spanish Texas when the semi-Hispanicized Irish population dominant there refused to participate, while in Cuba the disarray they caused resulted in slave revolts. The South immediately backtracked, especially after Stockton alleged it could be used to stop the trans-Caribbean slave trade. After some discussions, Spain agreed to giving US some basic basing rights, which Stockton treated as a grand victory. But Stockton nevertheless won in 1856 by his party portraying his opponent as a "radical abolitionist".

In his second term, however, the railway boom crashed as it became clear many railway companies with booming prices were unprofitable, and this caused an economic panic. At the same time, Stockton's investments did well, leading to many dirty accusations. Furthermore, Illinois banning slavery in 1858 resulted in the South becoming increasingly disgruntled at Stockton's belief in eventual abolition of slavery. This caused the Patriots to lose in 1860, even if the result was closer than many expected.

1861-1865: Edward Bates (Reform)
1860: (with Henry Gardner) def. James Guthrie/Daniel S. Dickinson (Patriot)

Perhaps Bates was elected less for what he was than what he was not. He was not a Patriot in a time of economic freefall. It was less a mandate than it was a vote against the other party. Despite his party losing cohesion due to Stockton's adoption of some of their policies, Bates nevertheless passed policies. He ended the suspension of the Neutrality Act and opposed further filibuster attempts. Despite being a slaveowner, he was also something of an antislavery man, beyond just the extent of Clay, and his party, already facing weak cohesion, bickered and bickered as a result. Bates found it hard to manage. With the prior death of Clay, the Reform Party lost their erstwhile leader, this weakened cohesion yet further, and Bates did little of note.

However, in 1864, the Internal Provinces of New Spain, that is Texas, New Mexico, the Californias, and the Sierra Madre, declared their independence from Spain as "Buenaventura"; it also banned slavery, as a result of slavery in the region primarily being the purview of regime-aligned people. This included attacks on the plantations of East Texas, in many ways an extension of Cuban plantations. Bates nevertheless declared his support for Buenaventura, horrifying many in his party who viewed it as an attack on slavery. The Reform Party refused to give Bates the nomination in the next election; though he accepted this, much of his party did not, and the damage was done.

1865-1869: Joseph Lane (Patriot)
1864: (with Andrew Johnson) def. Richard Taylor/Robert C. Winthrop (Reform), William H. Seward/Salmon P. Chase ("Free Soil"/"Republican"/"Justice"/"People's")

Winning against vote-splitting between the Reform Party and the hastily formed alliance between Reform splitters and existing antislavery elements, the doughface Lane immediately declared neutrality in the Buenaventuro War of Independence and revoked. Despite it, American volunteers from the North joined up with the "Comunero" rebels in considerable numbers, making the Buenaventura issue controversial within the halls of Congress itself, and Lane was accused of being an agent of the Slave Power. With the South horrified by Buenaventura fighting a war against slavery itself, it sought to prevent any American aid whatsoever, and to that end Lane prosecuted American volunteers harshly for violating the Neutrality Act despite not treating southern aid for Spain with any of the same attention; juries often nullified such trials. The South, immediately worried at slavery's potential defeat, sought to expand it within American borders. East Florida and Cimarron were admitted as states despite clearly fradulent referenda that included many non-resident voters. Furthermore, the Kansas Territory was opened to slave settlement, and after a court case, slaves were allowed "free transit" across states, to allow slaveholders to cross Missouri. It was all massively controversial and furthered the organization of antislavery elements. After Buenaventura won its independence, Lane harshly criticized it as a rebel regime, to the anger of the North, and Kansas became the sight of mass violence as veterans of the Buenaventura conflict sought to settle there and shot their guns once more. It was all too much, and it made Lane the epitome of the doughface. It led to a decisive Patriot defeat in 1868. Many feared for the sparks flying. And on February 10, 1868, they did.

1869-1869: Andrew Johnson (Patriot)
(with None)

1869-1877: Henry Winter Davis (Justice)
1868: (with Benjamin Wade) def. William M. Gwin/Jefferson Davis (Patriot), Emerson Etheridge/Thomas Ewing (Unionist)
Note: After a mob occupied the capitol, a rump Congress convened on February 10, 1868, decertified the results of the 1868 election, and in a "contingent election" declared Gwim as president


When Justicialists won the election, many southerners declared the result illegitimate, pointing to violence associated with it, and they plotted secession or coups. Lane himself cast doubt on the election, and he talked with southern Fire-Breathers, for he agreed with the Southern cause. South Carolina hastily declared its secession from the United States, all the while the southern-dominated outgoing administration all but sympathized with them. On February 10, 1869, Southerners interrupted the counting of the electoral vote, and under their guard Southerners and Lane-style doughfaces met. Getting around the constitutional quorum requirement by creatively interpreting Article I Section V to allow them to expel nonattending congressmen, they invited South Carolina back into the union. Finding the certificates for the election mysteriously misplaced, they threw out the results of the election entirely, and in a contingent election declared William Gwin the next president of the United States.

In the North many called about fraud and unconstitutionality, and the real victor of the election, Henry Winter Davis, convened the rest of Congress in Philadelphia a week later. Here, meeting all constitutional quorum requirements they certified Davis as the legitimate winner, and also impeached Lane from office, allowing his fiercely constitutionalist vice president to take power for less than a month. Under Johnson, the first few battles were fought, preventing raids from Kentucky into the Midwest. And on March 4, in Philadelphia, Henry Winter Davis became president.

Henry Winter Davis was an unusual choice for the leader of an antislavery party. He was a Marylander, and though he hated slavery, it was only in the Henry Clay sense, and he often spoke ill of "rabid abolitionists". But he did support recognition of Buenaventura and trumpeted their struggle as like America's own, along with opposition to the Kansas Act and the statehoods of Cimarron and East Florida. His nomination was a moderate measure. But that did not keep the South from seeing blood, and after he won a long and complicated campaign, they nevertheless attempted to abrogate his election. The ensuing American Civil War proved to be long and tough. And though he began an extremely moderate-minded man, the Civil War very quickly radicalized him, surprising everyone.
 
Last edited:

Nyvis

Token Marxist
Location
Paris
Pronouns
She/Her
Presidents of the United States

1801-1809: Thomas Jefferson (Republican)

1800: (with Aaron Burr) def. John Adams/Charles C. Pinckney (Federalist)
1804: (with George Clinton) def. Charles C. Pinckney/Rufus King (Federalist)


1809-1817: James Madison (Republican)
1808: (with George Clinton) def. Charles C. Pinckney/Rufus King (Federalist)
1812: (with Elbridge Gerry) def. Charles C. Pinckney/Rufus King (Federalist)


In office, Madison broadly continued the policies of his predecessor. He continued Jeffersonian economic policy, and in this period the Federalists collapsed. The First Bank of the United States was allowed to lapse. While tensions with the United Kingdom proved worrying to some, with impressment and British alliances with the Shawnee in the Old West, ultimately nothing came of them. However, he was faced with much tensions - Spanish control over Louisiana and with it New Orleans led to Kentucky and Tennessee feeling semi-detached from the republic, and though the Wilkinson conspiracy was uncovered and halted, dissatisfaction continued. Nevertheless, Madison left office a general success.

1817-1825: James Monroe (Republican)
1816: (with Daniel D. Tompkin) def. Rufus King/John E. Howard (Federalist)
1820: (with Daniel D. Tompkin) def. DeWitt Clinton/John E. Howard (Federalist)


At first, Monroe continued to follow Republican doctrine, and he proved more of a rigid constructionist than Madison ever was. Republican dominance over the nation's politics continued - but that changed when, in 1820, over the Aroostook dispute in Maine, violence broke out and war seemed imminent. This sparked much resent in New England, deeply tied to the British economy, including discussion of secession among some Federalists. The 1820 election saw a slight Federalist revival, but afterwards tensions with Britain cooled and the Federalists in practice became a regional New England party. Monroe sought to unify the nation and end partisanship, and to many it was a goal he seemed to be successful in. But the 1824 election chaos proved this wrong.

1825-1829: William H. Crawford (Republican)
1824: (with Nathaniel Macon) def. John Quincy Adams/Samuel Smith (Republican), Smith Thompson/Samuel Smith (Republican), John C. Calhoun/Nathan Sanford (Republican)

In this election, the congressional nominating caucus failed to impose its selection of Crawford as the official Republican candidate, and instead state conventions nominated their own candidates. The resulting chaos ended up with a hung Electoral College, and in the ensuing contingent election Crawford got elected by the House as President. This controversy would result in the Thirteenth Amendment, which amended the presidential election process so that the president was elected by "presidential districts" carved out by each state, the electors were abolished entirely, and both the president and vice president were simply elected by a joint session of Congress.

Crawford's tenure was immediately met with tensions; not only did British impressment return with its war with France in this period, but more pertinently Spain closed New Orleans to American access. With Secretary of State Henry Clay a firm expansionist, this came to be regarded as a reason for war, and Clay successfully got a resolution of war through Congress. American troops swiftly crossed the Mississippi and took over Saint Louis from Spanish forces. An attempt at a more southern approach to New Orleans at first succeeded, but Spanish ships took it back; the United States lacked the fleet to combat this. A Spanish bombardment of Charleston scared many, even if an attempt at landing troops failed. But nevertheless, a great number of towns in Luisiana were taken over by American troops, even if the Spanish remained firm in the lower region. An American charge into the Floridas proved a great deal more successful, Spanish control always being more tenous. This war proved to be a victory, even if more hard-fought than expected; in the peace settlement, Spanish negotiators attempted to keep Lower Luisiana, while American negotiators attempted to get a Rio Grande border for Luisiana; these efforts were met in compromise when the Sabine was agreed to be the border between American Luisana and Spanish Texas.

This election also changed the party. The flaws of the Jeffersonian system were exposed with the war, and Secretary of State Henry Clay in particular changed from being a strict constructionist to a supporter of a restored Bank of the United States, internal improvements, and a tarriff. A stroke in 1828 meant Crawford ruled out a second term; this left its result for grabs.

1829-1837: Henry Clay (Republican, then Reform)
1828 (with John Sergeant) def. John C. Calhoun/Nathan Sanford (Republican), Thomas Hart Benton/Philip P. Barbour (Republican)
1832 (with John Sergeant) def. Thomas Hart Benton/Francis Granger (Old Republican), Solomon Southwick/William Jackson (Anti-Catholic), John C. Calhoun/None (Nullifier)


Winning on his successful record prosecuting a war as Secretary of State, Clay also had support from Federalist remnants for his newly nationalist agenda. His tenure saw much industrial growth as the Market Revolution and the full benefits of Mississippi access were achieved. Clay made Orleans, known to the Spanish as Lower Luisiana, a state with a striking guarantee of Catholic rights. Furthermore, in 1830, with Britain ruled by a newly revolutionary regime, Clay launched into negotiations with it, and in a convention successfully set the border between the United States and British North America west of the Lake of the Woods at the 49th Parallel, and the border between Maine and Nova Scotia to include the entire Aroostook region. He wrapped up his supporters as the "Reform Party", and successfully restored the Bank of the United States. He also established a quite high tariff, which South Carolina was quick to attempt to nullify. He also attempted to attract Irish voters, who came as refugees following the famine of the 1820s, but this effort failed. The 1832 election saw Henry Clay win over an opposition consisting of Martin Van Buren's unification of anti-Clayite interests, the Anti-Catholic Party that emerged as nativist backlash, and a Nullifier Party. South Carolinian interests were mollified when Clay got passed a less high tariff.

In the wake of this election, Henry Clay sought to unify with the Anti-Catholic Party. He sought to redirect Irish immigrants to Orleans to blunt the impact of their immigration and Anglify the state, but in the long term they turned French and Spanish. In practice this process did succeed, and the Anti-Catholics did merge with the Reformers. Clay's tenure proved successful. But then, in 1836, during the routine admission of Missouri as a state, an antislavery congressman added a rider requiring it manumit its slaves; it passed the House amidst controversy, but died in the Senate. This controversy ultimately forced Clay himself to speak on the issue. Though he was anti-slavery, he was a slaveowner and a Southerner, a fact which was already clear when he looked the other way when he looked the other way at the South illegally exporting slaves to Portuguese Brazil. And this came here as well. He asserted the "inviolability of this species of property", spoke of the contendedness and "convenience" of slaves in Kentucky, favourably compared the "black slaves" of the south with the "white slaves" of the north, and asked gentlemen if they would "set their wives and daughters to brush their boots and shoes, and subject them to the menial offices of the family". It proved alienating to the North, and it resulted in the Reform party convention being ill-attended; instead northern states agreed on their own presidential slate.

1837-1841: Zebulon Pike (Old Republican, then Patriot)
1836: (with Martin Van Buren) def. John Quincy Adams/Richard Rush (Northern Reform), Willie Person Mangum/Richard M. Johnson (Southern Reform)

The Old Republicans, later known as the Patriots, were a party formed out of the opposition to Henry Clay, and it was formed ultimately thanks to Martin Van Buren's great skills as a party leader. Finding Zebulon Pike, a hero of exploration and of war, Van Buren ensured that he would be the leader of this new party, intended to oppose Clay's "neo-Federalism". It proved successful amid the Reform split and Pike's popularity. But first of all, it needed to resolve the Missouri issue. Henry Clay, having returned to Congress, proved far more conciliatory and he proposed a compromise according to which Missouri would be made a free state in exchange for slavery in Arkansaw Territory being assured upon its statehood, as well as a stronger Fugitive Slave Law. Pike also immediately became controversial when he proposed removing Indians east of the Mississippi, in contrast to Clay's support of letting them be killed by settlers. To prevent Southern interests from being irked further, he also ensured they'd be expelled in the north of the remaining Luisiana Territory rather than in the area adjacent to Arkansaw. This proved very controversial, and very brutal towards the indigenous peoples themselves, but he got this act passed.

However, Pike proved less successful when it came to the Bank of the United States. He failed to get reforms of it past Congress, and when an economic panic hit, caused by overspeculation in the new western territories, bad relations with the Bank of the United States were pointed to as a cause. Pike was defeated in the next election, but nevertheless he remained a very well-respected man for his career prior to his presidency.

1841-1849: Daniel Webster (Reform)
1840: (with John Bell) def. Zebulon Pike/Martin Van Buren (Patriot)
1844: (with John Bell) def. John Tyler/George M. Dallas (Patriot)


In power, Webster restored Clay's economic policies to their full extent. He focused on foreign policy far more in practice during his tenure. He attempted to buy San Francisco, but Spain rebuffed this offer quite harshly, believing it would be the first step towards an American conquest of their empire. But still wanting a Pacific port, he instead moved on to Britain, attempting to get a piece of the Columbia region despite the Southern interest wanting no part in this. Furthermore, the United States had little claim, of discovery or otherwise, over the region. But after much skillful negotiation, Webster got Britain to agree to giving the United States a perpetual lease over the Olympic Peninsula in return for a payment; Webster nevertheless hoped to bring the rest of Columbia under American rule through migration, to that end helping carve out a trail to the Rockies. This immediately boosted American commerce in the Pacific. It is generally considered a success.

In his second term, however, the southern slaver interest sought its own expansion. It organized a filibuster attempt in Cuba, which included support from some American troops volunteering, with the alleged aim of stopping a race war. But this filibuster failed. Webster had those who participated prosecuted, which proved controversial among those southerners who supported it. But other Southerners viewed Spain as fellow slaveowners and thus a natural ally, and they found new reasons to align themselves with the Reform Party as a result. It helped ensure a Reform victory in 1848.

1849-1853: John J. Crittenden (Reform)
1848: (with Rufus Choate) def. Levi Woodbury/John A. Quitman (Patriot)

Crittenden's term was mired by a large corruption scandal related to the Bank of the United States, and though he immediately attempted to fix the issue, many alleged the issue was fundamentally deeper. It crashed his popularity, as well as the Bank of the United States more generally; furthermore, a sudden influx of gold from the California Gold Rush occurring in the Viceroyalty of New Spain after 1851, made the Bank of the United States look a lot less necessary. The boom this gold influx caused was one which the Reformers received little credit for. It all resulted in a defeat to a popular Navy man.

1853-1861: Robert F. Stockton (Patriot)
1852: (with Thomas Jefferson Rusk) def. John J. Crittenden/Rufus Choate (Reform)
1856: (with Thomas Jefferson Rush) def. John McLean/Millard Fillmore (Reform)


Stockton was already a well-known name. He fought in the Luisana War in a hopelessly outmatched navy, and later he fought against slavers in Liberia in accord to his very moderate antislavery principles. He was also a member of the fiercely expansionist Young America movement. In power, he reformed and de-emphasized the Bank of the United States in accord with Patriot principles, which the gold influx from California made much more viable, while at the same time backing internal improvements and helping to create a railroad boom that he himself was invested in. American ships in this period went around the world, all the while Stockton talked a big game about international revolution, including sending a fleet to Buenos Aires to prevent Spain from reconquering it during the Third Platinean War of Independence. He also sought expansion, in accord with elements of the slave interest despite his separate goal of American prestige; to that end, after an American ship was seized in Galveztown by Spanish authorities, Stockton ignited an outrage and successfully had the Neutrality Act repealed to allow filibusters, in practice often consisting volunteers from the American army, to be done legally. Filibuster attempts failed in Spanish Texas when the semi-Hispanicized Irish population dominant there refused to participate, while in Cuba the disarray they caused resulted in slave revolts. The South immediately backtracked, especially after Stockton alleged it could be used to stop the trans-Caribbean slave trade. After some discussions, Spain agreed to giving US some basic basing rights, which Stockton treated as a grand victory. But Stockton nevertheless won in 1856 by his party portraying his opponent as a "radical abolitionist".

In his second term, however, the railway boom crashed as it became clear many railway companies with booming prices were unprofitable, and this caused an economic panic. At the same time, Stockton's investments did well, leading to many dirty accusations. Furthermore, Illinois banning slavery in 1858 resulted in the South becoming increasingly disgruntled at Stockton's belief in eventual abolition of slavery. This caused the Patriots to lose in 1860, even if the result was closer than many expected.

1861-1865: Edward Bates (Reform)
1860: (with Henry Gardner) def. James Guthrie/Daniel S. Dickinson (Patriot)

Perhaps Bates was elected less for what he was than what he was not. He was not a Patriot in a time of economic freefall. It was less a mandate than it was a vote against the other party. Despite his party losing cohesion due to Stockton's adoption of some of their policies, Bates nevertheless passed policies. He ended the suspension of the Neutrality Act and opposed further filibuster attempts. Despite being a slaveowner, he was also something of an antislavery man, beyond just the extent of Clay, and his party, already facing weak cohesion, bickered and bickered as a result. Bates found it hard to manage. With the prior death of Clay, the Reform Party lost their erstwhile leader, this weakened cohesion yet further, and Bates did little of note.

However, in 1864, the Internal Provinces of New Spain, that is Texas, New Mexico, the Californias, and the Sierra Madre, declared their independence from Spain as "Buenaventura"; it also banned slavery, as a result of slavery in the region primarily being the purview of regime-aligned people. This included attacks on the plantations of East Texas, in many ways an extension of Cuban plantations. Bates nevertheless declared his support for Buenaventura, horrifying many in his party who viewed it as an attack on slavery. The Reform Party refused to give Bates the nomination in the next election; though he accepted this, much of his party did not, and the damage was done.

1865-1869: Joseph Lane (Patriot)
1864: (with Andrew Johnson) def. Richard Taylor/Robert C. Winthrop (Reform), William H. Seward/Salmon P. Chase ("Free Soil"/"Republican"/"Justice"/"People's")

Winning against vote-splitting between the Reform Party and the hastily formed alliance between Reform splitters and existing antislavery elements, the doughface Lane immediately declared neutrality in the Buenaventuro War of Independence and revoked. Despite it, American volunteers from the North joined up with the "Comunero" rebels in considerable numbers, making the Buenaventura issue controversial within the halls of Congress itself, and Lane was accused of being an agent of the Slave Power. With the South horrified by Buenaventura fighting a war against slavery itself, it sought to prevent any American aid whatsoever, and to that end Lane prosecuted American volunteers harshly for violating the Neutrality Act despite not treating southern aid for Spain with any of the same attention; juries often nullified such trials. The South, immediately worried at slavery's potential defeat, sought to expand it within American borders. East Florida and Cimarron were admitted as states despite clearly fradulent referenda that included many non-resident voters. Furthermore, the Kansas Territory was opened to slave settlement, and after a court case, slaves were allowed "free transit" across states, to allow slaveholders to cross Missouri. It was all massively controversial and furthered the organization of antislavery elements. After Buenaventura won its independence, Lane harshly criticized it as a rebel regime, to the anger of the North, and Kansas became the sight of mass violence as veterans of the Buenaventura conflict sought to settle there and shot their guns once more. It was all too much, and it made Lane the epitome of the doughface. It led to a decisive Patriot defeat in 1868. Many feared for the sparks flying. And on February 10, 1868, they did.

1869-1869: Andrew Johnson (Patriot)
(with None)

1869-1877: Henry Winter Davis (Justice)
1868: (with Benjamin Wade) def. William M. Gwin/Jefferson Davis (Patriot), Emerson Etheridge/Thomas Ewing (Unionist)
Note: After a mob occupied the capitol, a rump Congress convened on February 10, 1868, decertified the results of the 1868 election, and in a "contingent election" declared Gwim as president


When Justicialists won the election, many southerners declared the result illegitimate, pointing to violence associated with it, and they plotted secession or coups. Lane himself cast doubt on the election, and he talked with southern Fire-Breathers, for he agreed with the Southern cause. South Carolina hastily declared its secession from the United States, all the while the southern-dominated outgoing administration all but sympathized with them. On February 10, 1869, Southerners interrupted the counting of the electoral vote, and under their guard Southerners and Lane-style doughfaces met. Getting around the constitutional quorum requirement by creatively interpreting Article I Section V to allow them to expel nonattending congressmen, they invited South Carolina back into the union. Finding the certificates for the election mysteriously misplaced, they threw out the results of the election entirely, and in a contingent election declared William Gwin the next president of the United States.

In the North many called about fraud and unconstitutionality, and the real victor of the election, Henry Winter Davis, convened the rest of Congress in Philadelphia a week later. Here, meeting all constitutional quorum requirements they certified Davis as the legitimate winner, and also impeached Lane from office, allowing his fiercely constitutionalist vice president to take power for less than a month. Under Johnson, the first few battles were fought, preventing raids from Kentucky into the Midwest. And on March 4, in Philadelphia, Henry Winter Davis became president.

Henry Winter Davis was an unusual choice for the leader of an antislavery party. He was a Marylander, and though he hated slavery, it was only in the Henry Clay sense, and he often spoke ill of "rabid abolitionists". But he did support recognition of Buenaventura and trumpeted their struggle as like America's own, along with opposition to the Kansas Act and the statehoods of Cimarron and East Florida. His nomination was a moderate measure. But that did not keep the South from seeing blood, and after he won a long and complicated campaign, they nevertheless attempted to abrogate his election. The ensuing American Civil War proved to be long and tough. And though he began an extremely moderate-minded man, the Civil War very quickly radicalized him, surprising everyone.
I love this, amazing work!
 

Time Enough

"Enthusiastic Cis Male Partner"
Pronouns
He/Him
Leaders of the Iraqi Republic:
1979-1991: Saddam Hussien (Iraqi Ba’athist Party)†
1991-1996: Izzat Ibrahim al-Douri (Iraqi Ba’athist Party)†
1996-: Ali Hassan al-Majid (Iraqi Ba’aathist Party)


Leaders of the Republic of Iraq:
1991-1993: Fawzi Mutlaq al-Rawi (National Progressive Front)
1992 def: Sa'dun Hammadi (Iraqi Ba’athist-Reformist)
1993-: Hussein Kamel al-Majid (National Progressive Front)
1993 def: Fawzi Mutlaq al-Rawi (Iraqi Ba’athist-Pro Syrian)
1996 def: Sa'dun Hammadi (Popular Unity), Ahmed Chalabi (Iraqi National Congress)


Leaders of the Islamic Council of Iraq:
1991-: Muhammad Baqir al-Hakim (SCIRI)

Presidents of Iraqi Kurdistan:
1991-1994: Masoud Barzani (Kurdistan Democratic Party)†
1992 def: Jalal Talabani (Patriotic Union of Kurdistan), Mahmoud Othman (Kurdistan Socialist Party)
1994-1996: Nechirvan Idris Barzani (Kurdistan Democratic Party)
1996-: Jalal Talabani (Patriotic Union of Kurdistan)
1996 def: Nechirvan Idris Barzani (KDP)

*The Theme From The Fog by John Carpenter plays*

“Saddam Hussein invasion of Kuwait was a scheme that had only one outcome; the destruction of the Ba’athist regime he had built”

*footage of a news anchor near in tears as he extols the news of Hussein’s death*

“But Hussein’s sudden and chaotic end from a car crash caused simmering tensions that had been imbedded within his regime to explode out in a cacophony of violence and anger that his successors weren’t ready for. As Iraq collapsed into Civil War, one man would reinvent himself to be portrayed as a beacon of democracy and freedom to the West to secure his own power on the international and national stage.”

*footage of Hussein Kamel al-Majid watching a parade of Soldiers march past*

“His name was Hussein Kamel al-Majid, and he was about reshape Iraq into his own image...

They just didn’t know it yet.”

-Adam Curtis, Dreams of a Black Sea, 2005
 

Kaiser Julius

Well-known member
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Career of Rosanne Barr

1980–1988: Comedian
1988-95: Producer and actor in Rosanne

1992: Campaigner for Ralph Nader's independent run
1996: Presidential nominee of the Alliance party
1996 election: Bill Clinton/Al Gore (Democrat), Bob Dole/William Cohen (Republican), Rosanne Barr/Angus King (Alliance)
 

ZMF

New member
Presidents of the United States (1969 - present)

Vice President Richard Nixon (R-NY)
(1969 - 1977)
def. in 1968, with Governor Spiro Agnew (R-MD): Senator Robert Kennedy (D-NY)/Senator Ralph Yarborough (D-TX) and Fmr. Governor George Wallace (AI-AL)/General Curtis LeMay (AI-CA)
def. in 1972, with Governor Spiro Agnew (R-MD): Senator Edmund Muskie (D-ME)/Senator Frank Church (D-ID)


Vice President Spiro Agnew (R-MD) (1977 - 1981)
def. in 1976, with Congressman Charles Wiggins (R-CA): Governor Jerry Brown (D-CA)/Congressman Adlai Stevenson III (D-IL)

Governor Jay Rockefeller (D-WV) (1981 - 1989)
def. in 1980, with Senator Henry M. Jackson (D-WA) (1981 - 1983):
President Spiro Agnew (R-MD)/Vice President Charles Wiggins (R-CA)
def. in 1984, with Speaker of the House Tip O'Neill (D-MA):
Senator John Connally (R-TX)/Congressman Guy Vander Jagt (R-MI)


Governor Evan Mecham (R-AZ) (1989 - 1993)
def. in 1988, with Senator Donald Rumsfeld (R-IL):
Congressman James Traficant (D-OH)/Mayor Tom Bradley (D-CA)


Senator Al Gore Jr. (D-TN) (1993 - 2001)
def. in 1992, with Senator Robert Kennedy (D-NY):
President Evan Mecham (R-AZ)/Vice President Donald Rumsfeld (R-IL)
def. in 1996, with Senator Robert Kennedy (D-NY):
Congressman Ron Paul (R-TX)/Governor John Rowland (R-CT) and Hacker Kevin Mitnick (I-CA)/various


Congressman Jack Thompson (R-FL) (2001 - 2009)
def. in 2000, with Congressman Duke Cunningham (R-CA):
Businessman Ted Turner (D-MT)/General Wesley Clark (D-AR) and Activist Steve Wozniak (FN-CA)/Journalist Gavin MacFadyen (FN-CO)
def. in 2004, with Congressman Duke Cunningham (R-CA):
Congressman Tim Ryan (D-OH)/Governor Geoffrey Fieger (D-MI) and Journalist Gavin MacFadyen (FN-CO)/Attorney Lawrence Lessig (I-MA)


Senator John Edwards (D-NC) (2009 - 2017)
def. in 2008, with General Keith Alexander (D-MD):
Senator Sam Brownback (R-KS)/Senator Tom Ridge (R-PA) and Attorney Lawrence Lessig (I-MA)/Hacker Loyd Blankenship (FN-TX)
def. in 2012, with General Keith Alexander (D-MD):
Governor Tom Corbett (R-PA)/Fmr. Secretary of State Richard J. Griffin (R-VA) and Activist James Dempsey (FN-CA)/Hacktivist Beto O'Rourke (FN-TX)


Businessman Erik Prince (R-MI) (2017 - present)
def. in 2016, with Fmr. Speaker Tom DeLay (R-TX):
Senator Herb Kohl (D-WI)/Governor Deval Patrick (D-MA) and Hacker "BadAktor" (FN-???)/various
def. in 2020 (as National Union candidate), with Congressman Jerry Nadler (D-NY):

unopposed

"... With a score of 5.77, the United States is classified as a Hybrid Regime by the International Economist Board (IEB) Democracy Record. By the IEB's estimate, this makes it the highest-ranked among major powers, beating out countries such as Japan, China, and Europe. This is a downgrade from its previous score of 5.83, following the leaking of the Sumatra Papers by the hacker group SGC2C..."

"... In other news, this broadcast is sponsored by PanAm. Fly American! Now, we return to coverage of the California Sky City fire. Already, this brutal fire has consumed the lower levels of the building, slowly rising..."

"... Notorious cyberterrorist Clayton Green's extradition was refused by by the Vietnamese government, this Sunday, in a major defeat to the U.S. government. Better known by his internet handle L-RON, Green fled the country in 2019 after being uncovered as the hacker behind the release of the Griffin Dossier. This comes only two days after Secretary Griffin stated his belief that 'a deal [in regards to Green's extradition] is close to being done with the Vietnamese government'. Story to be updated ..."

"The United States will never bow to cyberterrorists."
 
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