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Lists of Heads of Government and Heads of State


Well-known member
Monarch of the UK
Victoria (1837-1872)
Albert I (1872-1910)
Albert II (1910-1927)
George V (1927-1930)
Albert III (1930-1941) [3]
Prince Regent David, Duke of York and Ross (Acting 1941-1950)
Mary III (1941-1992)
William V (1992-Present)

[1] Assassinated by Republicans, succeeded by her eldest son.
[2] Abdicated to marry Princess Françoise d'Orléans, succeeded by his brother.
[3] Killed during the London Blitz, led to the fall of the Davidson government, succeeded by his eldest daughter, brother recalled from active service to act as regent.
[4] Abdicated due to ill health and age.

Prime Minister of the UK
1868-1872: William Ewart Gladstone (Liberal)
1868 (Majority) def. Benjamin Disraeli (Conservative)

1872-1881: Benjamin Disraeli (Conservative)†
1872 (Majority) def. W.E. Gladstone (Liberal), Isaac Butt (Home Rule)
1878 (Majority) def. Spencer Cavendish, Marquess of Hartington (Liberal), Isaac Butt (Home Rule)

1881-1882: Stafford Northcote (Conservative)

1882-1890: William Ewart Gladstone (Liberal)
1882 (Majority) def. Stafford Northcote (Conservative), Charles Stewart Parnell (Irish Parliamentary Party)
1888* (Minority, S&C from IPP) def. Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, Marquess of Salisbury (Conservative), Joseph Chamberlain (Liberal Unionist), Charles Stewart Parnell (Irish Parliamentary Party)

1890-1891: William Harcourt (Liberal)

1891-1902: Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, Marquess of Salisbury (Conservative)
1891 (Majority) def. William Harcourt (Liberal), John Redmond (IPP), Joseph Chamberlain (Liberal Unionist)
1897 (Majority, with Liberal Unionist) def. Henry Campbell-Bannerman (Liberal), John Redmond (IPP), Joseph Chamberlain (Liberal Unionist), Kier Hardie (Independent Labour Party), H.M. Hyndman (Social Democratic Federation)

1902-1908: Lord Randolph Churchill (Conservative)
1903 (Minority) def. Henry Campbell-Bannerman (Liberal), John Redmond (IPP), Kier Hardie (Labour Representation Committee)

1908-1916: Archibald Primrose, Earl of Rosebery (Liberal, later leading Wartime Coalition)
1908 (Majority) def. Lord Randolph Churchill (Conservative), John Redmond (IPP), Arthur Henderson (Labour Party)
1914 (Minority) def. Gerald Balfour (Conservative Party), John Redmond (IPP), Ramsay MacDonald (Labour), Walter Long (Irish Unionist Party)
1915 (National Coalition) def. Gerald Balfour (Conservative Party), John Redmond (IPP), Arthur Henderson (Labour), Walter Long (Irish Unionist Party)

1916-1924: J.E.B. Seely (Liberal, later Coupon Liberal, later National)
1916 (Wartime Coalition) def. Gerald Balfour (Conservative Party), John Redmond (IPP), Arthur Henderson (Labour), Walter Long (Irish Unionist Party)
1918 (Coalition) def. Austen Chamberlain (Coupon Conservatives), David Lloyd George (Independent Liberals), John Redmond (IPP), Eric Geddes (Independent Conservatives), Arthur Henderson (Labour), Walter Long (Irish Unionist Party)
1922 (Majority) def. J.R. Clynes (Labour), Eric Geddes (Continuation Conservative Party), Michael Collins (IPP), David Lloyd George (Continuation Liberal Party), Walter Long (Irish Unionist Party), Arthur Griffith (Irish Liberation Party)

1924-1926: Austen Chamberlain (National)

1926-1930 J.R. Clynes (Labour)
1926 (Minority, Liberal & IPP supply and confidence) def. Austen Chamberlain (National), David Lloyd George (Liberal), Edward Carson (British Unionist Party), Michael Collins (IPP), Arthur Griffith (ILP)

1930-1936: Winston Churchill (National)
1930 (Majority) def. J.R. Clynes (Labour), David Lloyd George (Liberal), Harry Pollitt (CPGB), Neil Francis Hawkins (British Fascists)
1935 (Majority) def. Herbert Morrison (Labour), William Wedgwood Benn (Liberal), Stafford Cripps (Popular Party), Harry Pollitt (CPGB), Neil Francis Hawkins (British Fascists)

1936-1941: J.C.C. Davidson (National)
1940 (Wartime Government) def. Christopher Addison (Progressive Party), Stafford Cripps (Popular), Harry Pollitt (CPGB)

1941-1949: Oliver Lyttelton (National)
1941 (Wartime Government) def. Christopher Addison (Progressive Party), Stafford Cripps (Popular), Harry Pollitt (CPGB)
1945 (Majority) def. Christopher Addison (Progressive Party), Stafford Cripps (Popular), Harry Pollitt (CPGB)

1949-1956: Hugh Dalton (Progressive)
1949 (Majority) def. Oliver Lyttelton (National), Stafford Cripps (Popular)
1953 (Majority) def. Selwyn Lloyd (National), Aneurin Bevan (Popular)
1955 (Minority, Popular supply & confidence) def. Selwyn Lloyd (National), Aneurin Bevan (Popular)

1956-1964: R.A. Butler (National)
1956 (Majority) def. Hugh Dalton (Progressive), Aneurin Bevan (Popular)
1960 (Majority) def. Megan Lloyd George (Progressive), Richard Crossman (Popular)

1964-1966: Duncan Sandys (National)
1964 (Minority) def. Megan Lloyd George (Progressive), Richard Crossman (Popular)

1966-1971: Douglas Jay (Progressive)
1966 (Majority) def. Duncan Sandys (National), Richard Crossman (Popular), Enoch Powell (New Tory)
1970 (Majority) def. Reginald Maudling (National), Enoch Powell (New Tory), Richard Crossman (Popular), Edward Heath (Centre Party)

1971-1974: Denis Healy (Progressive)

1974-1980: Maurice Macmillan (National)
1974 (Minority) def. Denis Healy (Progressive), Edward Heath (Centre), Enoch Powell (New Tory), Michael Foot (Popular)
1975 (Coalition, with Centre) def. Denis Healy (Progressive), Edward Heath (Centre), Enoch Powell (New Tory), Michael Foot (Popular)

1980-1987: Denis Healy (Progressive)
1980 (Majority) def. Maurice Macmillan (National), Edward Heath (Centre), Michael Foot (Popular), Enoch Powell (New Tory)
1985 (Majority) def. Edward Heath (Centre), Michael Heseltine (National), Tony Benn (Popular)

1987-1990: Denzil Davies (Progressive)

1990-????: Menzies Campbell (Centre)
1990 (Minority) def. Denzil Davies (Progressive), Norman Tebbit/Malcolm Rifkind (Tory-National Alliance)


Always mysterious!
Published by SLP
Municipal Commune of Bourne
2016-2021: Theresa May (Conservative)
2017 (Minority, with DUP confidence and supply) def. Jeremy Corbyn (Labour), Nicola Sturgeon (Scottish National), Tim Farron (Liberal Democrat), Arlene Foster (Democratic Unionist), Gerry Adams (Sinn Fein)
2020 De facto formation of 'Shadow Government' with Labour, SNP and Liberal Democrats; 'Covid Recovery Group' Conservatives form de facto Opposition

2021-0000: Angela Rayner (Labour)
2021 (Majority) def. Theresa May (Conservative), Jo Swinson (Liberal Democrat), Nicola Sturgeon (Scottish National), Nigel Farage (ReformUK), Arlene Foster (Democratic Unionist), Mary Lou McDonald (Sinn Fein)

This one isn't quite a list. Basically things go slightly different in 2019, and May manages to pass the Withdrawal Agreement. This had come some personal cost - in particular a commitment to not stand at the next election. However, moods improved somewhat as 2020 dawned and there was some hope that Britain had turned over a new leaf and with Brexit done, the country could look forward to talking about something else.

a finger of the monkeys paw curled

Theresa May ended up presiding over not only Brexit negotiations, but over the emergence of the novel coronavirus. May's febrile relationship with the hard-right Eurosceptic backbenches - already outraged over the Northern Ireland backstop and its consequences - worsened further as May committed the nation to lockdown in early March and then again in September. Struggling to run the country with her own party, May was forced to form the so-called 'Shadow Government' as an assortment of Labour Shadow Ministers, LibDem and nationalist spokespersons were allowed to attend meetings with senior civil servants, while May called upon an increasingly limited number of Tories to fill her frontbench. While Jeremy Corbyn remained the official Leader of the Opposition, he found himself defending the Government's anti-covid measures more often than not, while the bitterest opponents of the government was the 'Covid Recovery Group' of libertarian Tories - and a number of Independent ex-Labour and Tory MPs opposed to Labour's invitation into the halls of government under Corbyn.

While Britain battened down the hatches and tried to weather the storm - even with a few holes drilled into the hull by Brexit - a certain section of the populace grew increasingly bitter at the 'corbynvirus lockdown'. Allegations of a hard left plot to install Stalinism by the backdoor via emergency legislation and vaccine passports were muttered and then screamed, first on Facebook and finally the streets outside Westminster. Corbyn would become a victim of the backlash himself, mobbed while visiting a Nightingale Hospital. Hospitalised, he contracted the coronavirus. While he would survive, his position as Leader was seemingly untenable in the circumstances. His recently elected deputy stepped into the breach and soon became the public face of Britain's recovery as the vaccine was rolled out to great success. With cases falling rapidly - but the country by no means out of lockdown - it was deemed safe enough for a general election. The Shadow Government survived just long enough to make the arrangements before collapsing.

In the circumstances, May decided to take her chances on re-election, reneging on her agreement with Tory backbenchers. Her personal polling had soared during lockdown and in any case, much of the CRF Tories had finally decided to throw in the towel and crossed to Nigel Farage's latest rebrand. Her decision was disastrous. Uncoupled from the Shadow Government, May could point to little that Labour or her other partners could not claim as their own - whilst also having to take the blame for the consequences of Brexit in Northern Ireland and the emergent crises in supply chains.

The Labour Party won the biggest majority since 2001, successfully garnishing their manifesto with not just promises but concrete reminders of what they had done over the last year. The LibDems also enjoyed a breakthrough, partially at the SNP's expense thanks to Alex Salmond's vanity party Alba which placed itself in opposition to Sturgeon's 'collaboration with Westminster'. ReformUK picked up a couple of fistfuls of seats, while a small number of Independent MPs also managed to win re-election. The Alliance Party re-emerged in Northern Ireland, while Foster's position as leader of the DUP suffered a fatal blow as the TUV won a seat.

Uhura's Mazda

Twinki a la orden
Published by SLP
Tamaki Makaurau
Regardless of what his politics are, U's M insists on recreating the *spins wheel* 1925 Country party manifesto
I deliberately didn't prescribe anything like that, to save poor, poor Sideways from having to google Siloism or the Reconstruction Party of Canada or whatever bullshit I'm on this week.

Although, being me, I have to quickly say that 1925 was the worst vintage of the lot.


Shadow Tourism Monster
Banned from the forum
2020 De facto formation of 'Shadow Government' with Labour, SNP and Liberal Democrats; 'Covid Recovery Group' Conservatives form de facto Opposition
This is great--PM lists always need more de jure vs de facto.

Uncoupled from the Shadow Government, May could point to little that Labour or her other partners could not claim as their own
[The world's largest "And Now Win The Peace" poster]


Well-known member
Heads of Government and State that attended the Economist’s 180th birthday celebration.

Argentina: Mauricio Macri (Juntos por el Camibo)
Australia: Kevin Rudd (Labor)
Brazil: Aécio Neves (PDSB)
Canada: Jason Kenney (Conservative)
Colombia: Sergio Fajardo (Civic Compromise)
Egypt: Mohamed Morsi (Freedom and Justice)
France: Emmanuel Macron (En Marche!)
Germany: Olaf Scholz (SPD)
India: Rahul Gandhi (Indian National Congress)
Indonesia: Joko Widodo (PDI-P)
Israel: Isaac Herzog (Zionist Union)
Italy: Paolo Gentiloni (Democratic Party)
Mexico: Enrique Peña Nieto (Institutional Revolutionary Party)
Nigeria: Muhammadu Buhari (All Progressive Congress)
Philippines: Mar Roxas (Liberal)
South Africa: Cyril Ramaphosa (African National Congress)
Spain: Pedro Sánchez (PSOE)
Turkey: Muharrem İnce (CHP)
United Kingdom: Jo Swinson (Liberal Democrat)
United States: Joe Biden (Democrat)
Zambia: Hakainde Hichilema (United Party for National Development)
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Shadow Tourism Monster
Banned from the forum
Political Career of John McAfee

1969-1971: Campus chairman, Young Americans for Liberty Cheapsake Technical College Branch
1971-1972: Southern USA chairman,
Young Americans for Liberty
1971-1975: "Technical expert" and "media co-ordinator", New Pioneers
1975-1996: Political prisoner of the North American Technate, on charges of aiding the terrorist organisation the New Pioneers
1996-2004: President of the United States, Let Freedom Ring
def 1996: (with Rocky de la Fuente) Ed Sadlowski (Wildcat Movement), Ken Kronberg (Technocracy Inc.), Peter Calthorpe (Whole Earth), David-Wynn: Miller (Christiani Milites), Chokwe Lumumba (Nubian Nation), James R. Perry (Lone Star), Mel Hurtig (Mapleleaf Hearts)
def 2000: (with John Babiarz) Rocky de la Fuente (Rocky's Road: A New America), Ed Sadlowski (Wildcat Movement), Ken Kronberg (Technocracy Inc.), David-Wynn: Miller (Christiani Milites), abstain (Whole Earth)

2001-2026: Chairman of the McAfee Foundation for Liberty
2005-2018: Board member of ECash Solutions
2016-2026: President of the United States,
Let Freedom Ring
def 2016: (with Roger Ver) Bob Chipman (Technocracy Inc.), Mary K. Henry (Popular Front), :John-Joe: Gray (Christiani Milites), abstain (Whole Earth), John Wolfe Jr. (A New America)
def 2020: (with Patri Friedman) Taras Natyshak (Popular Front), Bob Chipman (Technocracy Inc.), :Glenn: Unger (Christiani Milites), abstain (Whole Earth)
def 2024:
(with Patri Friedman) Taras Natyshak (Popular Front), Jackson Kernion (Technocracy Inc.), abstain (Whole Earth), :Glenn: Unger (Christiani Milites)

2026-xxxx: Assassinated by James Fields, Jr.

The recently deceased John McAfee was a man of many contradictions. From a feared terrorist to an international human rights symbol, a snake-oil salesman to a respected elder statesman, a Nobel laureate to a potential dictator. Now he has made the final transformation, and left a complex legacy and flawed country behind him.

John David McAfee was born in an army base in Gloucestershire, to an English mother, Joan Williams, and an American father, Don McAfee, stationed there in the aftermath of the Anti-Communard War. The breakdown of relations between the Technate and the Aligned Powers would leave Gloucestershire on the wrong side of the Thames Barrier, and the young McAfee would soon be brought home to Salem, alongside his mother. This would prove to be a defining moment in McAfee's life. Uprooted from his original home, he was now living with an increasingly violent alcoholic, his father, who would be a defining presence for the next decade of John's life until his suicide. McAfee later wrote in his Prison Diaries that his father was "the ultimate source of mistrust for me, the little voice in my head telling me to self-destruct".

His father's job as a surveyor entitled his family to a generous pension, which John used to put himself through university. Cheapsake was at the time one of the more radical Technical Colleges, with an unusually large "communication engineering" department inherited from its former status as the College of William and Mary, and a young McAfee soon fell in with a radical crowd. His distrust of authority and natural charisma quickly made him a leader in the at-the-time semi-legal campaign group Young Americans for Liberty, raising funds by selling "free" subscriptions to Sic Semper that neglected to mention postage costs. As an organisation fighting for free markets and free expression, it was natural that a young McAfee would soon come into contact with psychoactive drugs, which would remain a passion and a demon for him all his life.

As the Seventies began, the political climate began to freeze. The balance in the Technate's Administration Committee was shifting away from the Plowshare Group and towards the hardliners, led (unofficially) by Chase and Lee Ray, who were far less tolerant of dissent against the system. In 1972, Young Americans for Liberty was banned on suspicion of sedition, and McAfee (among others) was declared a traitor to the state. While he had already had ties to the militant wing, McAfee now found himself enmeshed in the New Pioneers. The extent of his actions in the group remains unclear. While nearly everyone is willing to credit him with the "freedom vans" emblazoned with Libertarian slogans that remain a symbol of resistance today, his role in procuring the explosives for the Unisphere Bombings is far more contested.

Few would have singled him out as a future leader when he was at large. For all his charisma, he was disorganised, prone to arguing with other members, and broke up his first cell by sleeping with the lead propogandist's niece. It was capture that turned him into a legend. Accidentally given away by a captured underground paper's mailing list, burying himself under a bush when the TSF came knocking, faking a heart attack to escape a county jail, all came to nought, but his tenacity won him admirers. His trial, televised as a propaganda piece, attracted more. Other dissidents had accepted their fate with cliched stoicism and empty words, legitimising the system. McAfee's drug-inspired obscenities and stunts, trampling the Technate flag and graphically describing sex acts to the jury, made a far greater impression, especially when he kept this style up in prison. His release after the Pennsylvania Declaration, blinking in the sunlight on the Rikers ferry, would be a potent symbol of the fall of technocracy.

After so long behind bars, McAfee had moved into the mythology of the movement that once could hardly bear him. The Rubinites put up some protest, but the core of the New Pioneers could not conceive of any candidate better than legendary activist and Peace Prize laureate John McAfee. More importantly, the geopolitical backers of the new, cleaned-up party could not conceive of any candidate better than devout capitalist and Hoppe Essay Award winner John McAfee. The role of the German state in boosting Let Freedom Ring over the pseudo-Bolshevik Wildcats has long been disputed, and often overstated, but was certainly a factor. It can't be denied, however, that McAfee was a popular figure with the American public, and a potent symbol of the fall of technocracy. America was fed up with grey men; they wanted colour. They were about to get maybe too much colour.

The legacy of McAfee's first presidency is contentious. While economic shock therapy and the privatisation of the Technate's assets led to mass unemployment, so many Technate-era jobs were meaningless make-work on unfinishable projects like the James Bay Dam and the supercorridor system that a shock of this nature was unavoidable. The creation of an oligarch class via the voucher system, one including many former Technate officials, is far easier to assign blame to, as is the bloody crushing of New Afrikan separatists compared with the comparatively light hand shown towards the Pacific ones. A certain amount of dissolution was unavoidable, but the allowance of the ultra-racialist Northwestern Redoubt to leave peacefully was contentious enough to lead to the new republic's first party split. A split that McAfee won handily.

It bears repeating just how popular McAfee was in his new republic. Allegations of vote-rigging made against him are unlikely for this reason, and this reason only--as Koch's memoirs make clear, a sufficiently doped-up McAfee was liable to approve any proposal up to and including marrying a lesser Romanov and becoming Emperor John I. Perhaps it was this flexibility, this willingness to be led by the heart, so different to the "low men in grey coats" satirised by Pillsbury, that led to high approval ratings even after he left office. This genuine public love would see him through a failed attempt at launching into the electric economy, increasingly erratic behaviour at long boozy "democracy promotion" lunches, and allegations of abnormal sexual behaviour towards woman and whales alike. Ironically, it was only after reassuming power that nostalgia for him died.

McAfee's unprecedented third term--spun as a Cincinnatian return to politics to defend democracy from resurgent technocracy--may or may not have been his idea. The LFR's central committee certainly needed a better leadership candidate after Tom Wood's support for the Dixie Freedom Front came out, and McAfee had demonstrated little interest in returning to frontline politics in the interim. On the other hand, McAfee certainly acceded to the candidacy with gusto, with his elaborate Freedom Boat stunt (a repeat of his militant glory days) appearing on launch. Leaving that aside, McAfee won handily against two rival candidates pushing nostalgic visions of their own, and international observers breathed a sigh of relief. Unfortunately, time out of power had sharpened McAfee's paranoia to a fine edge.

By the 2020 election, it was clear who was in control. The LFR committee, normally argumentative, rubberstamped McAfee's new platform and VP pick with very little complaint at convention, and rival candidates were harassed on the campaign trail by police, Natyshak famously spending a night in jail for "speeding" before the televised debates. The arrest of Chipman a few months after the election, a needlessly paranoid act of thuggery considering the diminishing returns of the Technocratic platform, was what began to turn the international community against McAfee. Despite calls to strip him of his Nobel, and more importantly heavy economic sanctions, McAfee remained defiant, if increasingly erratic, in his public appearances. Mocking world leaders while posing with rifles, it was clear that for McAfee, this was simply a repeat of his trial, with the international community as the judge and himself as the brave dissident.

We may never know the full extent of McAfee's erratic behaviour, considering the extent to which he guarded himself from public view. Allegations of poisoning internal opponents and attempting to smuggle cocaine into Mexico to revitalise the economy cannot be proven at this time, but hardly seem out of character. Similarly, claims by escaped servants of his sexual escapades (which this newspaper will not be printing) ring true based on his alleged behaviour towards female Pioneers. What we do know for sure is that his public speeches were all made under guard, cadres of guards with dogs surrounding him at all times--a paranoiac security measure that failed to prevent a mentally ill young ultra-racialist from driving his car into the stage. McAfee was pronounced dead on arrival at hospital.

Where can America go from here? McAfee has left both his powerbase and his opponents' in ruins. Paranoid purges have left Let Freedom Ring a shell of its former self, with a small nexus of oddball Californians the nearest thing to internal opposition. Technocracy Inc., already struggling with demographic decline, has also fallen victim to mass arrests. The Popular Front is only propelled by an awkward mix of nostalgia for Sadlowski's guerrilla unionisation campaigns and Canuck grievance politics over the "theft" of NAWAPA. The other opposition groups are too closely tied to the United Biospheres of Puebloa or the Northwestern Redoubt, respectively, to fully commit to American politics, and civil society, already working from a slim base, has been shattered by McAfee's actions. This is the legacy of the liberator.

McAfee was a fascinating and flawed figure, survived by several ex-wives and many claimed illegitimate children. A symbol of resistance to tyranny who became a tyrant himself, his fatal flaw was always allowing his emotions to rule over his reason. His stubbornness made him spit in the Technate's eye for over two decades, his hedonism made him roll in the good times for every American, his paranoia made him place a gun to a nation's head. He once told a subordinate that "history always sympathises with its writers, and its writers sympathise with its madmen", but it is unlikely that future history books will be sympathetic to him.

--Obituaries Department, Hongkong Telegraph
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