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Lists of Heads of Government and Heads of State

Mumby

Always mysterious!
Published by SLP
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Municipal Commune of Bourne
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He/Him
Maybe something like Vietnam, where the British bungle it, decide to leave but the Americans go back in to fight the now obviously soviet aligned follow up?
Oooh yeah, like the British try to do One Big India and civil war breaks out between Hindus, Muslims, Communists (of various stripes) and Princes and the Yanks pick up the pieces installing 'Peoples Republics' and propping up Princes in the aftermath.
 

Catalunya

Well-known member
an 'American Raj' in which the US backs a longer British transition to Dominionhood, which means fighting an insurgency with Yankee blood and guns
No matter how anti-Stalin, I can’t see a socialist America supporting the UK in India in the 40s. My idea was that you would have three sides staring angrily at one another, until the 1960s, when ‘only Henry Jackson could go to London’ happens.


Stalin was already backing the KMT until it was too late and they were killing communists OTL so that somewhat believable.

Not sure the Americans would get there in time to save Mao's bacon in that case, but they might, the KMT was a bit of a dumpster fire and it took very long for the soviets to start backing the CPC OTL anyway.

Actually, what happens to Japan? That's going to change the face of China entirely.



Hmm, something to consider is also when exactly the US falls into neocon mindset too. For all that Trotsky criticized the USSR, this deformation is one of his followers' sins, not his own, so probably after his death? By then India might be a done deal.

On the other hand, you could also have a more serious communist insurgency in an India that's felt to have sold out, potentially USSR backed?

I can't see a more capitalist India doing that much better than the OTL one, especially if the British retain more involvement, since they'll want to keep extracting something out of it for their troubles. So like KMT China it probably doesn't do too great. Those big undevelopped countries would need serious political power to implement a developmentalist program to catch up and I can't see that happening with weak foreign influenced governments.



Maybe something like Vietnam, where the British bungle it, decide to leave but the Americans go back in to fight the now obviously soviet aligned follow up?
China could go either way, I honestly don’t know enough about it. Could the left-KMT pull off a victory with more backing by the USSR?

Japan wouldn’t differ too much from OTL I think. I’m not sure if they would intervene in the American Civil War. Maybe they might take Hawaii, though the UK could do that as well. The Falcon Cannot Hear had Japanese soliders in California in the 1940s to aid the fascists, but I don’t think they could pull that off in the mid-30s. Either way, a Japanese-American war would still be close to inevitable, and a weaker America would focus more on Japan than the European front. Post-WW2 Japan may be an American puppet or a neutral (socialist) state inbetween the Soviets, Americans and maybe also the Brits and French.

I thought America might really fall into it by the mid to late 60s, just in time for 1968, albeit it would be a gradual process from ‘the Soviets are just as bad as the imperlists’ to ‘the degenerates are worse’.

You’re right on capitalist India, but would Stalin really be willing to piss of the UK enough to back communists in India? It’s one of those things that could cause WW2, and knowing Stalin he’d like to portray himself as the lesser of two evils between himself and the UASR.


Oooh yeah, like the British try to do One Big India and civil war breaks out between Hindus, Muslims, Communists (of various stripes) and Princes and the Yanks pick up the pieces installing 'Peoples Republics' and propping up Princes in the aftermath.
This could be really interesting. Maybe the Dominion gets hastily split up between various factions, though it’s more of a ceasefire. Twenty years down the line you have white Trotskyists shooting south-Asian Marxist-Leninists in Andhra Pradesh or something like that.
 

Meppo

Anticommunist
Location
Default City, Russia
Pronouns
he/him
an 'American Raj' in which the US backs a longer British transition to Dominionhood, which means fighting an insurgency with Yankee blood and guns
'American Raj' makes me think of the Loyalists winning the American Revolutionary War (likely one heavily altered by French lack of involvement and possibly a different Seven Years' War) and the British American administration eventually importing sepoys to fight secessionist guerrilla cells in the Appalachies.

Oooh yeah, like the British try to do One Big India and civil war breaks out between Hindus, Muslims, Communists (of various stripes) and Princes and the Yanks pick up the pieces installing 'Peoples Republics' and propping up Princes in the aftermath.
I suppose the Hyderabad Decca- People's Republic must be pretty powerful ITTL
 

Nyvis

Token Marxist
Location
Paris
Pronouns
She/Her
No matter how anti-Stalin, I can’t see a socialist America supporting the UK in India in the 40s. My idea was that you would have three sides staring angrily at one another, until the 1960s, when ‘only Henry Jackson could go to London’ happens.
Yeah as I said before, when the US goes from Trotsky to neocon is going to matter a lot.

China could go either way, I honestly don’t know enough about it. Could the left-KMT pull off a victory with more backing by the USSR?
I think by then there wasn't much of a left KMT to speak of and removing America from the board temporarily is unlikely to fix that. What could happen is that with the Americans out, the pact to fight the Japanese becomes a much more serious issue and the soviets have Mao purged for being an obstacle to that, which sets up the board for them pressuring the KMT into accepting the neutered CPC back in? So the soviet backed government would be a very wide tent which would probably settle on a much more decentralized model of governance after a long drawn out war to reclaim the country from Japanese occupation with whatever support the USSR can afford while probably still fighting a desperate war in Europe.

America probably comes back to the table when it comes time to get at Japan proper since the soviet pacific navy is probably not up to the task and I expect no amount of Trotsktyist third positionism is going to get them to sit out of the allies entirely.

You’re right on capitalist India, but would Stalin really be willing to piss of the UK enough to back communists in India? It’s one of those things that could cause WW2, and knowing Stalin he’d like to portray himself as the lesser of two evils between himself and the UASR.
My thought would be a bungled attempt at dominionization which leans a bit too heavily on the princes and pisses off more egalitarian elements, forming the nucleus of a communist party. The huge mess limps along with British support but is never actually popular and the soviet union only escalates once it embraces a stronger anti imperialist position later on, maybe?
 

Catalunya

Well-known member
Yeah as I said before, when the US goes from Trotsky to neocon is going to matter a lot.



I think by then there wasn't much of a left KMT to speak of and removing America from the board temporarily is unlikely to fix that. What could happen is that with the Americans out, the pact to fight the Japanese becomes a much more serious issue and the soviets have Mao purged for being an obstacle to that, which sets up the board for them pressuring the KMT into accepting the neutered CPC back in? So the soviet backed government would be a very wide tent which would probably settle on a much more decentralized model of governance after a long drawn out war to reclaim the country from Japanese occupation with whatever support the USSR can afford while probably still fighting a desperate war in Europe.

America probably comes back to the table when it comes time to get at Japan proper since the soviet pacific navy is probably not up to the task and I expect no amount of Trotsktyist third positionism is going to get them to sit out of the allies entirely.



My thought would be a bungled attempt at dominionization which leans a bit too heavily on the princes and pisses off more egalitarian elements, forming the nucleus of a communist party. The huge mess limps along with British support but is never actually popular and the soviet union only escalates once it embraces a stronger anti imperialist position later on, maybe?
The UASR would probably be neocon enough to align with the UK and France by the 60s, when Jackson’s position is secure enough. I don’t Trotskyism and whatever Neoconservatism ittl are mutually exclusive. It would probably be similar to China’s transformation, which still has Maoist elements.

Your China description sounds really good. Would Chiang still be the leader of this united front, or would he be pressured for someone more pragmatic?

I’m giving the Trotskyists a lot of shit with this timeline, but I can’t see them watch by idly while fascists march across Eastern Europe.

India sounds good as well. How anti-imperialist was the USSR otl 1930-1970, and how much more or less could it be ittl.

I have a few more interesting ideas regarding this timeline, but I don’t want to clog this thread any further. I’ll tag you and Mumby in my test thread.
 

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Time Enough

"Enthusiastic Cis Male Partner"
Pronouns
He/Him
Patlabor ATLB:

Prime Ministers of Japan:
1978-1981: Masayoshi Ōhira (LDP)

1980 (Minority) def: Ichio Asukata (Japanese Socialist Party), Yoshikatsu Takeiri (Komeito), Yōhei Kōno (New Liberal), Sasaki Ryōsaku (Democratic Socialist), Sanzō Nosaka (Japanese Communist Party)
1981-1982: Masayoshi Ito (LDP)
1982-1986: Shintaro Abe (LDP)
1983 ('Conservative Pact') def: Ichio Asukata (JSP), Yoshikatsu Takeiri (Komeito), Yōhei Kōno (New Liberal), Sasaki Ryōsaku (Democratic Socialist), Hideo Den (Shaminren), Kenji Miyamoto (JCP)
1986-1989: Tomiichi Murayama (JSP)
1985 (Coalition with New Liberal) def: Shintaro Abe (LDP), Yoshikatsu Takeiri (Komeito), Yōhei Kōno (New Liberal), Sasaki Ryōsaku (Democratic Socialist), Satsuki Eda (Shaminren),Tetsuzo Fuwa (JCP)
1989-1993:Noboru Takeshita (LDP)
1989 (Coalition with Komeito) def: Tomiichi Murayama (JSP), Yoshikatsu Takeiri (Komeito), Yōhei Kōno (New Liberal), Sasaki Ryōsaku-Satsuki Eda (Social Democrats), Tetsuzo Fuwa (JCP)
1992 (Coalition with Minshutō) def: Sadao Yamahana (JSP), Kōshirō Ishida (Komieto), Takashi Kosugi (New Liberal), Satsuki Eda (Minshutō), Akiko Dōmoto (Shintō Sakigake), Tetsuzo Fuwa (JCP)
1993: Satsuki Eda (Minshutō)
1993-1994: Yoshirō Mori (LDP)
1994-1995: Toshiki Kaifu (LDP)
1995-: Mitsuko Tomon (JSP)

1995 (Coalition with Shinsintō) def: Toshiki Kaifu (LDP), Morihiro Hosokawa (Shinshintō), Kōshirō Ishida (Komieto), Takashi Kosugi (New Liberal), Akiko Dōmoto (Shintō Sakigake), Satsuki Eda (Minshutō), Tetsuzo Fuwa (JCP), Shuji Imamoto-Michiko Ishimure (Nippon Mirai no Tō), Shintaro Ishihara (Ishin Seitō)
1999 (Coalition with Shintō Sakigake) def: Kaoru Yosano (LDP), Kōshirō Ishida (Komieto), Morihiro Hosokawa (Shinshintō), Akiko Dōmoto (Shintō Sakigake), Tetsuzo Fuwa (JCP), Ryuichi Sakamoto-Michiko Ishimure (Nippon Mirai no Tō), Shintarō Ishihara (Ishin Seitō)


If you want to find out what finally broke the Japanese Political System then you can’t go to the 86’ floods or the 94’ quake or the whole host of maladies that made Japan swallow it’s pride and vote for the Socialist. No, you must go back to 1980 when Ōhira cocked up the election and lead to another Minority LDP Government. Fears about a Socialist Government is what in the end saved the LDP, with Kōno begrudgingly lending a vote to the LDP (something he wouldn’t be doing again). The Ōhira was DOA and it was only awkward back room shenanigans that meant it took up to early 1981 for Ito to be chosen.

Masayoshi Ito was a fairly bland figure who didn’t really seem to cut it, spending most of 1981 watching as Japan’s economy very sluggishly came out of a recession. Rapidly he would be couped, with Foreign Minister Shintaro Abe becoming the next Prime Minister, a tough nationalist who seemed to embrace the new ideals of Neoliberalism too, Abe knew what to do. But the LDP wasn’t as keen and worries over another embarrassing Minority Government lead to Abe creating a ‘Conservative’ Pact with the Komeito.

Whilst it would cause the LDP to descively win a Majority in 1983, having the Komeito in Government and implementing Neoliberal reforms didn’t particularly work well. Every attempt at economic reform was pushed through with gritted teeth and the support of Centrist parties. Abe’s attempts at making a more dynamic Japan would lead to a odd halfway house between Corporatism and Neoliberalism which everyone hated and no one particularly liked. Abe’s saber rattling in Asia and increased tensions with China and Korea didn’t help in expanding Japan’s commercial reach.

Abe could have won the 1986 election though, the Conservative Pact would be dumped, polls were showing a LDP Majority and Abe would get his reforms...then the 1986 flood would occur. Abe would lose his Majority thanks to Global Warming as Tokyo would find itself partially underwater. A consistent pattern of Conservative Government’s finding themselves ousted due to failure to handle and anticipate global warming would become a common feature of the late 80s and Abe would be amongst them.

Whilst the 1986 election wasn’t enough for a JSP majority, Kōno and the New Liberals having been annoyed that there previous support of the LDP had gotten them little entered a coalition with the JSP. Under the fairly moderate Tomiichi Murayama the idea would be implementing a Social Democratic State within Japan, decentralisation, increasing rights for Trade Unions, changing the electoral system to something closer to MMP and establishing better links with the rest of Asia. With Kōno and Murayama attempts to establish a limited Japanese-Chinese trade deal and apologising for the Empire’s treatment during the Second World War it seemed that Japan was reestablishing itself on the world stage.

The 89’ election would be called not long after the death of Emperor Hirohito and the theme of patriotism and revanchist theme from the LDP would be popular. But despite entering in on a theme of patriotism, Noboru Takeshita cared more about the economic reforms and establishing Japan as a powerhouse economy. Takeshita’s reforms would coincide with the raise in ‘Labors’, construction mecha pioneered by Shinohara Heavy Industries who enjoyed the support and cash flow of the Takeshita Government in establishing Labor’s.

The 1992 election was one fought on the economy with Takeshita doing a Macmillan and telling the Japanese they never had it so good. This would also see Takeshita entering coalition with a supposedly Social Democratic Party though it’s political position were fairly Centrist in comparison. It seemed that the LDP would remain dominate again as the JSP pondered what next. Then Takeshita would be embroiled in a series of finance, tax evasion and recruiting scandal that tarred his economic reforms.

After a brief awkward Satsuki Eda Premiership, the Right of the LDP managed to put up Yoshirō Mori who’s bullish behaviour combined with a ‘tough on crime’ platform seemed like the best way to distance the LDP from Takeshita. But his controversial statements, foolish antics and his inability to deal with a mild recession spawned from predecessor meant he was quickly ousted. Beating an awkward Right Wing challenge from Shintaro Ishihara, Toshiki Kaifu had positioned himself on Good, Clean Government after several years of incompetence.

But a couple of months into his premiership, Earthquakes would hit Tokyo and Kobe leading large portions of it to be flattened or flooded. Whilst Labor’s and rebuilding efforts would be successful, allegations of corruption and incompetence would haunt the Kaifu Government as two splinter parties, one lead by former cabinet big shot Morihiro Hosokawa and the other Kaifu’s leadership rival Shintaro Ishihara would campaign on Good Government and Nationalistic Xenophobia respectively.

Kaifu would go to the polls leading a deflated LDP who were quickly pushed aside by a Left Wing Populist campaign lead by Mitsuko Tomon who campaigned on Anti-Corruption, Rebuilding and Good Government. It’s now 1999 and seems that Tomon has managed to achieve those aims to a point, with blame for failures being altercated to Morihiro Hosokawa mainly. Having shifted from just campaigning to good governance to increasing discussions on housing and the environment, Tomon has managed to weather a lot. Of course the Right despise her, with her promoting the dismantling of the JSDF and removing American bases as aims for her second term, she has a number of enemies.

But as long as the Babylon project and attempts to help restore Japan’s environment go using there Labor force go well then nothing particularly bad can particularly happen to Tomon...

What’s that about a military Labor going rogue?

Extra-

1979-1986: Margaret Thatcher (Conservative)
1979 (Majority) def: James Callaghan (Labour), David Steel (Liberal), William Wolfe (SNP)
1983 (Majority) def: Michael Foot (Labour),
Roy Jenkins-David Steel (Liberal-SDP Alliance)
1986-1989: Michael Heseltine (Conservative)
1987 (Majority) def: Neil Kinnock (Labour), David Owen-David Steel (Liberal-SDP Alliance)
1989-1992: Neil Kinnock (Labour)
1989 (Majority) def: Michael Heseltine (Conservative), Paddy Ashdown (Social Liberal Democrats), David Owen (*SDP)
1992-1998: Bryan Gould (Labour)
1993 (Majority) def: Norman Lamont (Conservative), Paddy Ashdown (SLD), David Alton (Reform)
1998-: Chris Patten (Conservative)
1998 (Majority) def: Bryan Gould (Labour), Paddy Ashdown (SLD), Alex Salmond (SNP), Peg Alexander-Mike Woodin (Green)

1981-1989: Ronald Reagan (Republican)
1980 (With George H.W.Bush) def: Jimmy Carter/Walter Mondale (Democratic), John Anderson/Patrick Lucey (Independent)
1984 (With George H.W.Bush) def: Walter Mondale/Denise Feinstein (Democratic)

1989-1993: George H.W. Bush (Republican)
1988 (With Kay A. Orr) def: Bill Clinton/Dick Gephardt (Democratic), Russell Means/Dick Lamm (Libertarian)
1993-: Mickey Leland (Democratic)
1992 (With Evan Bayh) def: George H.W.Bush/Kay A. Orr (Republican), Dick Lamm/Ed Zschau (Reform)
1996 (With Evan Bayh) def: Bob Dornan/Carroll Campbell (Republican), Jesse Ventura/Pat Choate (Reform)


1964-1982: Leonid Brezhnev (CPSU)
1982-1984: Yuri Andropov (CPSU)
1984-1986: Mikhail Gorbachev (CPSU)
1986-1990:
Yegor Ligachyov (CPSU)
1990-1995: Eduard Shevardnadze (CPSU-Reform)

1991: Soviet Presidential Elections Occur, Only CPSU approved candidates allowed
1991 (With Alexander Yakovlev) def: Ruslan Khasbulatov (Action), Boris Yeltsin (Liberal), Vladimir Zhirinovsky (National Front)

1995-: Ruslan Khasbulatov (CPSU-Action)
1995 (With Raisa Gorbacheva) def: Eduard Shevardnadze (Reform), Yegor Gaidar (Liberal), Sergey Baburin (Nationalist-Conservative), Alexander Barkashov (National Front), Svyatoslav Fyodorov (Independent-Green)
1996: *Creation of Untied Sovereign States*
 
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Time Enough

"Enthusiastic Cis Male Partner"
Pronouns
He/Him
Given for Patlabor to make sense, it has to have events happen before the show came out I think this is a valid attempt, given for Patlabor 2 to make sense you would probably needed the LDP to not be in power and probably have a Government that isn’t Right Wing (which given it was made in 1992 and released in 1993 feels oddly prescient).

Also you need a halfway house between eternal bubble economy and Japan that’s been fucked over by natural disasters so this is my attempt.
 

Indicus

<insert title here>
Location
Trawno
Pronouns
he/him
Heads of State of the Provisional Government of Free India [declared]

1942-1944: Subhas Chandra Bose (All India Forward Bloc)


After a long career within the Indian National Congress, Subhas Chandra Bose was forced out of the party by 1940. In its wake, he fled from India, and in 1941 he made his way to Axis Japan despite the ongoing war, which offered support for Indian independence albeit with certain conditions. His charisma was as such that he was able to recruit Indian prisoners of war to his cause, and by 1942 Subhas Chandra Bose led the so-called "Free Indian Army" to take over parts of the British Raj. Its offensive proved rapid, Subhas Chandra Bose's natural charisma proving able to overcome many Indians' suspicion of Japanese imperialism, and despite the Congress party denouncing Japan as a colonial empire in its own right, by 1943 the Japanese and the "Free Indian Army" were veering closer to Bengal.

However, reports came of Japanese mistreatment of Indian civilians as it swept through Assam. For a time these were swept under the rug, but as the Japanese came into Bengal, such reports became more and more commonplace. It was with the fall of Dacca in 1943 that such reports became undeniable. The Japanese army gunned down civilians as part of its takeover of the city, and it committed even worse atrocities. Despite their "Free Indian Army" allies attempting to convince them to stop, the Japanese army refused. The result was mass defections in the ranks of the Free Indian Army, as many came to realize that the Japanese were no friends of Indian independence and that Subhas Chandra Bose's charismatic support was misplaced. But he himself stood still, and he continued to support the Japanese and reassured his soldiers to stay the course. But as the Japanese army slowly advanced, and as it became entirely clear that the Dacca atrocities were part of a clear pattern, in January 1944 there was a mass mutiny in the Free Indian Army. Many were surprised when Subhas Chandra Bose put himself at the head of the mutiny and declared the Japanese every bit as much of a colonial power than the British. It remains controversial whether he planned the mutiny himself after a sincere Damascene conversion or whether he fell in with the flow after the mutiny’s scale became clear, but nevertheless the result was that near-entirety of the Free Indian Army followed its leader despite Japanese attempts to establish a new puppet army. Japan subsequently lost control over any part of Bengal, and then Assam, and by the end of 1944 it lost control of India entirely. Furthermore, Subhas Chandra Bose quickly negotiated the Free Indian Army's support of the Allies in return for assurances of independence. By 1945, the Allies won - and he began to force the issue.

Viceroys of India

1943-1946: Earl Wavell


Despite the success in repelling the Japanese, immediately after WWII, Lord Wavell faced immense strains. Subhas Chandra Bose quickly moved to attempting to force the issue of independence, and despite the consequences of his collaboration and despite the Congress party denouncing him as a traitor and supporter of Japanese colonialism, his ultimate Damascene conversion led him to attain a degree of popularity as he assembled his All India Forward Bloc into a party with unofficial paramilitaries formed from Free Indian Army veterans. By 1946 with the Royal Indian Navy mutinying and Subhas Chandra Bose strongly supporting it, Britain was forced to leave India, the strains proving too great.

Presidents of the Republic of India

1946-1955: Subhas Chandra Bose (All India Forward Bloc) [overthrown]

1946 def. Jawaharlal Nehru (Indian National Congress), Muhammad Ali Jinnah (Muslim League)
1951 def. Jawaharlal Nehru (Indian National Congress), Shripat Amrit Dange (Communist)


In the subsequent Constituent Assembly, Subhas Chandra Bose was able to get it to declare India a republic with a popularly-elected president, and his charisma won him election as India's president, even though his victory over Nehru was very narrow, far narrower than contemporaries expected. Subsequently, the new President got the Constituent Assembly to accept a constitution which gave him overwhelming amounts of powers in a quasi-federal unitary state. Subhas Chandra Bose got everything he wanted. For all intents and purposes he became India's caudillo. And now he faced a new question, what would he do with this power?

Initially, he leaned towards socialism. Even while fighting alongside the Axis, he supported Soviet-style economics, and now that he was in power, he would attempt to implement it. He established heavy state-owned industry across the nation on the Soviet model, despite opposition in many circles to his model. In 1948, he dissolved the princely states and declared his support of a plan of land nationalization to end feudalism and replace it with a system of common ownership. However, this quickly received the ire of Mahatma Gandhi, who declared the necessity of giving this land to villagers directly, and while the president accepted at first and established a system of village councils to administer this land, Gandhi launched a protest campaign to force voluntary land redistribution by landowners without Subhas Chandra Bose imposing his desired structure. After Gandhi achieved a few noted successes in forcing landowners to distribute land directly to villagers, the government viewed this as an attack on its very legitimacy. And subsequently it launched a campaign of repression. The President was always suspicious of democracy, believing India was not ready for it at its current state; this was the very excuse he needed to muzzle civil liberties, arrest opponents he was suspicious of, and enhance the power of a military under the control of centrally-appointed commissars. The land nationalization continued apace, and in many cases it forced villagers to move into the cities and work in the growing factories in the cities. At the same time, he nationalized the banks and legitimized the measure through a referendum, which proved a popular measure, all the while promoting a vigorous and militaristic nationalism which also proved popular. In 1951, Subhas Chandra Bose won another term as president, and though the elections were highly fraudulent, he was far from unpopular.

In his second term, disappointed at the partial success of his projects of industrialization, Subhas Chandra Bose moved towards a more business-friendly model of industrialization which sought to include business into the nationally-owned industrial conglomerates. After this too fell prey to red tape and a series of corruption scandals, in 1953 he shifted course again and moved towards the same economic model of his Soviet ally, albeit with anti-corruption pledges. This erratic shift in policy served to discredit him, and Gandhi, ever a critic of the government, launched another protest campaign against it. He called for comprehensive land reform directly to villagers, as well as the establishment of a more decentralized and efficient system of government under a new constitution. This protest campaign intensified in support especially after massacres many compared to Jallianwala Bagh, and by 1955 it reached Delhi. The military, the very same military that Subhas Chandra Bose had empowered, watched these protests intensify, and it quickly came to a decision. It captured the halls of government, and Subhas Chandra Bose, dressed in his military uniform and sash, was found dead by the military with a shot to his head; officially it was a suicide, but many believed otherwise. And so, Parliament, under military guard, quickly declared the leader of the coup d'etat, Field Marshal K. M. Cariappa, the President. The age of Subhas Chandra Bose had come to an end, deposed by the very same military that made him.

1955-1963: K. M. Cariappa (Independent)
1955: elected by Parliament unopposed
1958 def. Lal Bahadur Shastri (Indian National Congress), Ram Manohar Lohia (Samyukta Socialist Party), Ramachandra Sakharam Ruikar (All India Forward Bloc (R))


Immediately President Cariappa convened a new Constituent Assembly to write a new constitution, one that was suitably democratic for the nation. While he believed in the necessity of the coup, he did believe in a sort of democracy. But as he watched the Constituent Assembly bicker and argue, he lost hope in democracy, and though he accepted its semi-presidential constitution in stride and allowed the new Parliament to be elected freely, the new Prime Minister, Jayaprakash Narayan, proved far more socialist than Cariappa would have liked and the two faced a tussle over power and proper division of administration. Cariappa believed JP to be no less dubious than Subhas Chandra Bose, and in 1958 he proposed a series of constitutional amendments which would abolish the post of prime minister and restore a strong presidency, which he put to a referendum; though this was non-binding, after it proved successful Parliament was forced to accept the whole of the amendment. And so Jayaprakash Narayan lost his office, and in 1958 a presidential election was held to legitimize Cariappa’s rule. The coalition between the Indian National Congress and the Samyukta Socialist Party collapsed, and with it so weakened any hope of removing the President. And he was further helped by an intervention by the CIA in his favour, the United States believing him a sure American ally, and in 1958 Cariappa won a decisive victory. His attempts to gain Gandhi's moral support for his regime failed; Gandhi died in 1959, a bitter man.

But nevertheless, freed from the constraints of civilian inefficiency, Cariappa now had the chance to establish his vision of an efficient technocratic government. He appointed a cabinet of economists and academics, which achieved successes in removing red tape and corruption in the administrative service. He vigorously promoted business, albeit in a manner which was highly statist and lacking free markets, and this achieved high economic growth. The Green Revolution saw the end of food insecurity once and for all. The protest movements fizzled out for a time. But then came serious issues. Land reform ceased to be pushed, and in many cases land nationalized by Subhas Chandra Bose was given to Cariappa's supporters rather than the people who worked on them. The de-nationalization of the banks led to banks in general becoming sparse outside major cities, slowing down economic growth. Slowly discontent rose and rose, though with the press still muzzled Cariappa did not notice. But indeed, he retained a level of popularity, and he thought he could win another election and firmly put India on the right path before finally retiring. This proved a mistake.

1963-xxxx: Aruna Asaf Ali (Indian National Congress)
1963 def. K. M. Cariappa (Independent), Ramachandra Sakharam Ruikar (All India Forward Bloc (R))

Aruna Asaf Ali had a long career before 1963. In the 1940s she served as a youth leader of the Congress party, and when in 1942 the British Raj suppressed the Quit India movement, she famously flew the Indian flag from Gowalia Tank Maidan while the British Army was firing at the assembly, for which she received the epithet "Grand Old Lady of the Independence Movement". After independence, she moved towards socialism, albeit in a form that was scornful of Subhas Chandra Bose and his eclectic ideology, and she quickly became a leader of the Congress party's left wing. It all led to the relatively free 1963 election in which, to the surprise of many, the Congress party was able to win. Cariappa, astonished, was forced to recognize the result and stepped down. A few weeks later, Aruna declared that, along with certain military elements, Field Marshal Cariappa planned a coup d'etat against her. Whether there was a real coup in play or Aruna wanted to preempt an actual coup by making an excuse to suppress the threat to Indian liberty that was the military, the result was that Cariappa was forced into exile and much of the military brass followed him.

This served to strengthen her position, and it gave her more confidence in laying out her vision. She declared the re-nationalization of banks and their expansion across the nation, and she also enacted far-reaching land redistribution laws which placed land in the hands of farmers. But this immediately led to the Indian National Congress to break apart on its seams. It was a party formed to fight for independence and democracy, and as such many different ideologies were represented within it; the result was bickering and party splits soon after it took power. But with her post as president, Aruna Asaf Ali had a firm position to push for an enact her vision on an independent and democratic India, and she had no intention of stopping....
 

Makemakean

Mr Makemean
Pronouns
Logical, unlike those in German
Heads of State of the Provisional Government of Free India [declared]

1942-1944: Subhas Chandra Bose (All India Forward Bloc)


After a long career within the Indian National Congress, Subhas Chandra Bose was forced out of the party by 1940. In its wake, he fled from India, and in 1941 he made his way to Axis Japan despite the ongoing war, which offered support for Indian independence albeit with certain conditions. His charisma was as such that he was able to recruit Indian prisoners of war to his cause, and by 1942 Subhas Chandra Bose led the so-called "Free Indian Army" to take over parts of the British Raj. Its offensive proved rapid, Subhas Chandra Bose's natural charisma proving able to overcome many Indians' suspicion of Japanese imperialism, and despite the Congress party denouncing Japan as a colonial empire in its own right, by 1943 the Japanese and the "Free Indian Army" were veering closer to Bengal.

However, reports came of Japanese mistreatment of Indian civilians as it swept through Assam. For a time these were swept under the rug, but as the Japanese came into Bengal, such reports became more and more commonplace. It was with the fall of Dacca in 1943 that such reports became undeniable. The Japanese army gunned down civilians as part of its takeover of the city, and it committed even worse atrocities. Despite their "Free Indian Army" allies attempting to convince them to stop, the Japanese army refused. The result was mass defections in the ranks of the Free Indian Army, as many came to realize that the Japanese were no friends of Indian independence and that Subhas Chandra Bose's charismatic support was misplaced. But he himself stood still, and he continued to support the Japanese and reassured his soldiers to stay the course. But as the Japanese army slowly advanced, and as it became entirely clear that the Dacca atrocities were part of a clear pattern, in January 1944 there was a mass mutiny in the Free Indian Army. Many were surprised when Subhas Chandra Bose put himself at the head of the mutiny and declared the Japanese every bit as much of a colonial power than the British. It remains controversial whether he planned the mutiny himself after a sincere Damascene conversion or whether he fell in with the flow after the mutiny’s scale became clear, but nevertheless the result was that near-entirety of the Free Indian Army followed its leader despite Japanese attempts to establish a new puppet army. Japan subsequently lost control over any part of Bengal, and then Assam, and by the end of 1944 it lost control of India entirely. Furthermore, Subhas Chandra Bose quickly negotiated the Free Indian Army's support of the Allies in return for assurances of independence. By 1945, the Allies won - and he began to force the issue.

Viceroys of India

1943-1946: Earl Wavell


Despite the success in repelling the Japanese, immediately after WWII, Lord Wavell faced immense strains. Subhas Chandra Bose quickly moved to attempting to force the issue of independence, and despite the consequences of his collaboration and despite the Congress party denouncing him as a traitor and supporter of Japanese colonialism, his ultimate Damascene conversion led him to attain a degree of popularity as he assembled his All India Forward Bloc into a party with unofficial paramilitaries formed from Free Indian Army veterans. By 1946 with the Royal Indian Navy mutinying and Subhas Chandra Bose strongly supporting it, Britain was forced to leave India, the strains proving too great.

Presidents of the Republic of India

1946-1955: Subhas Chandra Bose (All India Forward Bloc) [overthrown]

1946 def. Jawaharlal Nehru (Indian National Congress), Muhammad Ali Jinnah (Muslim League)
1951 def. Jawaharlal Nehru (Indian National Congress), Shripat Amrit Dange (Communist)


In the subsequent Constituent Assembly, Subhas Chandra Bose was able to get it to declare India a republic with a popularly-elected president, and his charisma won him election as India's president, even though his victory over Nehru was very narrow, far narrower than contemporaries expected. Subsequently, the new President got the Constituent Assembly to accept a constitution which gave him overwhelming amounts of powers in a quasi-federal unitary state. Subhas Chandra Bose got everything he wanted. For all intents and purposes he became India's caudillo. And now he faced a new question, what would he do with this power?

Initially, he leaned towards socialism. Even while fighting alongside the Axis, he supported Soviet-style economics, and now that he was in power, he would attempt to implement it. He established heavy state-owned industry across the nation on the Soviet model, despite opposition in many circles to his model. In 1948, he dissolved the princely states and declared his support of a plan of land nationalization to end feudalism and replace it with a system of common ownership. However, this quickly received the ire of Mahatma Gandhi, who declared the necessity of giving this land to villagers directly, and while the president accepted at first and established a system of village councils to administer this land, Gandhi launched a protest campaign to force voluntary land redistribution by landowners without Subhas Chandra Bose imposing his desired structure. After Gandhi achieved a few noted successes in forcing landowners to distribute land directly to villagers, the government viewed this as an attack on its very legitimacy. And subsequently it launched a campaign of repression. The President was always suspicious of democracy, believing India was not ready for it at its current state; this was the very excuse he needed to muzzle civil liberties, arrest opponents he was suspicious of, and enhance the power of a military under the control of centrally-appointed commissars. The land nationalization continued apace, and in many cases it forced villagers to move into the cities and work in the growing factories in the cities. At the same time, he nationalized the banks and legitimized the measure through a referendum, which proved a popular measure, all the while promoting a vigorous and militaristic nationalism which also proved popular. In 1951, Subhas Chandra Bose won another term as president, and though the elections were highly fraudulent, he was far from unpopular.

In his second term, disappointed at the partial success of his projects of industrialization, Subhas Chandra Bose moved towards a more business-friendly model of industrialization which sought to include business into the nationally-owned industrial conglomerates. After this too fell prey to red tape and a series of corruption scandals, in 1953 he shifted course again and moved towards the same economic model of his Soviet ally, albeit with anti-corruption pledges. This erratic shift in policy served to discredit him, and Gandhi, ever a critic of the government, launched another protest campaign against it. He called for comprehensive land reform directly to villagers, as well as the establishment of a more decentralized and efficient system of government under a new constitution. This protest campaign intensified in support especially after massacres many compared to Jallianwala Bagh, and by 1955 it reached Delhi. The military, the very same military that Subhas Chandra Bose had empowered, watched these protests intensify, and it quickly came to a decision. It captured the halls of government, and Subhas Chandra Bose, dressed in his military uniform and sash, was found dead by the military with a shot to his head; officially it was a suicide, but many believed otherwise. And so, Parliament, under military guard, quickly declared the leader of the coup d'etat, Field Marshal K. M. Cariappa, the President. The age of Subhas Chandra Bose had come to an end, deposed by the very same military that made him.

1955-1963: K. M. Cariappa (Independent)
1955: elected by Parliament unopposed
1958 def. Lal Bahadur Shastri (Indian National Congress), Ram Manohar Lohia (Samyukta Socialist Party), Ramachandra Sakharam Ruikar (All India Forward Bloc (R))


Immediately President Cariappa convened a new Constituent Assembly to write a new constitution, one that was suitably democratic for the nation. While he believed in the necessity of the coup, he did believe in a sort of democracy. But as he watched the Constituent Assembly bicker and argue, he lost hope in democracy, and though he accepted its semi-presidential constitution in stride and allowed the new Parliament to be elected freely, the new Prime Minister, Jayaprakash Narayan, proved far more socialist than Cariappa would have liked and the two faced a tussle over power and proper division of administration. Cariappa believed JP to be no less dubious than Subhas Chandra Bose, and in 1958 he proposed a series of constitutional amendments which would abolish the post of prime minister and restore a strong presidency, which he put to a referendum; though this was non-binding, after it proved successful Parliament was forced to accept the whole of the amendment. And so Jayaprakash Narayan lost his office, and in 1958 a presidential election was held to legitimize Cariappa’s rule. The coalition between the Indian National Congress and the Samyukta Socialist Party collapsed, and with it so weakened any hope of removing the President. And he was further helped by an intervention by the CIA in his favour, the United States believing him a sure American ally, and in 1958 Cariappa won a decisive victory. His attempts to gain Gandhi's moral support for his regime failed; Gandhi died in 1959, a bitter man.

But nevertheless, freed from the constraints of civilian inefficiency, Cariappa now had the chance to establish his vision of an efficient technocratic government. He appointed a cabinet of economists and academics, which achieved successes in removing red tape and corruption in the administrative service. He vigorously promoted business, albeit in a manner which was highly statist and lacking free markets, and this achieved high economic growth. The Green Revolution saw the end of food insecurity once and for all. The protest movements fizzled out for a time. But then came serious issues. Land reform ceased to be pushed, and in many cases land nationalized by Subhas Chandra Bose was given to Cariappa's supporters rather than the people who worked on them. The de-nationalization of the banks led to banks in general becoming sparse outside major cities, slowing down economic growth. Slowly discontent rose and rose, though with the press still muzzled Cariappa did not notice. But indeed, he retained a level of popularity, and he thought he could win another election and firmly put India on the right path before finally retiring. This proved a mistake.

1963-xxxx: Aruna Asaf Ali (Indian National Congress)
1963 def. K. M. Cariappa (Independent), Ramachandra Sakharam Ruikar (All India Forward Bloc (R))

Aruna Asaf Ali had a long career before 1963. In the 1940s she served as a youth leader of the Congress party, and when in 1942 the British Raj suppressed the Quit India movement, she famously flew the Indian flag from Gowalia Tank Maidan while the British Army was firing at the assembly, for which she received the epithet "Grand Old Lady of the Independence Movement". After independence, she moved towards socialism, albeit in a form that was scornful of Subhas Chandra Bose and his eclectic ideology, and she quickly became a leader of the Congress party's left wing. It all led to the relatively free 1963 election in which, to the surprise of many, the Congress party was able to win. Cariappa, astonished, was forced to recognize the result and stepped down. A few weeks later, Aruna declared that, along with certain military elements, Field Marshal Cariappa planned a coup d'etat against her. Whether there was a real coup in play or Aruna wanted to preempt an actual coup by making an excuse to suppress the threat to Indian liberty that was the military, the result was that Cariappa was forced into exile and much of the military brass followed him.

This served to strengthen her position, and it gave her more confidence in laying out her vision. She declared the re-nationalization of banks and their expansion across the nation, and she also enacted far-reaching land redistribution laws which placed land in the hands of farmers. But this immediately led to the Indian National Congress to break apart on its seams. It was a party formed to fight for independence and democracy, and as such many different ideologies were represented within it; the result was bickering and party splits soon after it took power. But with her post as president, Aruna Asaf Ali had a firm position to push for an enact her vision on an independent and democratic India, and she had no intention of stopping....
I can only assume that you hate the people of India even more than Albert the Singularity did to inflict this upon them. :p
 

Ishan

Active member
Location
Western Pennsylvania
Pronouns
he/him
Inspired by a Prime Minister Infinity Game I played

PRIME MINISTERS of the UNITED KINGDOM
Nick Clegg (Liberal Democrats-Labour) coalition (2010-2013)
10: Nick Clegg (Liberal Democrats), David Cameron (Conservatives), Gordon Brown (Labour)
11 Electoral Reform Referendum: 59% YES led by Nick Clegg, 41% NO led by Ken Clarke

George Osborne (Conservatives-UKIP) coalition (2013-2016)
13: George Osborne (Conservatives), Nick Clegg (Liberal Democrats), John McDonnell (Labour), Nigel Farage (UKIP), Caroline Lucas (Greens)
15 EU Referendum: 53% Remain led by Nick Clegg and George Osborne, 47% Leave led by Nigel Farage and Kate Hoey

Andy Burnham (Labour-Liberal Democrats-Greens-NHS Action) coalition (2016-0000)
16: Andy Burnham (Labour), George Osborne (Conservatives), Nick Clegg (Liberal Democrats), Nigel Farage (UKIP), Sian Berry & Jonathan Bartley (Greens), Alex Salmond ("Salmondite" SNP), Fiona Hyslop & Patrick Harvie (Scottish Greens) & (Independent SNP), George Galloway (RESPECT/Socialist/Militant/TUSC/SWP "The Left"), Richard Taylor (NHS Action)
 
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theev

Insane Clown Posse... must be about Congress
Pronouns
he/him
Inspired by a Prime Minister Infinity Game I played

PRIME MINISTERS of the UNITED KINGDOM
Nick Clegg (Liberal Democrats-Labour) coalition (2010-2013)
10: Nick Clegg (Liberal Democrats), David Cameron (Conservatives), Gordon Brown (Labour)
11 Electoral Reform Referendum: 59% YES led by Nick Clegg, 41% NO led by Ken Clarke

George Osborne (Conservatives-UKIP) coalition (2013-2016)
13: George Osborne (Conservatives), Nick Clegg (Liberal Democrats), John McDonnell (Labour), Nigel Farage (UKIP), Caroline Lucas (Greens)
15 EU Referendum: 53% YES led by Nick Clegg and George Osborne, 47% NO led by Nigel Farage and Kate Hoey

Andy Burnham (Labour-Liberal Democrats-Greens-NHS Action) coalition (2016-0000)
16: Andy Burnham (Labour), George Osborne (Conservatives), Nick Clegg (Liberal Democrats), Nigel Farage (UKIP), Sian Berry & Jonathan Bartley (Greens), Alex Salmond ("Salmondite" SNP), Fiona Hyslop & Patrick Harvie (Scottish Greens) & (Independent SNP), George Galloway (RESPECT/Socialist/Militant/TUSC/SWP "The Left"), Richard Taylor (NHS Action)
Ha this ending literally vindicates Tony Benn’s tactical argument against PR because he fears it would make a leftist government impossible
 
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Indicus

<insert title here>
Location
Trawno
Pronouns
he/him
I can only assume that you hate the people of India even more than Albert the Singularity did to inflict this upon them. :p
It certainly isn’t a nice timeline to be an Indian indeed, though I did try to end it on an optimistic note.

It goes without saying that Subhas Chandra Bose was awful. Even putting aside that he wanted to make India “independent” by making it a Japanese colony, he was a wannabe military dictator who wanted to utilize viciously authoritarian means to modernize India. He believed India wasn’t ready for democracy; there are a lot of problems with that statement, most of all that it’s exactly the same logic the Britishers used to deny India independence.

Cariappa was in OTL the army chief of staff of India from 1949 to 1953. He was very vocal about his politics, and he supported the 1958 Pakistani military coup. He also wrote a note in 1971 calling for the Constitution to be scrapped and for a temporary military dictatorship to take control of the nation with the consent of the people - very bizarre stuff.
 

Makemakean

Mr Makemean
Pronouns
Logical, unlike those in German
It certainly isn’t a nice timeline to be an Indian indeed, though I did try to end it on an optimistic note.

It goes without saying that Subhas Chandra Bose was awful. Even putting aside that he wanted to make India “independent” by making it a Japanese colony, he was a wannabe military dictator who wanted to utilize viciously authoritarian means to modernize India. He believed India wasn’t ready for democracy; there are a lot of problems with that statement, most of all that it’s exactly the same logic the Britishers used to deny India independence.

Cariappa was in OTL the army chief of staff of India from 1949 to 1953. He was very vocal about his politics, and he supported the 1958 Pakistani military coup. He also wrote a note in 1971 calling for the Constitution to be scrapped and for a temporary military dictatorship to take control of the nation with the consent of the people - very bizarre stuff.
By the way, as a fun reference, Murray Rothbard, who famously said that the South had been on the right side in the American Civil War, and who strongly felt that the United States should have remained neutral in World War II, under mysterious circumstances took the view that the Bangladesh Liberation War was one of those few wars which was totally justified, and felt that Indira Gandhi had done the right thing by interfering on the side of the Bengali.

Now, admittedly, it's hard not to sympathize with the people of Bangladesh at the time, seeing they were fighting against a military dictatorship that was committing literal genocide against them, but I still cannot help but find it a bit odd that not just did Murray Rothbard take an interest in India, he also had very strong opinions about it.
 

Skaven

draws thoughtfully on a vape
By the way, as a fun reference, Murray Rothbard, who famously said that the South had been on the right side in the American Civil War, and who strongly felt that the United States should have remained neutral in World War II, under mysterious circumstances took the view that the Bangladesh Liberation War was one of those few wars which was totally justified, and felt that Indira Gandhi had done the right thing by interfering on the side of the Bengali.

Now, admittedly, it's hard not to sympathize with the people of Bangladesh at the time, seeing they were fighting against a military dictatorship that was committing literal genocide against them, but I still cannot help but find it a bit odd that not just did Murray Rothbard take an interest in India, he also had very strong opinions about it.
I suppose given that Rothbard was 19 at the end of WWII he experienced it in a different way, emotionally, than Bangladesh all those years later. Bit rum not to reconsider your other positions afterwards, though.
 
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Lord Caedus

Well-known member
Location
Minnesota
I suppose given that Rothbard was 19 at the end of WWII he experienced it in a different way, emotionally, than Bangladesh all those years later. Bit rum not to reconsider your other positions afterwards, though.
Imagine being a teenager during both the attack on Pearl Harbor and the discovery of the death camps that, in another lifetime your parents (both Jews who immigrated to the US from Eastern Europe) would have been sent to, and still somehow coming away with "we should have been neutral."
 

Skaven

draws thoughtfully on a vape
Imagine being a teenager during both the attack on Pearl Harbor and the discovery of the death camps that, in another lifetime your parents (both Jews who immigrated to the US from Eastern Europe) would have been sent to, and still somehow coming away with "we should have been neutral."
Hey, teenagers are weird as shit, we've known that for years.
 

theev

Insane Clown Posse... must be about Congress
Pronouns
he/him
Imagine being a teenager during both the attack on Pearl Harbor and the discovery of the death camps that, in another lifetime your parents (both Jews who immigrated to the US from Eastern Europe) would have been sent to, and still somehow coming away with "we should have been neutral."
Rothbard boasted that he was the only Jew he’d knew of who voted for Strom Thurmond in 1948.
 
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