• Hi Guest!

    The costs of running this forum are covered by Sea Lion Press. If you'd like to help support the company and the forum, visit patreon.com/sealionpress

Lists of Heads of Government and Heads of State

Time Enough

"Enthusiastic Cis Male Partner"
Pronouns
He/Him
The fun thing would be if it stays around as a protest party of sort past his retirement maybe with a handful of MPs and as a place for people to defect to if they want to push the populism button. Maybe even retain a few MPs on the basis of local loyalties that way?
The CommonWealth party splits between Social Credit and Labour, Tom Driberg becomes one of it’s leaders etc. The party gets Bevanite defectors during the Gaitskell-Bevanite battles etc.
 

Yokai Man

Well-known member
Trying to think of an alternate version of Oswald I *haven't* seen yet.
I think that in one of Liviu Radu’s AH stories where France loses the Hundred Years’ War and is annexed by England because Jeanne D’Arc died while young,Mosley is mentioned as being part of England’s rugby team in the Seven Nations Tournament of 1926.

France btw is basically just a larger Canada politically and everything til 1776 is more or less OTL,apart from Henry V murdering I think all of French nobility expect for the Anjou House,by the 1700’s all of France now being a loyal colony of England (but only because England murdered half of the population,with Henry V and other Plantagenet/Tudor kings apparently impaling French people on a regular basis).

Yeah,I know.
 

Bolt451

BOOK IT, TONY!
Location
Sandford, Gloucestershire
Pronouns
She/Her
Short List, thicc footnotes
Same TL as this list

Summer2019Punk: The Long Road to Brexit

2017-2019: Theresa May (Conservative Minority with DUP Supply & Confidence)
2019-2019: Jeremy Hunt (Conservative Minority with DUP Supply & Confidence)

2019-Present: Naomi Long (Alliance Party leading Labour-Unite To Remain-Alliance "Second Referendum" coalition)


“A car has just pulled up outside the Labour Party HQ. This might suggest that Jeremy Corbyn will be going to the palace as leader of the largest party in the House of Commons. Of course to secure a majority he would need the support of the Liberal Democrats and their 119 MPs as well as one or more other parties. Several party leaders, notably Jo Swinson of the Liberal Democrats had ruled out a government lead by Jeremy Corbyn but not necessarily a coalition with the Labour party if a second European Union referendum was offered.

“Yes, we can see several figures walking out of the building, I,”

“It's a woman, it's not Jo Swinson, hang on...
” - Laura Kuenssberg, BBC News, 8th November 2019

“We’re going to have the first Downing Street Cat that’s a Dog! How Progressive!”- @Sideways , the same day.

"Has anyone checked on @Ulster ?"
"The area or the man,"
"Yes,"
-Bolt451 and @Kato , also the same day

Naomi Long is arguably the least likely Prime Minister in UK History. Re-elected MP for Belfast East in September 2019 she was one of two Alliance MPs elected in that tumultuous election.

However to explain how she ended up Prime Minister in one of the biggest crises the United Kingdom has ever faced we need to go back to the summer of 2019 and the European Parliament elections required by the extension of Britain’s article 50 deadline. The elections saw the rise of the newly formed Brexit Party and the rise out of the ashes of the Liberal Democrats on a policy of no-deal Brexit and a second referendum respectively. The Lib Dems already bolstered by the defection of several MPs from Labour and the Conservatives. Their rise in polls both for European Parliament and the House of Commons saw Labour and especially the Conservatives plummet. Labour remained the party of “soft Brexit” promising protection for worker’s rights and access to the single market. The Conservative’s deal on a transition period had been voted down multiple times but no alternative could be agreed on.

The European elections were a washout for the Conservatives, losing most of their seats to the Brexit Party with Labour losing several to the Lib Dems. Theresa May tendered her designation almost immediately, staying on as a caretaker and for President Trump’s state visit. Meanwhile the Lib Dems and the Brexit party continued to rise in the polls, both frequently topping various and numerous polls and surveys.

The election of Jeremy Hunt as Conservative leader (and so Prime Minister) was far from energising for the Conservative party. Elected by a narrow margin by the party in a gaffe prone and bitter leadership competition (one MP being caught on Microphone saying it was “a choice between a remainer and a man who looks like a haunted puppet”) Hunt was far from the uniting figure they needed.

Over the summer recess there would be several more defections to the Brexit Party and to the Liberal Democrats, mostly from the conservatives but one or two from Labour (and in the case of Kate Hoey, from Labour to the Brexit Party). When recess ended A vote of no confidence was held in the Prime Minister and he lost. He lost the further vote and an election was called. The Prime Ministers last act was to go to Europe to ask for an extension to the Article 50 Deadline. It was allowed and the election campaign began.

The four platforms were already laid out by the main four parties. The Tories looking for a deal but not guaranteeing access to the single market or certain rights for EU citizens. Labour being the party of “Soft Brexit” the Lib Dems demanding a second referendum and the Brexit Party saying we should leave without a deal. The only change to this was the creation of Unite to Remain, an electoral pact between the Liberal Democrats, Plaid Cymru and surprisingly, the Green Party of England and Wales and the Green Party of Scotland to stand down for each other's candidates and campaign under a united banner. This was seen at the time to benefit the Liberal Democrats and Plaid Cymru but unpopular amongst the Green Parties.

Throughout the election the four parties (to take U2R as a single party) hovering around 20% and in the end the vote would be split Con 18% Lab 22% U2R 24% Brexit 20%. The Tories were destroyed, dropping down to 147 seats. Labour dropped to 248, the Lib Dems rocketed to 143 seats and Brexit went from 9 seats to 38. Countless Tories and Labour lost their seats. Most notably the Prime Minister and Former Prime Minister Theresa May both lost to the Liberal Democrats. Labour’s losses were primarily to the Lib Dems in affluent urban areas while they retained much of the “Red wall”. The Tories lost a lot of the South West, former Lib Dem heartlands, to the Lib Dems but overall results were chaotic with hundreds of seats having majorities of less than two thousand. In some areas surprise victors came about as competing parties split previously seat winning votes.

It was obvious from the results that there was only one feasible option, that of a Labour-Unite To Remain Government (variously dubbed the Remain govt, the second referendum coalition and the Traffic Light Coalition). Throughout the Campaign a lot had been said between Labour and the Liberal Democrats and especially between Jeremy Corbyn and Jo Swinson. Corbyn hadn’t ruled out a coalition but had said that their aim was always to govern as a majority. Swinson however had gone as far as to say that she’d not be part of a coalition with Jeremy Corbyn as Prime Minister so when Labour and the constituent members of U2R met to discuss a potential platform the choice of Prime Minister was also on the table.

Following the election alongside calls for each newspaper or other publication’s choice of Brexit outcome there was a significant shift in public support for electoral reform. The Brexit Party got 20% of the votes but 6% of the seats and while the Lib Dems were closer to vote to seat parity they could see they’d scraped in in a lot of seats. There was also huge public outcry at the number of seats the Conservatives got despite coming fourth in the popular vote and that Labour barely came second and yet ended up by far the biggest party. The new government would rectify this with a two stage referendum to initially be held in May 2020. The first question would cover whether they wanted to get rid of First Past the Post. Something Labour and the Liberal Democrats would both back yes on (And could guarantee Nigel Farage and The Brexit Party as strange bedfellows too) and the second question would be what to replace it with, with Labour proposing the Additional Member system as used in Wales and Scotland, the Liberal Democrats proposing Single Transferrable Vote and the two Green Parties proposing regional list Proportional Representation. Further proposals to reform the House of Lords were also agreed on in principle. English Devolution would also “be investigated”

The rest of the talks were on what the course of action would be when it came to Brexit. It was agreed that a six month extension would be agree on with a referendum being held in March 2020 on a revised deal. This deal would be Labour lead (with Kier Starmer being Secretary for Leaving the EU) and built around principles of remaining in the single market, protections for workers and EU citizens and continued cooperation with the EU on matters such as policing. These principles would also be continued into negotiations of any permanent relationship if the March referendum delivered a leave vote. In this referendum Labour could campaign for the deal and the Liberal Democrats, Plaid Cymru and the Green Parties would campaign to remain.

The only thing that remained was for a Prime Minister designate and the cabinet. The Green Party of England and Wales was considered as a more neutral party, as was Plaid Cymru . It is believed that Caroline Lucas and Leanne Wood were suggested but in the end they would become Environment Secretary and Welsh Secretary respectively. In the end they looked outside of Labour and U2R and the Alliance Party of Northern Ireland were invited to join the new government with their 2 MPs, being pro remain but open to Labour’s agreement to stay in the single market. Stephen Farry would be Northern Ireland Secretary and party leader Naomi Long would go to the Palace and become Prime Minister.

To be continued
 
Last edited:

claybaskit

Well-known member
William Jennings Bryan/John W. Kern 1909-1913

John W. Kern/George Earle Chamberlain 1913-1917


Charles E. Hughes/Charles/W. Fairbanks* 1917-1918


Charles E. Hughes/Vacant 1918-1921


Charles E. Hughes/Irvine Lenroot 1921-1925


Robert M. LaFollete*/Theodore E. Burton 1925

Theodore Burton/Vacant 1925-1929
 

Indicus

<insert title here>
Location
Trawno
Pronouns
he/him
Presidents of the Autonomous Republic of Jammu and Kashmir

1938-1951: Sheikh Abdullah (Jammu and Kashmir Muslim Conference, then National Conference)

1938 def. Hari Singh (Rajya Sabha)
1943 def. Hari Singh (RS)
1948 def. Prem Nath Dogra (Dogra Praja Sabha), Hari Singh (RS)


In 1938, the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir erupted in rebellion against its autocratic rulers. Its legislature, the Praja Sabha, declared the monarchs tyrants who deserved to be removed from power, and Sheikh Abdullah, the leader of the Kashmiri party the Muslim Conference, was declared the provisional president of a republic autonomous within the Dominion of India. As a result, its king Hari Singh immediately asked for help from the government of the Dominion of India. However, with the government dominated by people who despised feudalism and were worried about separatism, it instead recognized the Autonomous Republic of Jammu and Kashmir, holding the same powers as a princely state.

Upon taking power, Sheikh Abdullah worried many. He was an avowedly Kashmiri man in a land which contained substantial Dogra and Ladakhi minorities, and his party, named the Muslim Conference, was one which many feared would veer into Muslim supremacism. The latter fear would be dissuaded when, after threats of an anti-Hindu pogrom in Kashmir, Sheikh Abdullah sent guards to defend Kashmiri Hindu communities and neighbourhoods and gave a famous speech from the minaret of Srinagar's grandest mosque in which he declared that true liberty required the toleration and acceptance of religious minorities, and that he would rather die than see Kashmiri kill Kashmiri in the name of religion. Furthermore, as a gesture towards religious equality, he renamed the Muslim Conference the National Conference. Immediately, he was acclaimed as the Kashmiri Hindus' greatest friend since Guru Tegh Bahadur, and his name came to be honoured across India. Yet, the fears that he would put the new republic's Kashmiri majority ahead of its substantial ethnic minorities would be confirmed in the years to come.

The first election put Sheikh Abdullah against monarchists who nominated the former Maharaja Hari Singh in the hopes that the princely state would be restored. With Hari Singh having fled to Bombay in fear of violence against him, the monarchist campaign proved worthless and insignificant, and Sheikh Abdullah won with a substantial margin. Immediately, he invested in Kashmir, establishing a network of Urdu-speaking schools and expanding the railway networks. In contrast, Jammu and Ladakh became backwaters, lacking much development; the severe ethnic divides in Jammu and Kashmir were only fostered by this. Kashmir's development continued full ahead, as it modernized. As India went to war with Imperial Japan, the war effort boosted Sheikh Abdullah's popularity further, and he easily won re-election against the weakened and defanged monarchists. It was only post-war, with the economy seeing some spluttering, that the 1948 election became competitive. The Dogra Praja Sabha emerged, led by the respected revitalizer of Dogra culture Prem Nath Dogra, which advocated splitting Dogri-speaking Jammu from the republic and joining it with Dogri-speaking parts of the hill states to create a contiguous linguistic state, emerged, but Sheikh Abdullah used ethnic divides to his advantage and claimed that Punjabis and other non-Dogra minorities would be second class in any Dogri state. And so, despite accusations of election fraud, Sheikh Abdullah won the 1948 election handily.

In 1951, as part of the declaration of a republic, the last Prime Minister and the first President of India, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, declared the abolition of the princely states (albeit with all former monarchs gaining large hereditary stipends paid by the state), and as part of this provinces were made uniform. Jammu and Kashmir ceased to become a "princely republic" and instead became a province; though this did not reduce autonomy, it did reduce some distinctiveness.

Governors of the Province of Jammu and Kashmir

1951-1983: Sheikh Abdullah (JKN)

1953 def. Prem Nath Dogra (DPS)
1958 def Prem Nath Dogra (DPS)
1963 def. Prem Nath Dogra (DPS)
1968 def Prem Nath Dogra (DPS)
1973 def. Prem Nath Dogra (DPS)
1978 def. Bhim Singh (Jammu and Kashmir National Panthers Party), Prem Nath Dogra (DPS)
1983 def. Bhim Singh (NPP)


As governor, Sheikh Abdullah continued with his policies. The 1953 election saw the anti-Abdullah vote consolidated around the DPS, and feelings of being backwaters led Jammu and Ladakh to vote decisively for Prem Nath Dogra, and he won far more votes than anyone expected. Yet, the 1950s also saw the growth of anti-feudal feelings across India, given aim and direction by the great Mahatma Gandhi. Independence, he declared, needed to include the end of feudalism, or Hindustan would be nothing more than "Englishtan". He called for landowners to voluntarily give up their land, and in this he proved far more successful than anyone could have ever imagined. His ally, the "Frontier Gandhi" Bacha Khan, organized much the same movement within the Pashtun speaking lands of India, including those in Jammu and Kashmir; this rapidly spread to the rest of Jammu and Kashmir. Pressure emerged for the provinces to redistribute land, and this was a wave that Sheikh Abdullah tied himself to. He passed laws redistributing land from owners to their tenants in 1956, and in the 1958 election, he pointed to support from aristocrats for Prem Nath Dogra's campaign to accuse him of being an aristocratic, treasonous puppet. He won, even as accusations of electoral fraud increased.

Discontent increasingly grew, even among the newly enfranchised peasant class. Jammu and Ladakh continued to be treated as backwaters, and Sheikh Abdullah and the National Conference's domination of political life led even many who benefited from it to chafe at it. In 1961, protests in Jammu for the creation of a local Dogri-speaking university turned violent; the result was larger protests, which took weeks to die down. The President of India, Nehru the Younger, increasingly opposed Sheikh Abdullah, viewing him as a would-be totalitarian dictator, and established commissions to inquire and report on the matters; the later report was a damning one. The 1963 election, nevertheless was won by Sheikh Abdullah, whose party machine was impossible to compete with.

As anti-feudal tensions grew yet further and led to the great farmers' champion Charan Singh of the Swaraj Party to be elected as President of India, Sheikh Abdullah declared his support for him. When in 1967 President Charan Singh declared his support for reservations in government jobs for farmers, the result was massive protests which, following the death of the great Gandhi, were leaderless. In Jammu and Kashmir, they proved to be a method of expressing discontent at Sheikh Abdullah's administration. In the 1968 election, nevertheless, Sheikh Abdullah targeted anti-feudal discontent, and he used divide and conquer to divide ethnic groups who hated him. Again, Sheikh Abdullah won with massive majorities, whose results were so questionable that the Election Commission of India attempted to force the provincial government to hold elections which were only stopped when the Supreme Court ruled that only the provincial electoral commission, solidly in Abdullah's pocket, could issue such a judgement.

As the discontent of the 1970s grew and grew, and as the economy across India spluttered, Sheikh Abdullah faced crisis after crisis, and the opposition continued to be inept and just as out-of-touch as him. New outfits spluttered. This only changed with the emergence of the National Panthers Party under Bhim Singh. Originally a young Jammu aristocrat, he made his discontent known quick when he threw confectionary at Sheikh Abdullah at the age of twelve. Involved in the protests of the 1960s, he later visited the Arab World, where he was the first person to cross the Sahara on a motorcycle. He met and befriended the dictators of the Middle East, friendships he carried with him on his way to his future career. He later moved back to India, founding his populist National Panthers Party outfit; as he declared, Sheikh Abdullah was the Lion of Kashmir, and only panthers could defeat a lion. The 1976 legislative elections saw massive gains for it, while the 1978 gubernatorial election saw Bhim Singh soar ahead of Prem Nath Dogra's perennial candidacy; if not for electoral fraud and his microphones consistently mysteriously malfunctioning, many say Bhim Singh would have won. Sheikh Abdullah's next term would see ever-growing opposition activity, as Bhim Singh organized against him. The 1983 election would see Bhim Singh make unprecedented gains even in Kashmir itself, where the government thought election fraud was unnecessary. Yet, Sheikh Abdullah, while vigorous, was old, and in 1983, he died.

Today, Sheikh Abdullah and his virtually unequaled 45 years of political domination of Jammu and Kashmir has made him a complicated figure. Some call him a great secular leader, responsible for vast amounts of development in Kashmir and aggressively modernized it. His famed advocacy of tolerance and acceptance of religious minorities made him famous in his own time, and alongside Akbar the Great and Guru Tegh Bahadur he is considered one of Kashmiri Hindus' fiercest allies over centuries of oppression. Yet his opponents point to his tyranny, his electoral fraud, and his treating of Jammu and Ladakh as irrelevant backwaters in contrast to his cherished Kashmir. Nevertheless, his statues exist all over India, representing secular, tolerant values.

1983-1988: Girdhari Lal Dogra (JKN, then Independent)

Abdullah's vice president, Girdhari Lal Dogra, was a non-entity, only in that position because he was a Dogra from Jammu, to give that minority some level of tokenistic representation in government. As such, his ascent to power led him to be abandoned by the National Conference machine and expelled. In power, he invested some money in Jammu and Ladakh, including adding new railway lines. Suddenly, the shrines of Jammu became just as widely visited as the shrines in neighbouring Pahari Pradesh, giving it much profits for development, and Ladakh's Buddhist shrines also grew if not to the same extent. He also established stringent electoral laws to prevent electoral fraud, and gave India's Electoral Commission oversight over provincial elections. He drastically expanded Jammu and Kashmir's electrical grid at an unprecedented rate. But he was a lame duck and everyone knew it, and he declined to run for re-election.

1988-1991: Farooq Abdullah (JKN)
1988 def. Bhim Singh (NPP)

Despite Bhim Singh giving a strong opposition, and despite elections now being fair, at the end of the day the National Conference machine could simply not be overcome, and in 1988 Sheikh Abdullah's son, the uncrowned shahzada Farooq Abdullah, was elected the new Governor. He had no experience whatsoever, being best known for his joyrides across Srinagar when his father was busy running the province, and in office he proved weak as his cabinet ministers all pursued their own policies while trying to ignore him. In 1990, the Indian government revealed massive corruption scandals in the Jammu and Kashmir provincial government, and a commission later determined that Farooq Abdullah was directly implicated. In 1991 he was impeached and removed from office, with much of his own party now turned against him.

1991-1993: Ghulam Mohammad Shah (JKN (Democratic))

His successor, the vice president turned opponent Ghulam Mohammad Shah, played some role in establishing a coherent administration. But at the end of the day, he spent most of his time in office preparing for the next election, which he wanted to win.

1993-2003: Bhim Singh (NPP)
1993 def. Ghulam Mohammad Shah (JKN (Democratic)), Farooq Abdullah (JKN (United))

With the ineptitude of previous governments, and with the National Conference machine finally destroyed, Bhim Singh finally soared into office. But now that he finally had power after decades of being all but a dissident, he did not quite know what to do with it. After some vocal disagreements, he fired two-thirds of his ministers and replaced them with pliant yes-men. He lowered the provincial retirement age to 55; when this rapid and unannounced change caused protest, he reverted it back. He declared the establishment of "universal healthcare", but in practice he was only willing to fund a few neighbourhood clinics in major towns; his policy of free electricity went much the same way. In short he proved a total disaster, and in 2003 he faced a landslide defeat.
 
Last edited:

cikka

A Nerd From A 1990's Family Film
Location
Kentkingsh- kentklungklicklingshirekington
Pronouns
she/her
First Ministers of South-West England
2004-2008: Andrew George (Liberal Democrat)
(Coalition with Labour) def: Ann Widdecombe (Conservative), Dawn Primorolo (Labour), Dick Cole (Mebyon Kernow)
2008-2010: Ann Widdecombe (Conservative)
(Coalition with Abolish!) def: Andrew George (Liberal Democrat), Dan Norris (Labour), Trevor Colman (Abolish!), Dick Cole (Mebyon Kernow)
2010-2010: George Eustice (Conservative)
2010-2011: Ann Widdecombe (Abolish!)
(Majority) def: Andrew George (Liberal Democrat), George Eustice (Conservative), Marvin Rees (Labour), Dick Cole (Mebyon Kernow)
2011 Abolition Referendum: 53% Abolish, 47% Retain


There was nothing more emblematic, if less directly threatening than the democratic uprisings in the North-East and the South-East, of the failure of John Prescott's English Devolution than the seven year fall of the South-West Assembly. Built to appease the minor calls for Cornish regionalism with an extra sprinkle of ensuring progressive control in the South-West, a new assembly was declared in the great city of Exeter. Andrew George, first elected in 1997 for the Cornish constituency of St. Ives, was brought into power under the Liberal Democrats, thanks to extensive Labour tactical voting and the popular incumbency of Blair's greater second landslide.

As the years went by for the George regime, there were almost constant rumblings in the Eastern part of the region that George was mostly focused on old Kernow, especially considering his dealings with his old comrades in the Cornish regionalists. After all, what does a Cornish regionalist know about farming in Salisbury? As the Abolition movement, given the catchy name "Abolish!" was set up in regional assemblies nation-wide, they immediately gained a large following among communities disillusioned with control from Exeter. And of course, the Tories, under Somerset-born hard-right former parliamentarian Ann Widdecombe began courting the farmers and the second-home owners. The Labour leader, Dawn Primorolo, was widely considered to have been planted there to get rid of her, and she resigned in 2006 to try (and fail) to re-enter the Commons, before being given a peerage for her efforts.

2008 came, and 2008 hit hard. The Libdems were expecting to maintain their majority, but some canvassers could feel the disillusionment in their bases in Bristol and Cornwall, and the Tories swept in with a narrow plurality. Widdecombe of course put out feelers to Abolish! which were gladly accepted if they could work towards centralising power back to Westminster. Unfortunately, the best-laid plans of Widdecombe and Abolish were not to be seen through, as the genuine regionalist element within the Tories struck back with force, delaying all plans until an unnamed "later date". Abolish, not being the most patient of sorts, dropped from the coalition two years in, and Widdecombe resigned effective immediately as Leader of the South-West England Conservative Group.

The unfortunate thing is that Widdecombe's successor, whiz-kid and semi-regionalist George Eustice, could probably have taken back the reins of government, were it not for the unfortunate fact that it was leaked that his chosen new coalition partners were Mebyon Kernow, the Cornish regionalists.

This was not a good idea.

Immediately, those who had gravitated towards the Tories felt abandoned, and turned towards the next best thing, now lead by the woman who they had previously voted for. Widdecombe was called a turncoat every which way, but she lead Abolish into a full majority in the next election. And so it became. Abolish did as it said it would, and held a referendum to abolish the South-West Assembly. And Prescott's dream was done for a generation.
 

Bolt451

BOOK IT, TONY!
Location
Sandford, Gloucestershire
Pronouns
She/Her
Short List, thicc footnotes
Same TL as this list

Summer2019Punk: The Long Road to Brexit

2017-2019: Theresa May (Conservative Minority with DUP Supply & Confidence)
2019-2019: Jeremy Hunt (Conservative Minority with DUP Supply & Confidence)

2019-Present: Naomi Long (Alliance Party leading Labour-Unite To Remain-Alliance "Second Referendum" coalition)


“A car has just pulled up outside the Labour Party HQ. This might suggest that Jeremy Corbyn will be going to the palace as leader of the largest party in the House of Commons. Of course to secure a majority he would need the support of the Liberal Democrats and their 119 MPs as well as one or more other parties. Several party leaders, notably Jo Swinson of the Liberal Democrats had ruled out a government lead by Jeremy Corbyn but not necessarily a coalition with the Labour party if a second European Union referendum was offered.

“Yes, we can see several figures walking out of the building, I,”

“It's a woman, it's not Jo Swinson, hang on...
” - Laura Kuenssberg, BBC News, 8th November 2019

“We’re going to have the first Downing Street Cat that’s a Dog! How Progressive!”- @Sideways , the same day.

"Has anyone checked on @Ulster ?"
"The area or the man,"
"Yes,"
-Bolt451 and @Kato , also the same day

Naomi Long is arguably the least likely Prime Minister in UK History. Re-elected MP for Belfast East in September 2019 she was one of two Alliance MPs elected in that tumultuous election.

However to explain how she ended up Prime Minister in one of the biggest crises the United Kingdom has ever faced we need to go back to the summer of 2019 and the European Parliament elections required by the extension of Britain’s article 50 deadline. The elections saw the rise of the newly formed Brexit Party and the rise out of the ashes of the Liberal Democrats on a policy of no-deal Brexit and a second referendum respectively. The Lib Dems already bolstered by the defection of several MPs from Labour and the Conservatives. Their rise in polls both for European Parliament and the House of Commons saw Labour and especially the Conservatives plummet. Labour remained the party of “soft Brexit” promising protection for worker’s rights and access to the single market. The Conservative’s deal on a transition period had been voted down multiple times but no alternative could be agreed on.

The European elections were a washout for the Conservatives, losing most of their seats to the Brexit Party with Labour losing several to the Lib Dems. Theresa May tendered her designation almost immediately, staying on as a caretaker and for President Trump’s state visit. Meanwhile the Lib Dems and the Brexit party continued to rise in the polls, both frequently topping various and numerous polls and surveys.

The election of Jeremy Hunt as Conservative leader (and so Prime Minister) was far from energising for the Conservative party. Elected by a narrow margin by the party in a gaffe prone and bitter leadership competition (one MP being caught on Microphone saying it was “a choice between a remainer and a man who looks like a haunted puppet”) Hunt was far from the uniting figure they needed.

Over the summer recess there would be several more defections to the Brexit Party and to the Liberal Democrats, mostly from the conservatives but one or two from Labour (and in the case of Kate Hoey, from Labour to the Brexit Party). When recess ended A vote of no confidence was held in the Prime Minister and he lost. He lost the further vote and an election was called. The Prime Ministers last act was to go to Europe to ask for an extension to the Article 50 Deadline. It was allowed and the election campaign began.

The four platforms were already laid out by the main four parties. The Tories looking for a deal but not guaranteeing access to the single market or certain rights for EU citizens. Labour being the party of “Soft Brexit” the Lib Dems demanding a second referendum and the Brexit Party saying we should leave without a deal. The only change to this was the creation of Unite to Remain, an electoral pact between the Liberal Democrats, Plaid Cymru and surprisingly, the Green Party of England and Wales and the Green Party of Scotland to stand down for each other's candidates and campaign under a united banner. This was seen at the time to benefit the Liberal Democrats and Plaid Cymru but unpopular amongst the Green Parties.

Throughout the election the four parties (to take U2R as a single party) hovering around 20% and in the end the vote would be split Con 18% Lab 22% U2R 24% Brexit 20%. The Tories were destroyed, dropping down to 147 seats. Labour dropped to 248, the Lib Dems rocketed to 143 seats and Brexit went from 9 seats to 38. Countless Tories and Labour lost their seats. Most notably the Prime Minister and Former Prime Minister Theresa May both lost to the Liberal Democrats. Labour’s losses were primarily to the Lib Dems in affluent urban areas while they retained much of the “Red wall”. The Tories lost a lot of the South West, former Lib Dem heartlands, to the Lib Dems but overall results were chaotic with hundreds of seats having majorities of less than two thousand. In some areas surprise victors came about as competing parties split previously seat winning votes.

It was obvious from the results that there was only one feasible option, that of a Labour-Unite To Remain Government (variously dubbed the Remain govt, the second referendum coalition and the Traffic Light Coalition). Throughout the Campaign a lot had been said between Labour and the Liberal Democrats and especially between Jeremy Corbyn and Jo Swinson. Corbyn hadn’t ruled out a coalition but had said that their aim was always to govern as a majority. Swinson however had gone as far as to say that she’d not be part of a coalition with Jeremy Corbyn as Prime Minister so when Labour and the constituent members of U2R met to discuss a potential platform the choice of Prime Minister was also on the table.

Following the election alongside calls for each newspaper or other publication’s choice of Brexit outcome there was a significant shift in public support for electoral reform. The Brexit Party got 20% of the votes but 6% of the seats and while the Lib Dems were closer to vote to seat parity they could see they’d scraped in in a lot of seats. There was also huge public outcry at the number of seats the Conservatives got despite coming fourth in the popular vote and that Labour barely came second and yet ended up by far the biggest party. The new government would rectify this with a two stage referendum to initially be held in May 2020. The first question would cover whether they wanted to get rid of First Past the Post. Something Labour and the Liberal Democrats would both back yes on (And could guarantee Nigel Farage and The Brexit Party as strange bedfellows too) and the second question would be what to replace it with, with Labour proposing the Additional Member system as used in Wales and Scotland, the Liberal Democrats proposing Single Transferrable Vote and the two Green Parties proposing regional list Proportional Representation. Further proposals to reform the House of Lords were also agreed on in principle. English Devolution would also “be investigated”

The rest of the talks were on what the course of action would be when it came to Brexit. It was agreed that a six month extension would be agree on with a referendum being held in March 2020 on a revised deal. This deal would be Labour lead (with Kier Starmer being Secretary for Leaving the EU) and built around principles of remaining in the single market, protections for workers and EU citizens and continued cooperation with the EU on matters such as policing. These principles would also be continued into negotiations of any permanent relationship if the March referendum delivered a leave vote. In this referendum Labour could campaign for the deal and the Liberal Democrats, Plaid Cymru and the Green Parties would campaign to remain.

The only thing that remained was for a Prime Minister designate and the cabinet. The Green Party of England and Wales was considered as a more neutral party, as was Plaid Cymru . It is believed that Caroline Lucas and Leanne Wood were suggested but in the end they would become Environment Secretary and Welsh Secretary respectively. In the end they looked outside of Labour and U2R and the Alliance Party of Northern Ireland were invited to join the new government with their 2 MPs, being pro remain but open to Labour’s agreement to stay in the single market. Stephen Farry would be Northern Ireland Secretary and party leader Naomi Long would go to the Palace and become Prime Minister.

To be continued
Edited this. forgot Jeremy Hunt's tenure as the shortest lasting PM in history (July-November 2019).

Now trying to work out how this govt would deal with COVID, and when the next election would be held. Would folks want to read more?
 

claybaskit

Well-known member

1952: (Robert A. Taft )Richard Nixon(Republican)*


1956: Richard Nixon (Charles Halleck(Republican)


1961-1962: Lyndon Johnson/Hubert Horatio Humphrey (Democrat)**


1960: Hubert Horatio Humphrey / Edmund Brown ( Democratic)

1964:
Hubert Horatio Humphrey / Edmund Brown ( Democratic)


1968-1973: Nelson Rockefeller/ George W. Romney (Republican)


*died of cancer
** Assainated
 

TheHatMan98

Well-known member
Oxford Academic Survey: Top 10 Prime Ministers of the 20th Century

(Or what happens when you stick every major British figure in a lottery, and try justify the results on a bottle of Johnnie Walker)

  1. Herbert Morrison (1942-1953) [1]
  2. Douglas Hogg (1924-1925, 1929-1936) [2]
  3. J.R. Clynes (1936-1942) [3]
  4. James Prior (1977-1986) [4]
  5. Anthony Eden (1954-1962) [5]
  6. Arthur Henderson (1908-1910, 1918-1920, 1925-1929) [6]
  7. Walter Long (1916-1918, 1920-1924) [7]
  8. Spencer Cavendish (1895-1908) [8]
  9. Tony Blair (1994-2000) [9]
  10. John Smith (1988-1994) [10]
[1] The Greatest British Prime Minister of the 20th Century, as voted for by the nation's finest academics. Not merely someone who won the war, as predecessors and successors did, but one that one who won the peace too. In addition to being the man who saw out the final (and arguably, hardest) days of the 2ndWW, Herbert Morrison was the man who conducted the peace that would govern Britain diplomatically, and the Consensus that governed it domestically, for the next 20 years. For his expert insight into municipal socialism, intra-Commonwealth diplomacy and local governance, Morrison rarely appears outside the to 10in any list, and here appears as the finest PM of the 20th Century.

[2] Douglas Hogg: he who set interwar Britain on the right path, and defined what modern conservativism means for the next 100 years. Although he was never popular in his own time, Douglas Hogg’s time in office writes better than he lived it, as the man who reaffirmed One Nationism in a Tory Party prone to Nationalism and Reaction, his moderation of the Right in the turbulent 30’s not only guided Britain through the Slump that proved ruinous for Europe and the Americas, but led its transmission from Empire to Commonwealth and guided it to the first hammer blow against fascism in the Suez War. Thought of better now than then, Hogg always defines the top of these kind of lists as what a PM can accomplish in turbulent times. A man who put Empire before Party, Hogg is the man all Young Conservatives hope to be.

[3] Hero of the Labour Right, Clynes not only established the Labour Party as a force that could take socialism to governance and keep it there by constitutional means, but one that proved its credentials for sound economics and patriotism beyond doubt. Clynes would secure the financial dominance of the Commonwealth, in spite of Indian Home Rule, after the Wall Street Crash, but led the allies of democracy against fascism and Stalinism, first in Spain, then across Europe in the 2nd WW. In defiance of a western ‘Market’ and eastern ‘State’ economy, as well as needing to forge a new path from his predecessor, Clynes introduced the ‘social’ aspect of Socialism with the Credit system of Mosely and Douglas that would balance Britain in its Production of Peace and the Consumption of War with fascist powers. The only reason he does not ascend the top spot in this (and other lists) is the failure of Clynes and his government to save Scandinavia for the United Nations, and the vote of no confidence that ensured he could not finish the work started in 1940.

[4] The controversial Father of the Nation, Jim Prior remains a fond twinkle of the eye of the average Briton, as the man who led it a way from the ravages of the 60s and 70s extremism. Prior not merely managed to reaffirm the Tory Position as ‘the Party of Government’, but redefined the British economy from the Morrisonion consensus. The Social Economy remains the driving force behind Britain’s economy to this day, first fostered under ‘Our Jim’, as such this, and his place in expanding Britain from being a mainly Commonwealth trader, define his position in the Top 5.

[5] Man of the Commonwealth should read the epithet of Sir Anthony Eden, for better or worse. It was Eden who simultaneously took a post-War Conservative Party kicking and screaming from its Edwardian, die-hards into the 20th Century and kept Britain as the moral conscience of the Western Democracies in the Cold War. Eden never flinched from accepting the Conservative position as the junior Party in the Wartime Coalition – a feat many of his senior colleagues managed – but neither did he give up on the solidarity of the British Commonwealth of his youth. As America kept badgering corners of the former British Empire to be less ‘Communist’, Eden was always ready to stand it the way of Washington or Moscow’s way, whether at Nasserist Cairo, Calcutta, Canberra or Apartheid Cape Town. Eden showed Britain as not the third Party between a Capitalist West or Communist East, but for a brief time the best of either sphere, a happy middle ground, that remains the ambitions of whichever Party in Global Politics.

[6] The indefatigable force behind Labour’s drive to power in the latter half of the 20th Century, ‘Uncle Arthur’ oversaw Labour from its highest heights and lowest lows pre-War and highest heights and lowest lows post-War. Not merely the man who proved that Labour could govern bit the man who proved (after a few false starts) that a socialist party could govern responsibly. For more than 10 years, Henderson flogged and drilled Hardie’s socialists away from Revolution towards a more Constitutional methodology after the turbulent 1890s, before he became the first Labour PM. After the false start of the People’s Budget (overturned by Roseberry in the 1910 election), Henderson was determined to prove Labour as Patriotic as any in British politics at the time, and defied MacDonald’s challenge in 1915 to join the Wartime govt., which proved more of a boost the his and Party popularity that allowed them to take the Khaki election in 1918. He consequently define post-War Global disarmament, and his govt of the 20s would lay the foundations of a welfare state that included a basic standard of living for the working class, state intervention in National Industry and attempt to redistribute Wealth that defined Labour until the 1960s. The dawn of the 1930s coincided with his retirement from frontline politics, and the polarised position of the times meant he could never quite reconcile with a Labour Party that had moved beyond him.

[7] He who won the War, but lost the Peace. Long was the die-hard Unionist, who at the darkest hour of the Haig Offensive and the Palestine Campaign, brought out the best in the British Empire. As France prevaricated, and the Liberals quarrelled, Long provided the quiet serenity that gave them breathing room, but never doubted the result would be victory. After the Liberals finally discredited themselves as a Party of Power, Long filled a vacuum that opened the space for the Victories of 1917: the triumph of British dreadnoughts at Sylt; blunting of the Central Powers Offensive in the Autumn; and, the innovation of allied tanks in the Great Offensive that brough the Kaiser to his knees. However, Peace was not to be Long’s suit, he remained intransigent to Irish Nationalism that resulted in the Kerry Massacres of 1918, and his threats of deploying British troops occupying Germany to Ireland definitively cost the Coalition the next election. However even after the return to power in 1920, Long still could not dance to the tune of popular opinion opining a policy of ‘consistent punishment’ that repudiated Labour on commitments regarding Irish partition; German occupation and reparation; Naval armaments, and Imperial-American trade.

[8] The first PM of the Century, and a man whose actions would define the first half of the Century. Appointed to rescue the Nation by the Queen at an Alliance of Liberals and Conservatives at the head of the ’95 Emergency, Cavendish’s tenure would be defined by one of stability at Home and Abroad. A Premiership split traditionally in two halves (pre and post Centennial), the only Liberal Unionist to hold the Premiership define his tenure by first Tsarist measures to the Unions and Working Class, grinding them underfoot with Scotland Yard and the Army, then a Bismarkian strategy of trying to out do them with the introduction of State Pensions, establishment of labour exchanges and electoral reform. Simultaneously, Cavendish reached an Entente with France and Russia that drew Britain into the Continental Alliance system. Despite the best of intentions however, all these culminated in Cavendish’s worst desires, a Labour government – not that he lived to see it…

[9] Blair was the man that saw out the end of the century, and for that remains hard done by. Although he tried his best to define a ‘New’ Labour Party, his efforts remained under cut by events within his own Party and Globally. As his predecessor had seen off the Left of the Party, Blair was left to establish the meaning of its Right. This Problem was not helped by shackling of Labour to the Liberals in the ‘Millennium Coalition’, Blair was consequently left trailing behind in the wake of a government even bigger than himself. With personalities like Ashdown, Prescott and Mowlam, Blair struggled to compete effectively. Nevertheless, Blair is commonly diagnosed as having peaked too early, but is accepted to be in the middle of a comeback that could reshape British politics amidst the Sterling Collapse.

[10] Really, Smith was defined more by what he didn’t do than what he did. A career cut short by his premature death, Smith was in the middle of rehabilitating Labour to Prior’s Social Economy and Britain and the Commonwealth to a world without a stand-off between Washington, Moscow and London. While Marxism crumbled, and Socialism scrounged for an alternative, Smith tried his best to fill the gap in the ability and limitations of State power, but was consistently undermined by the short comings of his own health. No doubt that had his physical health matched his intellectual, Smith would be much further astride this list.

1895-1908: Spencer Cavendish, Duke of Devonshire (Emergency, later Liberal Unionist)
1895 (Emergency Government) vs. Henry Hyndman (Social Democratic Federation) and O'Donovan Rossa (Irish Republican Brotherhood)
1896 (Majority, with Conservative and Liberal Unionist) def. William E. Gladstone (Liberal), John Dillon (INF)
1901 (Majority, with Conservative and Liberal Unionist) def. Henry Campbell-Bannerman (Liberal), John Dillon (IPP), Kier Hardie (LRC)
1906 (Minority, with Conservative and Liberal Unionist) def. Henry Campbell-Bannerman (Liberal), Kier Hardie (Labour Party), John Redmond (IPP)


1908: George Curzon, Lord Curzon (Conservative)

1908-1910: Arthur Henderson (Labour)
1908 (Minority, with S&C from IPP and some Liberal) def. George Curzon, Lord Curzon (Conservative), Henry Campbell-Bannerman (Liberal), John Redmond (IPP)

1910-1916: Archibald Primrose, Earl Roseberry (Liberal)
1910 (Minority, with S&C from Labour and IPP) def. George Curzon, Lord Curzon (Conservative), John Redmond (IPP), Arthur Henderson (Labour)
1915 (Wartime Coalition, with Conservative)


1916-1918: Walter Long (Unionist)
1916 (Wartime Coalition, with Liberal, some Labour, some IPP)

1918-1920: Arthur Henderson (Labour)
1918 (Minority, with S&C from Anti-Coalition Liberal and IPP) def. Walter Long (Unionist), David Lloyd George (Anti-Coalition Liberals), Eamon de Valera (Sinn Fein), Edward Grey (Pro-Coalition Liberals), John Dillon (IPP)

1920-1924: Walter Long (Unionist)
1920 (Majority) def. Arthur Henderson (Labour), Eamon de Valera (Sinn Fein), David Lloyd George (Radicals), Edward Grey (Liberals)

1924-1925: Douglas Hogg (Conservative)

1925-1929: Arthur Henderson (Labour)
1925 (Coalition, with Radicals) def. Douglas Hogg (Conservative), David Lloyd George (Radicals), Sir John Simon (Liberal)

1929-1936: Douglas Hogg (Conservative)
1929 (Majority) def. Arthur Henderson (Labour), Sir John Simon (Liberal), David Lloyd George (Radicals)
1933 (Majority) def. J.R. Clynes (Labour), Sir John Simon (Liberal)


1936-1942: J.R. Clynes (Labour)
1936 (Majority) def. Douglas Hogg (Conservative), Sir John Simon (Liberal)
1940 (Majority) def. Kingsley Wood (Conservative), Leslie Hore-Belisha (Liberal)


1942-1953: Herbert Morrison (Labour)
1942 (Wartime Coalition, with Conservatives and Liberals) def. Kingsley Wood (Conservative), Leslie Hore-Belisha (Liberal), Harry Pollitt (CPGB)
1945 (Majority) def. Samuel Hoare (Conservative), Sir Archibald Sinclair (Liberal)
1950 (Majority) def. Anthony Eden (Conservative), Sir Archibald Sinclair (Liberal)


1953-1954: Ellen Wilkinson (Labour)

1954-1962: Anthony Eden (Conservative)
1954 (Majority) def. Ellen Wilkinson (Labour), Violet Bonham Carter (Liberal)
1959 (Majority) def. Aneurin Bevan (Labour), Violet Bonham Carter (Liberal)


1962-1964: Reginald Maudling (Conservative)

1964-1969: Denis Healy (Labour)
1964 (Majority) def. Reginald Maudling (Conservative), Donald Wade (Liberal), John Gollan (CPGB), Tony Cliff (International Socialists)

1969-1973: Enoch Powell (Conservative)
1969 (Minority) def. Denis Healy (Labour), Tony Cliff (International Socialists), Donald Wade (Liberal), John Gollan (CPGB), John O’Brien (National Front)

1973-1977: Peter Shore (Labour)
1973 (Minority, S&C from IS and Liberal) def. Enoch Powell (Conservative), Tony Cliff (International Socialists), Eric Lubbock (Liberal), John O’Brien (National Front), John Gollan (CPGB)

1977-1986: James Prior (Conservative)
1977 (Majority) def. Peter Shore (Labour), Eric Lubbock (Liberal), Tony Cliff (International Socialists), John O’Brien (National Front)
1981 (Majority) def. Shirley Williams (Labour), Eric Lubbock (Liberal)
1985 (Majority) def. John Smith (Labour), Richard Wainwright (Liberal)


1986-1988: Edwina Currie (Conservative)

1988-1994: John Smith (Labour)
1988 (Majority) def. Edwina Currie (Conservative), Richard Wainwright (Liberal)
1993 (Majority) def. Edwina Currie (Conservative), Alan Beith (Liberal)


1994-2000: Tony Blair (Labour)
1998 (Coalition, with Liberal) def. Kenneth Clarke (Conservative), Alan Beith (Liberal)
 
Last edited:

AnActualFam

Well-known member
Location
Somewhere at Sea
Pronouns
He/Him
Edited this. forgot Jeremy Hunt's tenure as the shortest lasting PM in history (July-November 2019).

Now trying to work out how this govt would deal with COVID, and when the next election would be held. Would folks want to read more?
I know I may be late, but as someone who has spent a very stupid amount of time with the online Electoral Calculus thing this is amazing and I love it so much. If you would continue this I would totally read more.
 
Top