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Lists of Heads of Government and Heads of State

d32123

פּאַרטיזאַנער
Location
Seattle
Pronouns
he/him
AMERICAN EMPERORS

Presidents of the United States of America
1955-1958: Richard Nixon / Leverett Saltonstall (Republican Party) [1]
1958-1961: Oveta Culp Hobby / vacant (Republican Party) [2]
1961-1967: Curtis LeMay / Robert Lehman (Independent) [3]
1967-1973: Timothy Leary / Wing Luke (Democratic Party) [4]
1973-1979: Wing Luke / Albert Brewer (Democratic Party) [5]
1979-: John McCain / Shirley Temple (Republican Party)


Kings of the American Empire
1959-1962: Albert Alexander I (House of Hohenzollern-Kennedy) [6]
1962-1967: Alexander Ferdinand I (House of Hohenzollern) [7]

Position Abolished

[1] August 3rd, 1958 is a day that will always live in infamy in the American mind. Kaiser-rockets tipped with kaiserbombs plunged into cities across the continent, extinguishing millions of American lives within twenty-four hours. The Kaisermarine soon followed, trailed by the Kaiser's army, set to bring the ideology of Kaiserism to America's shores.

[2] Although no formal line of succession existed beyond the Presidency and Vice Presidency, Secretary of Health, Welfare, and Education Oveta Culp Hobby was given the unenviable task of cobbling a government together as the sole surviving member of the Executive Branch. She served as a powerful symbol of American perseverance, transmitting radio and secret television broadcasts to the American people as the federal government retreated west of the Rockies. In practice, the military ran most of the affairs, making the transition to her successor easier.

[3] The election of 1960 was conducted largely in secret, with ballots being transported by horse or automobile by cover of night. The result was never in doubt though, as General LeMay emerged victorious. In office, he outlasted the Germans, coordinating a brutal partisan war across the continent. The US Armed Forces, coordinating with an array of red and negro militias, managed to liberate most of the countryside prior to German withdrawal. If President Culp was the mother of modern America, President LeMay was the father, enduring as an icon of American masculinity in the popular national consciousness.

[4] Chemical Timmy, an important figure in the LeMay Administration, rode a wave of discontent to the Presidency. Many formerly disenfranchised Americans turned towards the bioweaponry pioneer in the hopes of getting a piece of the newly fought for American freedom. President Leary gave amnesty to many partisans and collaborators alike, focusing his administration on rebuilding, reconciliation, and the expansion of America's nerve agent arsenal.

[5] Former Washington Senator Wing Luke was the first veteran of the war to take office. He continued Leary's legacy, desegregating federal housing and legalizing contraception. He served as a symbol for many of the Asian migrant workers who arrived in America to assist in the reconstruction efforts. He also oversaw the demilitarization of the US-Canadian border, with the border between the two republics becoming the first demilitarized border in modern history. He was succeeded by a fellow war hero-turned politican, John McCain, a prominent partisan best known for being the assassin of America's first King.

[6] The first American Kaiser was an import that the Germans brought over. Young Albert Alexander “King Al” spoke English, albeit with a heavy accent. He was married to the quiet Rosemary Kennedy, the only of-age member of the prominent collaborator family. Although the marriage to a Roman Catholic caused quite the stir among the conservative German elite, the union broadly was seen as a necessary step towards German dominion over the Americas. Albert Alexander produced no heirs before taking an entrenching tool to the throat during a royal tour of the Ohio.

[7] Alexander Ferdinand was the next in line to the throne. He spoke no English and made little attempt to learn it. Surviving multiple assassination attempts, Alexander Ferdinand grew increasingly antagonistic towards his subjects, instead choosing to focus his efforts on the construction of a Grand Imperial Palace at the National Mall. He never completed his project, leaving the country in 1965, departing from Annapolis via submarine as the rebel forces closed in. For the rest of his life, the American government would seek his extradition on charges related to his ordering of the Johnson City Massacre among other war crimes.
 
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AgentRudda

rip geronimo rip babycakes i want to run to you
Pronouns
He/Him
UK Votes Remain
2010-2017: David Cameron (Conservative)
2015: Ed Miliband (Lab), Nick Clegg (LibDem), Nicola Sturgeon (SNP), Leanne Wood (PC), Caroline Lucas (Green), Nigel Farage (UKIP)
2017-2023: Jeremy Corbyn (Labour)
2017: David Cameron (Con), Tim Farron (LibDem), Nicola Sturgeon (SNP), Leanne Wood (PC), Caroline Lucas (Green), Nigel Farage (UKIP)
2017: Theresa May (Con), Vince Cable (LibDem), Nicola Sturgeon (SNP), Leanne Wood (PC), Caroline Lucas (Green), Nigel Farage (UKIP)
2019: Michael Gove (Con), Chuka Umunna (Reform), Nicola Sturgeon (SNP), Adam Price (PC), Sian Berry (Green), Gerard Batten (UKIP)

2023-????: Angela Rayner (Labour)
2024: Liz Truss (Con), Chuka Umunna (Reform), Humza Yousef (SNP), Adam Price (PC), Sian Berry (Green), Tommy Robinson (UKIP)

I'd do more but fucking hell it's difficult when you're using the keypad as a mouse.
 

Bolt451

Anxious millenial cowgirl
Location
Sandford, Gloucestershire
Pronouns
She/Her
UK Votes Remain
2010-2017: David Cameron (Conservative)
2015: Ed Miliband (Lab), Nick Clegg (LibDem), Nicola Sturgeon (SNP), Leanne Wood (PC), Caroline Lucas (Green), Nigel Farage (UKIP)
2017-2023: Jeremy Corbyn (Labour)
2017: David Cameron (Con), Tim Farron (LibDem), Nicola Sturgeon (SNP), Leanne Wood (PC), Caroline Lucas (Green), Nigel Farage (UKIP)
2017: Theresa May (Con), Vince Cable (LibDem), Nicola Sturgeon (SNP), Leanne Wood (PC), Caroline Lucas (Green), Nigel Farage (UKIP)
2019: Michael Gove (Con), Chuka Umunna (Reform), Nicola Sturgeon (SNP), Adam Price (PC), Sian Berry (Green), Gerard Batten (UKIP)

2023-????: Angela Rayner (Labour)
2024: Liz Truss (Con), Chuka Umunna (Reform), Humza Yousef (SNP), Adam Price (PC), Sian Berry (Green), Tommy Robinson (UKIP)

I'd do more but fucking hell it's difficult when you're using the keypad as a mouse.
Im assuming Chukka takes the plunge and does a merge of sorts with the Lib Dems?

Why does Cameron call an election in 2017? And I'm assuming it goes as well as May's 2017 election?
 

Bolt451

Anxious millenial cowgirl
Location
Sandford, Gloucestershire
Pronouns
She/Her
this

this was all to get vanilla to be everyones favourite thing wasnt it

but i lyk
See, if I was writing what Tibby did in that FTL I'd give in and make you PM

Technically speaking Vanilla actually is a more ingredient heavy product that would have required far more shipping and trade deals to keep producing while Chocolate is comparatively simple, and...

I'll see myself out again.
Can the ingredients for Vanilla be grown in more temperate climates though?

Also in @Turquoise Blue 's TL the Severn Valley wine industry would be absolutely booming, if probably under govt. control.
 

AgentRudda

rip geronimo rip babycakes i want to run to you
Pronouns
He/Him
Im assuming Chukka takes the plunge and does a merge of sorts with the Lib Dems?

Why does Cameron call an election in 2017? And I'm assuming it goes as well as May's 2017 election?
That wasn't the plan, I just legitimately forgot about the Lib Dems.

And because he wants a bigger majority, to silence his backbench critics including Boris Johnson, and Labour are far behind in the polls. And no, it goes even worse than May's election. Labour end up as largest party, UKIP surge to 18% of the vote but win zero seats.
 

Callan

Racist name by the way,
Published by SLP
Location
Toronto
A bit of the backstory to @zaffre and I's (soon to return) This Great Stage:
1936-1948: Duff Cooper (Unionist)
1936 (Majority): James Henry Thomas (Labour-Radical Coupon), James Maxton (Independent Labour), Michael Collins (Sinn Fein), Harry Nathan (Liberal-Radical Coupon), Ernest Brown (Independent Liberal), Henry Page Croft (Action), William Redmond (Irish People's-Radical Coupon)
1941 (Majority): William Wedgwood Benn (Radical), James Maxton (Independent Labour), Michael Collins (Sinn Fein), Walter Guiness (Action)
1945 (Majority): Charles Latham (Radical),
Jim Griffiths (Independent Labour), Michael Collins (Sinn Fein), Walter Guiness (Action)
1948-1951: Oliver Stanley (Unionist)
1949 (Majority): Charles Latham (Radical), Seán Lemass (Sinn Fein), Jim Griffiths (Independent Labour), Walter Guiness (Action)
1951-1956: Walter Monkton (Unionist)
1953 (Majority): Harold Macmillan (Radical), Seán Lemass (Sinn Fein), Aneurin Bevan (Independent Labour), A. K. Chesterton (Action)
1956-1958: Ronald Cartland (Unionist)
1958-1960: Harold Macmillan (Radical)

1958 (Minority): Ronald Cartland (Unionist), Seán Lemass (Sinn Fein), Aneurin Bevan (Independent Labour), A. K. Chesterton (Action)
1960-1963: Ronald Cartland (Unionist)
1960 (Majority): Aneurin Bevan (Independent Labour), Harold Macmillan (Radical), Seán Lemass (Sinn Fein), Archibald Sinclair (Centre)
1963-1968: Unity Mitford Amery (Unionist)
1963 (Majority): Aneurin Bevan (Independent Labour), Dingle Foot (Radical), John Maclay (Centre), Frank Aiken (Sinn Fein)
1965 (Majority): David Lewis (Independent Labour), Patrick Gordon Walker (Radical) Frank Aiken (Sinn Fein), John Maclay (Centre)

1968-1970: Ian Macleod (Unionist)
1970-1982: Allan Bertram (Radical)

1970 (United Left Majority): Ian Macleod (Unionist), John Hillery (Sinn Fein), John MacLay (Centre), David Lewis (Independent Labour - United Left), Various (Independent Liberals - United Left)
1974 (United Left Majority): Ian Macleod (Unionist), John Hillery (Sinn Fein), Hugh Hooson (Centre), David Lewis (Independent Labour - United Left), Various (Independent Liberals - United Left)
1978 (United Left Majority): Liam Cosgrave (Unionist-Irish Reform), John Hillery (Sinn Fein), Hugh Hooson (Centre), Samuel Heffer (Independent Labour)
, Various (Independent Leftists - United Left)
1982-1983: Ernest Silkin (Radical)
1983-: Sebastian Taggart (Unionist)

1983 (Majority): Ernest Silkin (Radical), Patrick Blaney (Sinn Fein), Ellen Heseltine (Centre), Collective Leadership (Democratic Left-Ecology), Robert Stokes (Ecumene)

Heads of State:
1936-1950:
Leo Amery (Constitutionalist/ Unionist)
1936: Fenner Brockway (Independent Labour), Henry Page Croft (Action)
1943: J.F.C. Fuller (Action)

1950-1957: William Wedgwood Benn (Radical)
1950: Harry Politt (Independent Labour), Gerard Wallop (Action)
1957-1964: Anthony Eden (Unionist)
1957: Vernon Bartlett (Radical), Gerard Wallop (Action)
1964-1971: Selwyn Lloyd (Unionist)
1964: Unopposed
1971-1978: Ted Castle (Independent Socialist)
1971: Selwyn Lloyd (Unionist), Auberon Waugh (Independent)
1978-: John Poulson (Independent)
1978: Erskine Childers (Independent)

The political settlement established at the end of the Great War lasted for nearly forty years. In his twelve years in office, Cooper set the tone: a limited welfare state, an obedient pres and a political establishment whose rule went nearly unquestioned, lest it bring a return to the chaos of the twenties and thirties. This dominance at home allowed Cooper and his successors to focus on what really mattered: clamping down on communist and Celtic nationalist organisations at home and rebuilding Britain's standing abroad. Cooper was successful persuading President LaGuardia to soften the terms of the large debts incurred by Britain during the war, and his meeting with Wilhelm III in Hamburg was regarded as a historic moment. He pursued closer links with France and Germany, and while Britain never joined the Berlin Treaty Organisation, a succession of Unionist premiers through the 1950s sought closer links with it. As Germany quickly choked on the empire it had won through warfare, co-operation with its European neighbours looked ever more appealing against the rising powers of both the Eastern and Western hemispheres. The 20-month interruption in Unionist rule only served to reinforce their dominance: the only alternative was a hodge-podge of left-wing groups, who all hated each other almost as much as the Unionists. If nothing else, the tottering Macmillan government showed that democracy was still robust, even if Lemass didn't get his independence referendum.

The Unionist settlement was ultimately broken by two figures. The first was Unity Mitford Amery, daughter-in-law of the second President of the Commonwealth, who took her husband's seat following John Amery's sudden, tragic and ill-explained death- which is now generally believed to be suicide. Her quiet sympathies toward Bottomley and the dying Action Movement that succeeded him probably helped as much as hindered her in her quiet rise to the top. In power, she attempted to put the Commonwealth and the Berlin Treaty Organisation on a much more nationalist stance, backing up rhetoric against the Communist Bloc with trade blockades and military escalations. This culminated in the Cyprus Missile Crisis of 1968, in which an Atomkraft war between the BTO and the People's Republic of Turkey was only averted by the quick actions of World Congress Chairman Lester Pearson and Germany's Foreign Minister (and future Chancellor) Alfred Kissinger. The aftermath saw Britain reeling from trade war-inflicted shortages and international humiliation, and the Unionists torn apart between those who saw Mitford Amery as a patriotic hero and the complacent party establishment who thought that a quick internal putsch would sort everything out. The fissures were not fixed for over a decade.

The second figure was the one who truly broke the settlement. Allan Bertram had made his name in the trade unions, a thorn in the side of the Unionist government and a bete noire of David Lewis. In a final throw of the dice, the Radical Party made him leader. Only a figure like Bertram had a chance of uniting various progressive forces into the United Left Front, making clear that it was the only game in town for those who truly wanted rid of the Unionists. His coalition brought about a new economic settlement, nationalising key industries, investing vast amounts in infrastructure and bringing about many constitutional reforms. Abroad, increasing tensions and arms races between the Berlin Treaty Organisation, the Istanbul Bloc and Nationalist China led Bertram to seek closer ties with BTO members, embodied in a joint Anglo-French Space Programme established in 1975. Sinn Fein and the ILP were largely neutralised by carefully-worded referendums and well-timed defections. Bertram's personal dominance of British politics through the seventies is unmatched by anyone else in the 20th century, only brought to an end by a Saor Eire car bomb in Dublin. His successor kept a lid on the violence, but didn't stand a chance at matching his command of internal or external politics.

While recognised as one of the greatest leaders of the 20th century, Allan Bertram has his detractors. They accuse him of nepotism (his wife was his strongest cabinet supporter), intolerance to dissent that would've made Amery proud and partially responsible for the diplomatic failures that led to the Second Great War.
 
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napoleon IV

Cuckholds, Here We Come
Location
Washington, Douglass Commonwealth
Pronouns
he/him
Popes of the Catholic Church (Roman)

1939-1945: Pius XII
1945-1952: Leo XIV
1952-1963: Gregory XVII
1963-1966: Leo XV

Popes of the Catholic Church (New York)

1945-1951: Pius XIII
1951-1966: Benedict XVI

Popes of the Catholic Church (Post-Reunification)
1966-1971: Benedict XVI

The Nazis manage to defeat the Soviets by 1942, leaving Britain and America stuck in a Warm War situation. By 1945 Hitler, sick of the Pope's opposition to his policies, arranges for the SS to kidnap Pius XII and force him to abdicate, making him the first Pope since 1415 to vacate the office. The Nazis then arrange for a more conciliatory cardinal to be elected Pope. This provokes outrage worldwide, and the Nazis are forced to deal with several uprisings by angry Catholics (which are brutally put down). It also leads to a schism in the Catholic Church. In New York a group of cardinals from non-occupied countries gather and declare that the current Church leadership is illegitimate. They elect Cardinal Dennis Joseph Dougherty of Boston as Pope, the first non-European Pope since 731. New York is chosen as the Church headquarters, although the Church insists that it is only a temporary exile until the Church in Rome can be restored.


The low point of the collaborationist Catholic Church comes in 1952, when the Nazis get Cardinal Alois Hudal (an Austrian Nazi who also owes his Cardinalship to Nazi meddling) elected as Pope Gregory XVII. Under Gregory XVII the Church takes a hardline anti-Semitic stance, and enjoys close relations with both Hitler and his successor Goering. Meanwhile Pope Benedict XVI of the New York Church (born Jaime de Barros Camara) works closely with the Allies, promoting resistance against the Nazis in occupied Europe. Finally in 1966 the Allies began their invasion of Europe, which is devastated by the war. Recently elected Roman Pope Leo XV is ousted (and eventually imprisoned for the Church's various crimes) and Pope Benedict XVI of the New York Church assumes power as Pope of the reunified Catholic Church. With Europe destroyed and a ton of collaborationist Catholics to deal with his task is immense.
 

Japhy

Well-known member
Published by SLP
Location
Albany, NY
Pronouns
He/Him
Honestly I doubt that there could be reunification in that scenario. "Confessing" Catholicism and what "Reich" Catholicism would he a really tramautic and deeper split then what Happened to Protestantism in Germany.
 

neonduke

Ernst Röhm's Twink Island
"Die Partei hat immer recht"

Joint Chairmen of the Socialist Unity Party

Wilhelm Pieck/Otto Grotewohl (SED) 1946-1950

General Secretary of the Central Committee

Walter Ulbricht (SED) 1950 - 1957
Willi Stoph (SED) 1957 - 1964
Erich Honecker (SED) 1964 - 1971
Günter Mittag/Erich Mielke (SED Joint Leadership) 1971 - 1973

Erich Mielke (SED) 1973 - April 1983
Heinz Kessler (Military Administration) May 1983 - July 1983
Friedrich Dickel (SED) 1983 - 1988
Ingeburg Lange (SED) 1988 - 1993
Egon Krenz (SED) 1993 - 2005
Gregor Gysi (SED) 2005 - 2014
Sahra Wagenknecht (SED) 2014 - XXXX


POD is that Ulbricht dies in a car accident; an actual accident though that doesn’t stop conspiracy theories. Stoph has 7 years of steady though unambitious rule before Honecker manuvers him out of power.

A stagnant economy held over from the Stoph era causes rising social problems, leading to some minor unrest. It’s enough to get Mittag and Mielke to form an alliance to force Honecker into retirement but it’s not a comfortable partnership. Mittag manages to reinvigorate the economy thanks in part to a generous subsidy from the Kosygin and Podgorny led Soviet Union.

Eventually Mielke manages to force Mittag out via Kompromat and takes sole charge, aided and abetted by an unchecked Stasi. A decade of graft, corruption and oppression becomes a pressure cooker ready to explode. A slowly liberalising Soviet Union recognises the danger and authorises secret services and the National Peoples Army to launch a coup similar to that which unseated Ceauşescu in 1979.

A brief interregnum ends with Dickel being ascended to General Secretary, with Lange as Deputy and eventual successor. Liberalisation within the framework of the 1949 constitution, an improving economy and the rise of “socialism with a human face” throughout the Eastern Bloc reduces tensions.

A moderate Leninist regime continues to rule the GDR, one that has at times flirted with Eurocommunism, even a brief fling with Democractic Socialism though that was a step too far for the Soviet leadership who privately threatened Gysi with some measure of intervention should he step too far.

With further reductions of tension between East and West and a common enemy in Islamic Terrorism Liberalisation continues, Wagenknecht has even raised the possibility of loosening restrictions on the National Front voting powers, though how that plays out we wait to see.
 
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neonduke

Ernst Röhm's Twink Island
This was my first Leader list so hopefully it's fairly plausible. My knowledge of GDR politicans outside the leadership isn't that extensive so there were probably more appropriate figures to use in some spots.
 

The Red

Well-known member
Published by SLP
This was my first Leader list so hopefully it's fairly plausible. My knowledge of GDR politicans outside the leadership isn't that extensive so there were probably more appropriate figures to use in some spots.
Great piece of work, especially for a first attempt. It would be intriguing to see more of this world.
 

neonduke

Ernst Röhm's Twink Island
I haven't given it a great deal of though outside the GDR. SU avoided Brezhnev and the gerontocracy and managed a measure of political and economic liberalisation though it's still roundly Marxist-Leninist. Probably rising Islamist movements in the Caucasus during the 90s and 2000s as per OTL.

USA haven't really thought about, I'd reckon the Western European Communist parties are having more success with an improved situation in the Eastern Bloc to point to, France and Italy may well have seen their Eurocommunist parties in coalition governments with Social Democrats.
 

Mumby

Always mysterious!
Published by SLP
Location
Municipal Commune of Bourne
Pronouns
He/Him
I haven't given it a great deal of though outside the GDR. SU avoided Brezhnev and the gerontocracy and managed a measure of political and economic liberalisation though it's still roundly Marxist-Leninist. Probably rising Islamist movements in the Caucasus during the 90s and 2000s as per OTL.

USA haven't really thought about, I'd reckon the Western European Communist parties are having more success with an improved situation in the Eastern Bloc to point to, France and Italy may well have seen their Eurocommunist parties in coalition governments with Social Democrats.
A really interesting thought about Italy (@Comisario) is if you have roughly similar scandals bring down Christian Democracy in this world, you won't quite have the weird party reset they had IOTL as the Communists won't collapse and might actually emerge as the largest party in the aftermath
 

Comisario

Hello Tony, I am 1952
Published by SLP
Location
London
A really interesting thought about Italy (@Comisario) is if you have roughly similar scandals bring down Christian Democracy in this world, you won't quite have the weird party reset they had IOTL as the Communists won't collapse and might actually emerge as the largest party in the aftermath
To be honest, Nilde Iotti probably holds then premiership at some point in the 1980s here. She very nearly did IOTL (and it’s a TL I’d love to do one day), but was stopped for various reasons - here, in a reforming Eastern Bloc scenario, the chance for a PCI-led government before any massive realignment is very likely.
 

Indicus

<insert title here>
Location
Trawno
Pronouns
he/him
Lieutenant-Governors of Upper Canada

1836-1838: Francis Bond Head

Ruled over the Upper Canada Rebellions of 1837, a minor but impactful revolt led by prominent Upper Canadian radical William Lyon Mackenzie.

1838-1839: Sir George Arthur

Saw an attempt by Lord Durham to unify Upper and Lower Canada, ultimately failing due to resistance by Lower Canadians as well as by Upper Canadians who feared being ruled by Francophones.

1839-1842: Lord Syndenham

Saw newfound attempts by the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada to campaign for responsible government, but refused to accept them, filling up the Executive and Legislative Councils with Tories.

1842-1847: Lord Metcalfe

The Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada, led by fierce Reformer Robert Baldwin, amped up its attacks of the nature of the Executive Council being appointed by the Governor; ultimately, while Metcalfe refused some more radical demands for a Legislative Council appointed by the Assembly, he appointed Baldwin and other reformers occupy the Executive Council, ultimately resigning after frustration over being reduced to a figurehead but not before accusing the Reformers of wanting a democratic despotism. He was the last Lt-Governor to have real power.

Premiers of Upper Canada
1847-1851: Robert Baldwin (Reform)

Widely considered one of the greatest Premiers, Robert Baldwin achieved his demands. His first crisis was over terrorist attacks by Orangemen over the new reforms, but those quickly passed as people on both sides of the spectrum accepted that a democratic executive was here to stay. However, there was much talk by Tories about adopting an American-inspired elected executive on the basis that Canadian society was similar to Americans, as well as similar talk by pro-American radical Reformers. However, with its singular goal achieved, the party ceased to be united. Nevertheless, Baldwin, the first democratic head of government in Upper Canadian history, resigned, even applauded by his enemies for his honesty and achievements.

1851-1855: Francis Hincks (Reform)

A good friend, Hincks was a natural successor to Baldwin. Nonetheless, Reformers led by George Brown opposed Hincks, bringing his government to the precipice of a vote of no confidence. However, he gained the support of moderate Tories and retained power. Hincks was a firm believer in rail, purchasing railways and having a vision of a railway connecting all of British North America. However, scandals dealing with railway stock resulted in the fall of his government.

1855-1861: George Brown (Clear Grit)

In a party which consisted of people with radical and even annexationist tendencies, George Brown was far more moderate than his fellow Clear Grits. Nevertheless, he was accepted by them, as well as by the Upper Canadian public. As Premier, George Brown sought closer relations with the US, lowering tariffs despite the growing turmoil down south. As well, he saw success in turning the Legislative Council into an elective rather than appointed body, elected by districts with members elected by districts for twelve years. He also sought expansion and settlement westward, though in this he was constantly frustrated by the Hudson's Bay Company as well as the British government frankly having more important concerns than Upper Canadian expansionism. However, the growing anti-Americanism, amplified further as the nation tore into two, resulted in his government's fall.

1861-1865: J. Sanfield Macdonald (Conservative)

Largely considered a caretaker Premier, Macdonald's platform consisted of little more than reaction. Reaction against Brown and reaction against the US. However, as a moderate reformer, he nevertheless accepted the status quo. As the American Civil War continued, his government would be buoyed by war scare after war scare, and the Clear Grits continued to be humiliated as some backbencher said some stupid thing about the war effort. However, as it turned out, the war was the only thing holding the Conservatives together, and the government fell.

1865-1880: George Brown (Clear Grit)

And so, Upper Canada went right back to George Brown. His agenda of western expansion achieved its culmination in 1868, when Rupert's Land was purchased by Upper Canada, greatly expanding the size of what was once an inland colony. Settlers now looked to the west, towards the Prairies only populated by Metis and Indians. However, Metis over Louis Riel protested being ruled by faraway Toronto, stating that they needed their own government. And so, George Brown established a semi-nominated devolved parliament in Assiniboia, though he later revoked it when, a few years later, Louis Riel, now claiming to be a prophet named David, attempted to establish a theocratic republic, and the growing white population ensured the Metis had other concerns than Brown and the Clear Grits. Furthermore, Brown initiated the creation of a railway, one which he hoped would connect British Columbia to Upper Canada. Brown died in 1880, considered a hero who greatly expanded the fortunes of the Upper Canadian people and the true founder of Upper Canada.
 
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