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Lists of Heads of Government and Heads of State

Indicus

<insert title here>
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The Multan Lancers

Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom

1874-1881: Benjamin Disraeli (Conservative)

1874 def. William Gladstone (Liberal), Isaac Butt (Home Rule)

Following military success in the Russo-Ottoman War of 1877-1878, in 1878 Disraeli's term would be cut short by the Fall. A comet impacted the Earth; its fragments directly destroyed many cities in Europe and the bulk of it impacted the Atlantic, causing a great wave devastating areas bordering it including Ireland. Initially the British government established plans to rebuild the swathes of Ireland devastated by the great wave, but this attempt was cut short when the winter proved beyond bitter. Disraeli initially tried to hold out, sending in food from parts of the empire, but ultimately he changed tack when the respected scientist Lord Kelvin told him that the interruption of the Gulf Stream, combined with the ash in the atmosphere, would turn the United Kingdom as cold as Siberia for more than a decade, and the rest of Northern Europe would prove similarly as cold.

And so, Disraeli declared his support for a program of emigration of as many Britons as possible to the Cape, India, and Australia. This program consisted first of the upper classes, then the middling orders, and then finally the lower classes, and it mobilized Britain's great navy. Initially people viewed this program as highly pessimistic, but as disorder spread throughout the Isles, as the cold made regular living impossible, it was followed by most. Unlike the rest of the political class, Disraeli refused proclaimed he would stay in Britain until emigration was complete; his death at the hands of a mob in 1881 as he awaited the departure of the last ships would mark the definitive abandonment of the Isles by Britain. The last ships took his body with him, and he was buried in Bombay in a district now known as Disraeli Nagar in his honour.

Today, Mahatma Disraeli is a widely venerated figure, as the saviour of the British people in a time when all seemed lost. Some have tried to destroy his reputation by shedding light on his negative side, the latest being "colonialism", but his death remains iconic and he remains the saint of the descendants of British refugees.

1881-1894: Lord Salisbury (Conservative)

Moving to India along with the rest of the political class in 1879, Lord Salisbury became the unofficial head of the British Empire with virtually dictatorial powers; following Disraeli's death, he was officially made prime minister with the enthusiastic assent of the Queen and the Exiled Parliament. Immediately, he found an India in disorder, as the Fall's cold made the existing famine even worse, the result was widespread rebellions. Stories of the comet impacts and the sky turning a fiery red made many Indians feel the end was near, and this term saw the sudden rise of new religious sects across it. As Bengal in particular proved rebellious thanks to its famine, Salisbury ordered the capital moved from Calcutta to Delhi and he established Kashmir (purchased from the vassal Maharaja of Jammu) and Shimla as white settlement zones at the expense of local ethnic groups. Srinagar was renamed Oxford, and Baramulla was renamed Cambridge. This string of renaming showed exactly who was on top in this new order

Fearing Sikhs would rebel, he made the last Maharaja of the Sikh Empire the Maharaja of a new Lahore State with a massive stipend, and the descendant of the Maratha Emperors won similar recognition. Religious movements emerged everywhere, and figures calling themselves Kalki, or the Mahdi emerged in many, many places. In Kanpur, a man claiming to be the last hereditary prime minister of the Maratha Empire was able to take power before a British army recaptured it with heavy brutality. In other cases, the new religious movements were coopted by princely states - for instance, neo-Swaminarayanists were successfully co-opted by Baroda State and used to give them control of other parts of Gujarat.

The rebellions of the Second Mutiny proved tough to quell, fragmented and leaderless as they were. Often they were crushed brutally with much bloodshed, and even non-rebellious people were found suspicious. Most infamously, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, the founder of the Ahmadi sect of Islam who claimed to be the Mahdi, was executed by the Punjab Military Tribunal on clearly-fake charges, and many alleged the real reason for this execution was his heterodox religious belief that Jesus died a natural death in Kashmir angering almost all authorities. The founder of Arya Samaj, a reformist neo-Vedic sect of Hinduism, was gunned down by orthodox Hindu zealots, and the British government quietly tolerated this, which spurred Arya Samajjists to arm themselves in defence. But yet, over time, this chaos of violence came to an end, after it burned itself out. A new order was established in India - whites on top, and just below them Sikhs, Marathas, Rajputs, and other "martial races". The Second Mutiny slowly came to an end, though in total, 50 million Indians - one fourth of its population - died in this horrific period. But as India gained some semblance of calm, another threat came when, in 1891, an invasion of starving Afghans took over Peshawar, Multan, and was moving towards Lahore before it was narrowly stopped with heavy difficulty. The devastated and desperate invasion force was forced to move back beyond Peshawar, and the Afghans did not recover from this defeat for decades.

And so, in 1894, Salisbury finally declared elections would be held for Parliament. In addition to princes "temporarily" getting lordships, the electorate for the Commons consisted of descendants of refugees electing MPs for their former (now non-territorial) constituencies, although in many cases as refugees did not have proper documents proving their former residency, they were randomly-assigned a constituency. There were also territorial constituencies in which all people eligible for jury duty, not living in a princely state, and meeting qualifications set by provincial governments could vote. This consisted of eligible voters in the Cape (with only a few non-whites only eligible in the Cape Colony proper), Anglo-Indians and a few English speakers in India, and white Australians from Australia - in short, it made the empire's domination by whites as obvious as it could be.

1894-1902: Lord Salisbury (Conservative)
1894 def. John Morley (Liberal), Dadabhai Naoroji (Radical)
1901 def. John Morley (Liberal), Dadabhai Naoroji (Radical)


The 1894 elections proved to be a fragmented experience, as the non-territorial constituencies meant elections often included little personal campaigning. The fragmented Liberals, regrouping around veteran politician John Morley, proved incapable of holding a real campaign and their program of gradual suffrage expansion achieved little steam. In addition, a small number of Radicals sympathetic to the plight of the disenfranchised was elected. This group was led by the jury-eligible Indian Dadabhai Naoroji, whose book Unbritish Rule in India received applause in some circles for its advocacy of a fair and non-racial government, even as he faced racial slurs in more prominent ones. This party also won a level of Irish voters who were reminded of their own plight under British oppression, and Radicals won some Irish non-territorial constituencies. However, in truth, the Tories could scarcely be stopped, and they won another term with a sweeping majority. In practice, Salisbury's tenure proved just as authoritarian as before, and he governed India in a rather dictatorial manner despite democratizing movements in some princely states threatening stability. Furthermore, he formalized the practice of sending imperial representatives to the Cape and Australia, terming them "viceroys" in analogy to India's viceroy.

As India finally became definitely calm in exhaustion, it seemed Salisbury was a success. A campaign of construction gained steam, and buildings based on the architecture of old England became mainstream. In particular, in Delhi along the Yamuna was constructed a precise replica of the old Palace of Westminster. Despite the more organized Liberal and Radical Parties holding much stronger campaign, the Tories maintained popularity among most eligible voters, and they won in 1901 once more. Yet, Salisbury was old, and in 1902 he died.

1902-1918: Arthur Balfour (Conservative)
1908 def. John Morley (Liberal), Dadabhai Naoroji (Radical)
1915 def. John Morley (Liberal), Dadabhai Naoroji (Radical)


The successor to Salisbury was none other than his nephew, Arthur Balfour, in what received widespread criticism as pure and unabashed dynastic politics. As the democratic movement rose among Indians, Balfour refused any measure of suffrage expansion, despite the proxies-in-Parliament of sympathetic princes attempting various obstructionist tactics to force the issue. In 1909 a protest in Delhi for universal suffrage was gunned down by troops worried at a Third Mutiny, and this "Indian Peterloo" spurred outrage which caused many to worry would cause rebellion. Yet, exhaustion at the Second Mutiny meant it did not. Balfour's majority weakened and weakened in size with every election, till in 1915 it was at a knife's edge, and the Conservatives' internal controversies made passing policies difficult.

In 1917 an Imperial ship made its way to old England on a mission of discovery and found that, while civilization had re-emerged along the coasts, it was in a form highly dissimilar to that of pre-Fall England; years of living under an effectively Siberian climate changed customs massively, and language, customs, and religion were highly Germanized thanks to the influence of the Neo-Hanseatic League. The accents Britons in India gained thanks to being raised by Indian maids made communication tough without an Australian interpreter handy. It deeply affected the attitudes of refugees and their descendants, that there was no hope of restoring their old Britain, and led many them to look instead to integrating into the societies in which they now resided to a much greater extent.

To Naoroji and other Indian reformists this was a good thing, and he hoped that it would lead Britons in India to "go native" as generations of invaders had done before them. He hoped the British Empire could be made Indian. It led many, even voices within the Conservative Party, to finally determine that, in fact, some accommodation with Indian opinion was necessary as the Old Empire could not be restored. Lord Randolph Churchill, a reformist Tory, thus decided to break away from the Conservatives to do this; with his majority lost, Balfour held an election and was decisively defeated.

1918-1921: Lord Randolph Churchill (Democratic Conservative - Liberal coalition)
1918 def. Arthur Balfour (Balfour Conservative), Motilal Nehru (Radical)

The 1918 elections gave the Democratic Conservatives and Liberals a majority in Parliament on a platform of coming to an accommodation with Indian democracy. Britons in India, concentrated in Kashmir and Shimla, however, were disturbed on principle at being treated equally to their native neighbours, while in the Cape many were worried at the growth of local Radical Parties. And so, in 1919 the cabinet drew up a bill establishing Kashmir and Shimla as princely states with the heir apparent to the throne as Prince of Kashmir and Shimla, and only those eligible for jury duty (that is, whites) could vote for their new Parliaments. In short, Kashmir and Shimla were to become areas in which white minority rule was all but official. This horrified the Radicals, who found this to be an act of total betrayal.

Nevertheless, in 1920, the ministry then drew up a bill for expanding suffrage. Under it, the non-territorial constituencies for old British seats were abolished. Instead, India, the Cape, and Australia were turned into Viceroyalties of the Empire, and each elected a third of the Commons. These electorate drastically varied; in Australia, this was universal male suffrage and broad female suffrage; in the Cape, it was mostly white voters; and in India it was property owners. Princely states were excluded from representations in the Commons on the basis that they were “already represented” in the Lords, and the only exceptions to this exclusion were Kashmir and Shimla - not so subtly, this was because of their whiteness. The Radicals were split on this issue; some found it too tough of a pill to swallow, while others determined some reform was better than no reform and would give them a pulpit to advocate expansion. And so, in 1921, new elections were held for this new, broader electorate.

Prime Ministers of the British Empire

1921-1926: Lord Randolph Churchill (Democratic Conservative - Liberal - Balfour Conservative coalition)

1921 def. Motilal Nehru (Radical)

The 1921 election proved a chaotic one. Radicals advocated further and immediate reform, while other parties stated that further reform was either inopportune or entirely undesirable. The Radicals swept Indian seats except for in Kashmir and Shimla, while in most of the Cape and Australia they lost everywhere (with the exception of sympathetic Lords proxies from the Swazi, Zulu, and Sotho states). With no party able to form a majority, the Democratic Conservatives, Liberals (except a small faction breaking off), and Balfour Conservatives unified under a cabinet led Randolph Churchill, in what many regarded as a case of elites sticking together. Despite clamour for suffrage expansion, Churchill regarded the Third Reform Act as the end of domestic reform, and instead he looked to expanding into the Old Empire. To Britain he sent vast ships, and they used their superior firepower to force Bristol and other eastern city-states to submit to Britain - yet, the Sheriffate of Southend, which controlled the Thames, proved resistant to such threats, as it was a member of the Neo-Hansa with defensive pacts in place. And so, in 1923, Churchill ordered a fleet of British steam ships to bomb Southend into submission. This show of force led the Neo-Hansa to abandon their defensive pacts with Southend, while the Sheriffs of the Thames cities now swore their loyalty to the King of the Empire. This crucially made London ruled by the Empire once more - even if as a vassal rather than under direct rule - and a piece of the Old Parliament. Some migrants moved to Britain, though most moved back after they found it to be simply too alien.

Reactions to this differed. Some, particularly whites, viewed this act as fully legitimate, to bring the “savages” who now inhabited Britain in line. Others, particularly Indians, viewed it as an unwarranted act of imperial oppression against lands that had long moved on from the horrors of the Fall. Churchill believed his popularity had been boosted by capturing London and he wanted to avoid the need for tumultuous coalitions, and so in 1926 he broke his coalition, dissolved Parliament, and held elections. It proved a mistake.

1926-1928: Arthur Balfour (Balfour Conservative)
1926 def H. N. Kunzru (Radical), Lord Randolph Churchill (Democratic Conservative), Austen Chamberlain (Liberal), Jan Smuts (Cape Party)

The Balfour Conservatives, advocating more immediate reconquest of the empire, won the largest number of seats, forming a minority government, even as the rise of the Kaapenaar bloc as a distinct party made politics yet more confusing. Immediately, they set out declaring British sheriffates to be under direct rule while a campaign of expansion was initiated in Ireland and almost-uninhabited Scotland, while a Zone of Settlement was established in the British interior - in practice, however, few colonists moved there. It seemed refugees had little desire to return to a Britain they no longer recognized. Contact was made with British Columbia, yet it refused incorporation into the Empire as it all but considered themselves aligned to the United States-in-California and wanted little to do with an Empire that abandoned them; when Britain sent a fleet to threaten them into submission, California forced it to stand down. An attempt to do the same with settlements in Nova Scotia, however, proved successful despite protests by the United States-in-Savannah. Yet, this did little to make up for the fact that the Balfour Conservatives lacked a majority, and they were ousted in a vote of no confidence.

1928-1929: Austen Chamberlain (Liberal)

A miserable little ministry, the Austen Chamberlain ministry proved a weak one. The Liberals, little more than a pressure group since the Fall, now fought with one another, and his budget was decisively defeated.

1929-1930: Winston Churchill (Democratic Conservative)

And so, the Democratic Conservatives came to power, under Lord Randolph Churchill's insignificant and weak-willed son. He proved controversial for his racism against Indians which even made the segregationist governments of Kashmir and Shimla desirous he would be a bit more tactful, and he faced a campaign of protest which often turned into violence. It seemed the Empire was on the brink yet again. And so, in hookah-filled rooms, partywallas schemed, and they had Churchill replaced.

1930-1933: Edward Carson (Reform Conservative - Radical - Reformist Cape - Liberal coalition)
1930 def. H. N. Kunzru (Radical), Winston Churchill (United Conservative), Jan Hendrik Hofmeyr (Reformist Cape Party), Jan Smuts (Cape Party), Austen Chamberlain (Liberal)

Edward Carson, the respected Speaker of the House of Commons, was made Prime Minister by Commons resolution against his will, and a new election confirmed the stature of the motley coalition. In office he was now forced to write up a Fourth Reform Act, compromising between varying parties. First, the viceroyalties of Australia, the Cape, and India were all federated with their own Viceregal Parliaments given fairly broad powers, including setting their own franchises. The principalities of Kashmir and Shimla were dissolved against their will, though the Prince of Wales retained the titles of "Prince of Kashmir" and "Prince of Shimla". The property requirement in India was drastically reduced, and in the Cape the Qualified Franchise was established at the imperial level and it was expanded beyond the Old Colony. Establishing an electorate more proportional to population, India now had almost one half of all seats in the Commons, with the Cape and Australia both having just under one quarter, and Britain now became a viceroyalty with some representation. The new elections would show just how drastically the Empire - or as people increasingly called it, the Angrezi Raj - changed.

1933-xxxx: John Dillon (Radical)
1933 def. Edward Carson (Reform Conservative), Jan Hendrik Hofmeyr (Reformist Cape), Winston Churchill (Churchillian Conservative), various other Conservative splinters, various Liberal splinters
1934 def. Edward Carson (Reform Conservative), Jan Hendrik Hofmeyr (Reformist Cape), Winston Churchill (Churchillian Conservative), various other Conservative splinters
1935 def. Edward Carson (Reform Conservative), Jan Hendrik Hofmeyr (Reformist Cape), Winston Churchill (Churchillian Conservative)


The new elections now returned a decisive majority for the Radicals. As its leader H. N Kunzru, was a Hindu, and a Kashmiri one at that, there was widespread resistance to him becoming PM; instead the post was given to the sympathetic Irish-descended John Dillon. He desired to complete the process of reform, and so in 1934 he drew up a Fifth Reform Act, establishing universal male and female suffrage in imperial elections. When the Lords vetoed it, he held a new election, which confirmed the majority for the Radicals and forced the Lords to let the Fifth Reform Act through. And so, new elections under this electorate were held, expanding the Radical majority yet further. Yet, at the viceregal level, the Cape Parliament still had white supremacist electoral laws in place, resulting in the bizarre situation in which nonwhites could vote in imperial elections but not in viceregal ones, and in practice even this was subverted by voter registration laws which faced opposition by local Radical Committees. This served to result in violence and rioting, and indeed it seemed the status quo in the Cape needed to be changed unless the Cape was to have a Mutiny of its own. And so, with the imperial government staring it down, the Cape was forced to expand its suffrage. Despite fears of being "swamped" by black votes, the Kaapenaar elites feared dying yet more, and so a non-universal but broad suffrage was adopted. Thus, the Dillon ministry marked the definitive transformation of the Empire into the loose, creolized, confederation of states it is today.
 

xsampa

Active member
The Multan Lancers

Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom

1874-1881: Benjamin Disraeli (Conservative)

1874 def. William Gladstone (Liberal), Isaac Butt (Home Rule)

Following military success in the Russo-Ottoman War of 1877-1878, in 1878 Disraeli's term would be cut short by the Fall. A comet impacted the Earth; its fragments directly destroyed many cities in Europe and the bulk of it impacted the Atlantic, causing a great wave devastating areas bordering it including Ireland. Initially the British government established plans to rebuild the swathes of Ireland devastated by the great wave, but this attempt was cut short when the winter proved beyond bitter. Disraeli initially tried to hold out, sending in food from parts of the empire, but ultimately he changed tack when the respected scientist Lord Kelvin told him that the interruption of the Gulf Stream, combined with the ash in the atmosphere, would turn the United Kingdom as cold as Siberia for more than a decade, and the rest of Northern Europe would prove similarly as cold.

And so, Disraeli declared his support for a program of emigration of as many Britons as possible to the Cape, India, and Australia. This program consisted first of the upper classes, then the middling orders, and then finally the lower classes, and it mobilized Britain's great navy. Initially people viewed this program as highly pessimistic, but as disorder spread throughout the Isles, as the cold made regular living impossible, it was followed by most. Unlike the rest of the political class, Disraeli refused proclaimed he would stay in Britain until emigration was complete; his death at the hands of a mob in 1881 as he awaited the departure of the last ships would mark the definitive abandonment of the Isles by Britain. The last ships took his body with him, and he was buried in Bombay in a district now known as Disraeli Nagar in his honour.

Today, Mahatma Disraeli is a widely venerated figure, as the saviour of the British people in a time when all seemed lost. Some have tried to destroy his reputation by shedding light on his negative side, the latest being "colonialism", but his death remains iconic and he remains the saint of the descendants of British refugees.

1881-1894: Lord Salisbury (Conservative)

Moving to India along with the rest of the political class in 1879, Lord Salisbury became the unofficial head of the British Empire with virtually dictatorial powers; following Disraeli's death, he was officially made prime minister with the enthusiastic assent of the Queen and the Exiled Parliament. Immediately, he found an India in disorder, as the Fall's cold made the existing famine even worse, the result was widespread rebellions. Stories of the comet impacts and the sky turning a fiery red made many Indians feel the end was near, and this term saw the sudden rise of new religious sects across it. As Bengal in particular proved rebellious thanks to its famine, Salisbury ordered the capital moved from Calcutta to Delhi and he established Kashmir (purchased from the vassal Maharaja of Jammu) and Shimla as white settlement zones at the expense of local ethnic groups. Srinagar was renamed Oxford, and Baramulla was renamed Cambridge. This string of renaming showed exactly who was on top in this new order

Fearing Sikhs would rebel, he made the last Maharaja of the Sikh Empire the Maharaja of a new Lahore State with a massive stipend, and the descendant of the Maratha Emperors won similar recognition. Religious movements emerged everywhere, and figures calling themselves Kalki, or the Mahdi emerged in many, many places. In Kanpur, a man claiming to be the last hereditary prime minister of the Maratha Empire was able to take power before a British army recaptured it with heavy brutality. In other cases, the new religious movements were coopted by princely states - for instance, neo-Swaminarayanists were successfully co-opted by Baroda State and used to give them control of other parts of Gujarat.

The rebellions of the Second Mutiny proved tough to quell, fragmented and leaderless as they were. Often they were crushed brutally with much bloodshed, and even non-rebellious people were found suspicious. Most infamously, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, the founder of the Ahmadi sect of Islam who claimed to be the Mahdi, was executed by the Punjab Military Tribunal on clearly-fake charges, and many alleged the real reason for this execution was his heterodox religious belief that Jesus died a natural death in Kashmir angering almost all authorities. The founder of Arya Samaj, a reformist neo-Vedic sect of Hinduism, was gunned down by orthodox Hindu zealots, and the British government quietly tolerated this, which spurred Arya Samajjists to arm themselves in defence. But yet, over time, this chaos of violence came to an end, after it burned itself out. A new order was established in India - whites on top, and just below them Sikhs, Marathas, Rajputs, and other "martial races". The Second Mutiny slowly came to an end, though in total, 50 million Indians - one fourth of its population - died in this horrific period. But as India gained some semblance of calm, another threat came when, in 1891, an invasion of starving Afghans took over Peshawar, Multan, and was moving towards Lahore before it was narrowly stopped with heavy difficulty. The devastated and desperate invasion force was forced to move back beyond Peshawar, and the Afghans did not recover from this defeat for decades.

And so, in 1894, Salisbury finally declared elections would be held for Parliament. In addition to princes "temporarily" getting lordships, the electorate for the Commons consisted of descendants of refugees electing MPs for their former (now non-territorial) constituencies, although in many cases as refugees did not have proper documents proving their former residency, they were randomly-assigned a constituency. There were also territorial constituencies in which all people eligible for jury duty, not living in a princely state, and meeting qualifications set by provincial governments could vote. This consisted of eligible voters in the Cape (with only a few non-whites only eligible in the Cape Colony proper), Anglo-Indians and a few English speakers in India, and white Australians from Australia - in short, it made the empire's domination by whites as obvious as it could be.

1894-1902: Lord Salisbury (Conservative)
1894 def. John Morley (Liberal), Dadabhai Naoroji (Radical)
1901 def. John Morley (Liberal), Dadabhai Naoroji (Radical)


The 1894 elections proved to be a fragmented experience, as the non-territorial constituencies meant elections often included little personal campaigning. The fragmented Liberals, regrouping around veteran politician John Morley, proved incapable of holding a real campaign and their program of gradual suffrage expansion achieved little steam. In addition, a small number of Radicals sympathetic to the plight of the disenfranchised was elected. This group was led by the jury-eligible Indian Dadabhai Naoroji, whose book Unbritish Rule in India received applause in some circles for its advocacy of a fair and non-racial government, even as he faced racial slurs in more prominent ones. This party also won a level of Irish voters who were reminded of their own plight under British oppression, and Radicals won some Irish non-territorial constituencies. However, in truth, the Tories could scarcely be stopped, and they won another term with a sweeping majority. In practice, Salisbury's tenure proved just as authoritarian as before, and he governed India in a rather dictatorial manner despite democratizing movements in some princely states threatening stability. Furthermore, he formalized the practice of sending imperial representatives to the Cape and Australia, terming them "viceroys" in analogy to India's viceroy.

As India finally became definitely calm in exhaustion, it seemed Salisbury was a success. A campaign of construction gained steam, and buildings based on the architecture of old England became mainstream. In particular, in Delhi along the Yamuna was constructed a precise replica of the old Palace of Westminster. Despite the more organized Liberal and Radical Parties holding much stronger campaign, the Tories maintained popularity among most eligible voters, and they won in 1901 once more. Yet, Salisbury was old, and in 1902 he died.

1902-1918: Arthur Balfour (Conservative)
1908 def. John Morley (Liberal), Dadabhai Naoroji (Radical)
1915 def. John Morley (Liberal), Dadabhai Naoroji (Radical)


The successor to Salisbury was none other than his nephew, Arthur Balfour, in what received widespread criticism as pure and unabashed dynastic politics. As the democratic movement rose among Indians, Balfour refused any measure of suffrage expansion, despite the proxies-in-Parliament of sympathetic princes attempting various obstructionist tactics to force the issue. In 1909 a protest in Delhi for universal suffrage was gunned down by troops worried at a Third Mutiny, and this "Indian Peterloo" spurred outrage which caused many to worry would cause rebellion. Yet, exhaustion at the Second Mutiny meant it did not. Balfour's majority weakened and weakened in size with every election, till in 1915 it was at a knife's edge, and the Conservatives' internal controversies made passing policies difficult.

In 1917 an Imperial ship made its way to old England on a mission of discovery and found that, while civilization had re-emerged along the coasts, it was in a form highly dissimilar to that of pre-Fall England; years of living under an effectively Siberian climate changed customs massively, and language, customs, and religion were highly Germanized thanks to the influence of the Neo-Hanseatic League. The accents Britons in India gained thanks to being raised by Indian maids made communication tough without an Australian interpreter handy. It deeply affected the attitudes of refugees and their descendants, that there was no hope of restoring their old Britain, and led many them to look instead to integrating into the societies in which they now resided to a much greater extent.

To Naoroji and other Indian reformists this was a good thing, and he hoped that it would lead Britons in India to "go native" as generations of invaders had done before them. He hoped the British Empire could be made Indian. It led many, even voices within the Conservative Party, to finally determine that, in fact, some accommodation with Indian opinion was necessary as the Old Empire could not be restored. Lord Randolph Churchill, a reformist Tory, thus decided to break away from the Conservatives to do this; with his majority lost, Balfour held an election and was decisively defeated.

1918-1921: Lord Randolph Churchill (Democratic Conservative - Liberal coalition)
1918 def. Arthur Balfour (Balfour Conservative), Motilal Nehru (Radical)

The 1918 elections gave the Democratic Conservatives and Liberals a majority in Parliament on a platform of coming to an accommodation with Indian democracy. Britons in India, concentrated in Kashmir and Shimla, however, were disturbed on principle at being treated equally to their native neighbours, while in the Cape many were worried at the growth of local Radical Parties. And so, in 1919 the cabinet drew up a bill establishing Kashmir and Shimla as princely states with the heir apparent to the throne as Prince of Kashmir and Shimla, and only those eligible for jury duty (that is, whites) could vote for their new Parliaments. In short, Kashmir and Shimla were to become areas in which white minority rule was all but official. This horrified the Radicals, who found this to be an act of total betrayal.

Nevertheless, in 1920, the ministry then drew up a bill for expanding suffrage. Under it, the non-territorial constituencies for old British seats were abolished. Instead, India, the Cape, and Australia were turned into Viceroyalties of the Empire, and each elected a third of the Commons. These electorate drastically varied; in Australia, this was universal male suffrage and broad female suffrage; in the Cape, it was mostly white voters; and in India it was property owners. Princely states were excluded from representations in the Commons on the basis that they were “already represented” in the Lords, and the only exceptions to this exclusion were Kashmir and Shimla - not so subtly, this was because of their whiteness. The Radicals were split on this issue; some found it too tough of a pill to swallow, while others determined some reform was better than no reform and would give them a pulpit to advocate expansion. And so, in 1921, new elections were held for this new, broader electorate.

Prime Ministers of the British Empire

1921-1926: Lord Randolph Churchill (Democratic Conservative - Liberal - Balfour Conservative coalition)

1921 def. Motilal Nehru (Radical)

The 1921 election proved a chaotic one. Radicals advocated further and immediate reform, while other parties stated that further reform was either inopportune or entirely undesirable. The Radicals swept Indian seats except for in Kashmir and Shimla, while in most of the Cape and Australia they lost everywhere (with the exception of sympathetic Lords proxies from the Swazi, Zulu, and Sotho states). With no party able to form a majority, the Democratic Conservatives, Liberals (except a small faction breaking off), and Balfour Conservatives unified under a cabinet led Randolph Churchill, in what many regarded as a case of elites sticking together. Despite clamour for suffrage expansion, Churchill regarded the Third Reform Act as the end of domestic reform, and instead he looked to expanding into the Old Empire. To Britain he sent vast ships, and they used their superior firepower to force Bristol and other eastern city-states to submit to Britain - yet, the Sheriffate of Southend, which controlled the Thames, proved resistant to such threats, as it was a member of the Neo-Hansa with defensive pacts in place. And so, in 1923, Churchill ordered a fleet of British steam ships to bomb Southend into submission. This show of force led the Neo-Hansa to abandon their defensive pacts with Southend, while the Sheriffs of the Thames cities now swore their loyalty to the King of the Empire. This crucially made London ruled by the Empire once more - even if as a vassal rather than under direct rule - and a piece of the Old Parliament. Some migrants moved to Britain, though most moved back after they found it to be simply too alien.

Reactions to this differed. Some, particularly whites, viewed this act as fully legitimate, to bring the “savages” who now inhabited Britain in line. Others, particularly Indians, viewed it as an unwarranted act of imperial oppression against lands that had long moved on from the horrors of the Fall. Churchill believed his popularity had been boosted by capturing London and he wanted to avoid the need for tumultuous coalitions, and so in 1926 he broke his coalition, dissolved Parliament, and held elections. It proved a mistake.

1926-1928: Arthur Balfour (Balfour Conservative)
1926 def H. N. Kunzru (Radical), Lord Randolph Churchill (Democratic Conservative), Austen Chamberlain (Liberal), Jan Smuts (Cape Party)

The Balfour Conservatives, advocating more immediate reconquest of the empire, won the largest number of seats, forming a minority government, even as the rise of the Kaapenaar bloc as a distinct party made politics yet more confusing. Immediately, they set out declaring British sheriffates to be under direct rule while a campaign of expansion was initiated in Ireland and almost-uninhabited Scotland, while a Zone of Settlement was established in the British interior - in practice, however, few colonists moved there. It seemed refugees had little desire to return to a Britain they no longer recognized. Contact was made with British Columbia, yet it refused incorporation into the Empire as it all but considered themselves aligned to the United States-in-California and wanted little to do with an Empire that abandoned them; when Britain sent a fleet to threaten them into submission, California forced it to stand down. An attempt to do the same with settlements in Nova Scotia, however, proved successful despite protests by the United States-in-Savannah. Yet, this did little to make up for the fact that the Balfour Conservatives lacked a majority, and they were ousted in a vote of no confidence.

1928-1929: Austen Chamberlain (Liberal)

A miserable little ministry, the Austen Chamberlain ministry proved a weak one. The Liberals, little more than a pressure group since the Fall, now fought with one another, and his budget was decisively defeated.

1929-1930: Winston Churchill (Democratic Conservative)

And so, the Democratic Conservatives came to power, under Lord Randolph Churchill's insignificant and weak-willed son. He proved controversial for his racism against Indians which even made the segregationist governments of Kashmir and Shimla desirous he would be a bit more tactful, and he faced a campaign of protest which often turned into violence. It seemed the Empire was on the brink yet again. And so, in hookah-filled rooms, partywallas schemed, and they had Churchill replaced.

1930-1933: Edward Carson (Reform Conservative - Radical - Reformist Cape - Liberal coalition)
1930 def. H. N. Kunzru (Radical), Winston Churchill (United Conservative), Jan Hendrik Hofmeyr (Reformist Cape Party), Jan Smuts (Cape Party), Austen Chamberlain (Liberal)

Edward Carson, the respected Speaker of the House of Commons, was made Prime Minister by Commons resolution against his will, and a new election confirmed the stature of the motley coalition. In office he was now forced to write up a Fourth Reform Act, compromising between varying parties. First, the viceroyalties of Australia, the Cape, and India were all federated with their own Viceregal Parliaments given fairly broad powers, including setting their own franchises. The principalities of Kashmir and Shimla were dissolved against their will, though the Prince of Wales retained the titles of "Prince of Kashmir" and "Prince of Shimla". The property requirement in India was drastically reduced, and in the Cape the Qualified Franchise was established at the imperial level and it was expanded beyond the Old Colony. Establishing an electorate more proportional to population, India now had almost one half of all seats in the Commons, with the Cape and Australia both having just under one quarter, and Britain now became a viceroyalty with some representation. The new elections would show just how drastically the Empire - or as people increasingly called it, the Angrezi Raj - changed.

1933-xxxx: John Dillon (Radical)
1933 def. Edward Carson (Reform Conservative), Jan Hendrik Hofmeyr (Reformist Cape), Winston Churchill (Churchillian Conservative), various other Conservative splinters, various Liberal splinters
1934 def. Edward Carson (Reform Conservative), Jan Hendrik Hofmeyr (Reformist Cape), Winston Churchill (Churchillian Conservative), various other Conservative splinters
1935 def. Edward Carson (Reform Conservative), Jan Hendrik Hofmeyr (Reformist Cape), Winston Churchill (Churchillian Conservative)


The new elections now returned a decisive majority for the Radicals. As its leader H. N Kunzru, was a Hindu, and a Kashmiri one at that, there was widespread resistance to him becoming PM; instead the post was given to the sympathetic Irish-descended John Dillon. He desired to complete the process of reform, and so in 1934 he drew up a Fifth Reform Act, establishing universal male and female suffrage in imperial elections. When the Lords vetoed it, he held a new election, which confirmed the majority for the Radicals and forced the Lords to let the Fifth Reform Act through. And so, new elections under this electorate were held, expanding the Radical majority yet further. Yet, at the viceregal level, the Cape Parliament still had white supremacist electoral laws in place, resulting in the bizarre situation in which nonwhites could vote in imperial elections but not in viceregal ones, and in practice even this was subverted by voter registration laws which faced opposition by local Radical Committees. This served to result in violence and rioting, and indeed it seemed the status quo in the Cape needed to be changed unless the Cape was to have a Mutiny of its own. And so, with the imperial government staring it down, the Cape was forced to expand its suffrage. Despite fears of being "swamped" by black votes, the Kaapenaar elites feared dying yet more, and so a non-universal but broad suffrage was adopted. Thus, the Dillon ministry marked the definitive transformation of the Empire into the loose, creolized, confederation of states it is today.
This should be its own timeline? What would happen to Japan in this scenario a British ally
 

Stuyvesant

Just wait until I actually get my shit together
Location
The Place Beyond The Pines
Pronouns
he/him
Twenty Years Back

1973-1981: William C. Westmoreland (Republican)

(with H. L. Richardson) def 1972 John J. Gilligan (Democratic)
(with H. L. Richardson) def 1976 John J. Gilligan (Democratic)

1981-1983: Paul Tsongas (Democratic)
(with Lloyd Bentsen) def 1980 H. L. Richardson (Republican)
1983-1989: Lloyd Bentsen (Democratic)
(with Bill Proxmire) def 1984 John Tower (Republican)
1989-1994: H. L. Richardson (Republican)
(with Pete du Pont) def 1988 Bill Proxmire (Democratic)
(with Pete du Pont) def 1992 Tom Daschle (Democratic)

1994-1997: Bob Michel (Republican)
1997-2001: Zell Miller (Democratic)

(with Paul Wellstone) def 1996 Bob Michel (Republican)
2001-2009: Pete Wilson (Republican)
(with Robert M. Gates) def 2000 Zell Miller (Democratic)
(with Robert M. Gates) def. 2004 Paul Wellstone (Democratic)

2009-2013: Robert M. Gates (Republican)
(with Dick Lugar) def. 2008 Deval Patrick (Democratic)
2013-2021: Mike Beebe (Democratic)
(with Harold Ford) def. 2012 Robert M. Gates (Republican)
(with Harold Ford) def. 2016 Jerry Moran (Republican)

2021-2029: Greg Abbott (Republican)
(with Lindsey Graham) def. 2020 Harold Ford (Democratic)
(with Lindsey Graham) def. 2024 Ed Markey (Democratic)

2029-2037: Robert Peters (Democratic)
(with Chris Coons) def. 2028 Mitt Romney (Republican)
(with Chris Coons) def. 2032 Charlie Baker (Republican)
2037-2041: Craig Menear (Republican)
(with Tucker Carlson) def. 2036 Kyrsten Sinema (Democratic)
2041-XXXX: Chris Coons (Democratic)
(with [Someone who's not famous yet]) def. Craig Menear (Republican)
 
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Time Enough

"Enthusiastic Cis Male Partner"
Pronouns
He/Him
The Fall and RISE of Nationalism: Or how the Tartan Terrorists lead to RISE
1979-1983: Margaret Thatcher (Conservative)
1979 (Majority) def: James Callaghan (Labour), David Steel (Liberal), William Wolfe (SNP)
1983-1984: Cecil Parkinson (Conservative)
1983 (Majority) def: Denis Healy replacing Michael Foot (Labour), Roy Jenkins-David Steel (Liberal-SDP Alliance)
1984-1988: Geoffrey Howe (Conservative)
1988-1990: Neil Kinnock (Labour)

1988 (Coalition with Liberals) def: Geoffrey Howe (Conservative), David Owen-David Steel (Liberal-SDP Alliance)
1990-1996: Bryan Gould (Labour)
1991 (Coalition with Reform) def: Michael Heseltine (Conservative), David Steel (Liberal Democrats), David Owen (Reform)
1996-2006: Michael Portillo (Conservative)
1996 (Majority) def: Bryan Gould (Labour), Paddy Ashdown (Liberal Democrats), David Owen (Reform)
2001 (Majority) def: Jack Straw replacing John Prescott (Labour), Simon Hughes (Liberal Democrats), Chris Grayling (Reform)

2006-2011: Dawn Primarolo (Labour)
2006 (Majority) def: Michael Portillo (Conservative), Simon Hughes (Liberal Democrats)
2010 (Majority) def: Iain Duncan Smith (Conservative), Evan Harris (Liberal Democrats), Caroline Lucas-Lynne Jones (Green-The Left)

2011-2018: Caroline Flint (Labour)
2014 (Majority) def: Jane Ellison (Conservative), Julia Goldsworthy (Liberal Democrats), Tommy Sheppard-Leanne Wood (RISE), Jason Zadrozny (Reform)
2018-: Justine Greening (Conservative)
2018 (Majority) def: Caroline Flint (Labour), Julia Goldsworthy (Liberal Democrats), Monica Lennon-Patrick Harvie (RISE), Jason Zadrozny-David Prescott (Reform-People’s Voice Alliance)

Maybe the SNP would have been the eventual mainstream voice of Scottish Nationalism if the Scottish National Liberation Army hadn’t sent a letter bomb to Mrs Thatcher. Whilst it failed to kill her, the loss of her fingers and substantial amount of blood would put her out of commission. Her temporary replacement would be Cecil Parkinson who banked on sympathy to Thatcher, the Falklands and a booming economy to mean a Conservative majority. Parkinson was partially right, but the breaking out of the Flora Keays scandal and Foot resigning after one by election defeat too many meant that Labour only fell down to about 240 seats, not the big bust that some were expecting. In the meantime the SNP would splinter and dissolve, several arrests of SNP members connect to the SNLA and a general collapse in support following the attack leaves the remnants to splinter and join other parties and groups.

Parkinson would be put out to pasture and the Thatcherites would win with Howe beating Heseltine. But Howe wasn’t as charismatic or likeable as Thatcher, his dull personality and awkward manner of speaking meant that the new Labour leader Kinnock ran rings around the awkward Howe and Howe's attempts to continue Thatcherism came into more difficultly than the forceful Thatcher would have done. All of Howe's woes would be compounded by Black Monday, as the Stock Market crashed thanks to the reforms implemented by himself and Lawson. The begrudging election of 1988 saw a hung parliament with Labour the largest party who would enter into a coalition with the Liberals and a rump SDP, with Owen heading off to make his own Radical Centrist party in the form of Reform. Neil Kinnock manages to implement some of the changes he wants but the stress of premiership becomes too much, following a nervous breakdown, Kinnock would resign and Bryan Gould after a relatively short leadership election (Hattersley doesn't want it now, Smith suffers another heart attack, Gordon Brown is too young and Tony Benn is pushed to the side by the less controversial Gould). Gould doesn't work as well with the new Liberal Democrats as Kinnock did, his Euroscepticism, Soft Left nature and more esoteric ideas not meshing as well with the Liberal Democrats.

Gould goes to the nation again and whilst still ending up the largest party and even gaining a few seats, the generally revived Conservative party and the Liberal Democrats being punished for entering into a coalition means that Gould enters a coalition with the Reform party, who's relationship is more amicable oddly, Owen's Radical Centrism and Euroscepticism meshing better with Gould odd Soft Left ideas in particular the new British Internet boom and the creation of regional assemblies and comptrollers being part of Gould's 'British Revival' ideas. But Gould for all his modernising ideals is beaten by a smoother moderniser, someone that offers a more dashing package as it were. Michael Portillo presents a new Conservative party, one that accepts the existence of different minorities, the European Market and generally a modern Liberal (Conservative) party for the 21st Century. Portillo wins and proceeds to dismantle all the Social Democratic and Socialist systems that Gould had managed to set up and give them over to Market Forces. Meanwhile the Labour party descends into infighting, with sexual harassment allegations leading to 'Safe Pair of Hands' Prescott being ousted as the 2001 Election began, whilst Chris Grayling's ideas of Mild Social Conservatism and Economic Centrism do nothing in the time of Portillo and Reform is squeezed into becoming a fairly rump party in Regional Assemblies for the rest of the decade.

Of course Portillo can't last forever, his party wasn't entirely happy with him, with attempted coups against him in 2003 by the party's Hard Right and Norman Tebbit often popping up in the paper to mention Portillo's brief mention of a same sex relationship. Meanwhile in the Labour Party the Modernisers manage to win again in 2002 Labour leadership election and Labour's first female leader in the form of Dawn Primarolo manages to takeover. Taking inspiration from the gaggle of reformers centred around Gordon Brown and Alan Milburn over her self proclaimed influence Bryan Gould she would change the party's policies that's more in line with the Post-Market Britain that had emerged. When a brief economic slump occurred in 2005, Portillo was doomed as people looked to Labour for a way out.

Dawn Primarolo briefly seemed inspiring but her attempts of digging Britain of a brief recession was austerity and various other Neoliberal antics and following Portillo's plans leading many to say 'What's the difference between Portillo and Primarolo? The Colour of there party'. In this vacuum new forces would emerge, a splinter of some of the angry Left Wing of the Labour Party who had been slowly shoved aside since the Prescott years would enter a alliance with various other Left Wing parties creatively called the Left, said alliance would also enter an alliance with various small Centre Left organisations (include a small Left Wing Scottish organisation called the Group) and the Green party. This Green-Left alliance worried many in Labour, with much of there worries salved by the incredibly poor performance of the Liberal Democrats and the Conservatives. But the results had been closer than expected and Dawn, who many had agreed was a poor leader and Prime Minister would be met by some in the cabinet and told nicely to shove off.

And Dawn did just that.

The 2011 Labour leadership election would see Caroline Flint win against Jon Cruddas and for a brief period of time it looked like she would go back to the classic model of Third Way ideals, but as the 2012 Local Elections saw a rise in interest in the Jason Zadrozny lead Reform party, battling on it's message of Communitarianism and Euroscepticism, Flint shifted with the winds. Flint proclaimed she supported the ideals of 'One Nation Labour' of a Labour Party that was for Britain first. Of course this mainly came in the form of a moribund British Nationalism, one which excluded a number of the nations of Britain out of it.

Of course reviving Nationalism means other can do it and the new leaders of the Green-Left movement decided to change there new organisation to RISE; a coalition of Radical, Socialist, Independent and Environmentalist groups, a party of Left Wing Populism with a side of Nationalism.

There was some grumbling from the old guards but Tommy Sheppard’s charisma carried him through, this gaggle of Left Wing sorts would gain a number of seats in Scotland and Wales on Left Nationalistic rhetoric but still, Labour held onto a majority...just about.

What Flint needed was nothing to go wrong and maybe her ‘One Nation Labour’ could smother the other political forces in it’s crib by turning to the Left in due course. In 2016 David Prescott, a seemingly raising star on the ‘Left’ of the party would be charged with Sexual Harassment claims. Prescott would deny them, claiming them to be the party machine to cover up his criticism of Flint and the Flint Machine.

Prescott would be ejected from the party, but not before taking a gaggle of similar ticking time bombs from the so called Labour Left. Positioning themselves as the voice of ‘True Labour’, Prescott’s People’s Voice enter an alliance with the Reform party as both groups similar policies, mild social conservatism and the fact that Jason Zadrozny had also been accused of other sexual crimes by Labour adjacent forces meant that the alliance went well.

Flint would decide to go for a snap election, as the polls looked good in 2018. But a poor showing at the debates, various scandals coming out of the cabinet like machine gun and general Labour fatigue meant that Flint would lose as RISE would make gains yet again in Britain (particularly in Scotland) whilst the Reform-People’s Voice alliance made gains mainly in the North and Midlands, on a form of Localist Populism. Flint herself would only retain her seat by 100 votes.

Justine Greening would step into the void, a Portillo 2.0 in a number of respects if less dry in the economic angle than Portillo. But time will tell if she’s even Prime Minister of Britain in four years, as RISE voters would demand an independence referendum away from the ‘Corrupt elites of Westminster’, the Liberal Democrats support further revolution as there Cornish Nationalist leader discuss further options and Reform-People’s Voice MPs steady shift rightwards as they start heading towards increasingly more aggressive Populism, may mean otherwise.

The genie of Populism and Nationalism has been unleashed, and it’s not going back anytime soon.
 

Walpurgisnacht

Sequential woodcuttings
Location
Banned from the forum
Pronouns
He/Him
Busy as a Bee
Leaders of the New Party
1930-1932: Oswald Mosley
1932-1934: John Strachey
1934-1936: Frank
Horrabin
1936-1948: Nye Bevan
1948-xxxx: Harold Macmillan

---------------------------------
Seventeen Labour MPs Join "New Party" of Oswald Mosley!
Is This The End For MacDonald?

---Daily Sketch headline, 6 December 1930 (neglecting to mention the three Conservatives who also joined)​
----------------------------------

...but while Mosely might have created the party, he was also in danger of destroying it. His autocratic tendencies, ranging up from the manifesto down to the party militia's uniform, were making him enemies within left and right. Perhaps this could have been forgiven if he was a good leader. He was not. With increasingly skewed priorities relative to the party base, seemingly believing that voters would prefer a flashy rally and 10,000 banner bearers to a well-formulated and comprehensible version of the party's key policy. Increasingly aggressive in conversational tone, egocentrically attributing every success from the Ashton-Under-Lyne by-election onwards to himself alone, and distracted by niche political panaceas--Mosely had to go so that the party could live.

With the general election approaching, it was necessary to push Mosley out as swiftly as possible. Luckily, Moseley had allowed other people to do the boring work of drafting a party charter while he got on with his stunts and speeches. After a swift vote of no confidence at the Party conference, Mosley was officially no longer leader, and expelled from the party by Strachey for good measure--another power Mosley had insisted be given to the leader. Here, many histories of the New Party take time to detail his subsequent biography. If the reader wishes to to know about the subject, they can read those books; for my part I will merely note that Mosley's campaigning on behalf of the Social Credit Party to try and unseat Strachey was the last time he was relevant to the party he founded. By the time he died in Italy, fighting his erstwhile comrades in the International Brigades on behalf of Mussolini, he bore little resemblance to the dashing young author of the memorandum. In turn, the party forgot about him as well.


Strachey was a perfect interim leader--vaguely personable, willing to work with others, good at organisation--with the one fault that he now had to fight an election. Many future historians have damned him for a fool, with the near-collapse of the National Government over the Conservatives' unwillingness to accept unorthodox measures being perfect ground for the party that had been promoting Keynesianism before now. However, this analysis is fundamentally rooted in the modern day, where the New Party is a political fixture. To Strachey, leader of a fragile new party which had just lost 2 MPs alongside its leader in a well-publicised split, and with much less money than the other well-established parties, retaining over half their seats was a victory in and of itself.

A year after the election, a dog-tired Strachey stepped down for the party's first actual leadership contest. Admittedly, "contest" is overselling it. While Nicolson performed admirably, his vision of a paternalistic Toryism-rooted Socialism was incoherent and off-putting to the members. Indeed, it is possible that if Horrabin had faced literally anyone else, he would have lost. While good at written propaganda (one satirical magazine joked that with Strachey the editorialist and Horrabin the cartoonist, the New Party was an ploy to boost the launch of the New Times as a paper) he was never a good public speaker, and his one attempt at grabbing headlines--an invitation for Trotsky to take exile in the UK--generated more bad press than good. Luckily for all involved, a nasty case of bronchitis caused Horrabin to step down, leaving the way open for the heir apparent...

It had been a long time coming. From a miner's lodge in Tredegar, to the frontlines of the General Strike, to a hundred aggressive speeches in Parliament, warring with Macdonald and with Mosely, always fighting for what he though was just, would help the common man. Now he was sitting in the driving seat, and, as the most popular MP in the Party, few wished to take it from him. The day was Nye's.

On the leadership of Bevan I will not dwell--it is far and away the most chronicled period of the party's history, as hundreds of historians try to capture the giddy joy of relevancy and movement forwards after years of slow stagnation. The conflicts between "Biff Boys" and "Bevan Boys", the Second Memorandum's thunderbolt-like impact, the dawn of the Popular Front--all these things have passed into political legend. The best was still to come. With the War Government forming up in opposition to the invasion of Poland, the New Party held the reins of power for the first time. Even if they were technically junior partners, the war's demands of total mobilisation against the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact meant that measures that once looked ridiculous--self-sufficiency, public works, centralised technocratic power--were suddenly completely necessary. Many lament that Bevan never got into government; I contend that the War was when he got in, and we are all better off for it.

Even after returning to the opposition benches, Bevan could have fought on as leader forever. It was not to be. The challenge to his leadership after a dismal performance in the Wolverhampton West by-election was initially a surprise to the leadership, but was an inevitability in hindsight. While Bevan's socialist views still held cachet among the members, the new generation of hawkish Keynesians who saw the Memorandum as an end, not a means, were rising. These Young Bucks (admittedly not much younger than the rest of the party, but with the air of youth) were ready to make a new Britain from the New Party. No-one before them rose so high. No-one before them fell so low.

Where does their story begin? It begins at the Memorandum, but like any story of a party, this is bigger than Mosely or Bevan or any one leader. This story begins at Stockton, where a bright young MP decided to follow his hero and be a man of action. This story starts at 10 Downing Street, where that once-young man clasped hands with Douglas Jay and his party entered government of its own free will, not as part of a broader war. This story starts in a dirty flat in Hackney, where another one of the Young Bucks would become part of a sordid underbelly that would eventually roll over and knock down a government.

This story, however, is bigger than Macmillan and bigger than Boothby. It is the story of a party--a story we can learn from today. To know where to go next, we need to know where we started.

--Bryan Gould, A New Wind: The New Party in Government, 1958-1964
 

morbidteaparty

No one gives a hoot about FAUX-ASS nonsense
Location
Westcombe Park
Pronouns
he/him
Foundations of Concrete Logic

Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, Independent, 1918-1934

Eduard Beneš, Czech National Social Party, 1934-1938

Emil Hácha, Independent, 1938-1939


Occupation by Nazi Germany, 1939-1945

Eduard Beneš, Czech National Social Party, 1945-1948

Petr Zenkl, Czech National Social Party, 1948-1954


Jan Šrámek, Czechoslovak Peoples Party, 1954-1960

Bohumil Laušman, Czechoslovak Social Democratic Party, 1960-


Essentially, a what if around whether Czechoslovakia became the Central European equivalent of Finlandization (Czechification if you wil)

May turn into a thing
 

MAC161

Well-known member
Published by SLP
Location
WI, USA
First time posting to this thread, so any pointers are welcome!

Timeline of U.S. Presidents in "Divided Worlds: An Alternate Space Race"

Franklin D. Roosevelt (D): 1933-1945 [1]
Harry S. Truman (D): 1945-1949 [2]

(Insert Staunch Anti-Communist GOP Prez Here): 1949-1953 [3]
(Insert 2nd Staunch Anti-Communist GOP Prez Here): 1953-1961 [4]

Richard M. Nixon (R): 1961-1977 [5]
John M. Ashbrook (R): 1977-1981 [6]
Ronald W. Reagan (R): 1981-1989
George H.W. Bush (R): 1989-1997 [7]

John S. McCain (R): 1997-1999 [8]

[1] Chose not to run for a fourth term on health grounds.

[2] Fought to maintain the New Deal coalition and programs, but solidly conservative in foreign policy; not enough for the GOP, Dixiecrats or a slim majority of the voters, though, in the face of the Comintern and its specter of "Permanent Revolution" advocated by GenSec Trotsky. Seen by some academics and politicos as the bridge to an era of uncompromising "bipartisan" anticommunism in the U.S. and the League of Democratic Nations generally.


[3] Eisenhower doesn't seem of the right temperament given the basically unending "Red Scare" by this time; thought about McCarthy, but that seemed a bit obvious. Currently thinking about Dewey, as one of the last "moderate" GOP types and the other end of the "bipartisan anticommunist bridge"; if anybody's got ideas, share away!

[4] Ditto.

[5] Defeated Kennedy by a fair though not outstanding margin in 1960. 22nd Amendment wasn't passed in Truman's time, though "principle"/"tradition" kept previous GOP presidents from trying for three terms. Nixon's doing so prompted a short-lived party rebellion that dissuaded him from running again in 1976, though he did manage to get a 22nd Amendment analogue shot down in Congress in 1967.

[6] The "traditionalist" wing of the GOP got their man into the White House; he then promptly decided not to run again in 1980, now that the "principle" was cemented :D .

[7] Last one to seriously consider a third term; internal party fighting prevented this. Saw the first construction begun on the League's sector of lunar base Terra Unum in 1993. Having former astronaut John Glenn as VP got even more funding and resources devoted to this and the League Aeronautics and Space Administration (LASA), and a flood of both beginning in '96 when construction of the Soviet sector looked to be making better progress.

[8] President at the time of the novella.
 
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Time Enough

"Enthusiastic Cis Male Partner"
Pronouns
He/Him
[3] Eisenhower doesn't seem of the right temperament given the basically unending "Red Scare" by this time; thought about McCarthy, but that seemed a bit obvious. Currently thinking about Dewey, as one of the last "moderate" GOP types and the other end of the "bipartisan anticommunist bridge"; if anybody's got ideas, share away!
Harold Stassen, Moderate but also Anti-Communist is a good pick.
 

theev

Las Vegas is a society of armed masturbators
Pronouns
he/him
(Modern) Presidents of the United States /// Presidents of the North American Technate

1913 - 1916: Woodrow Wilson / Thomas Marshall (Democratic)
1912 def. Theodore Roosevelt / Hiram Johnson (Progressive), William Howard Taft / James S. Sherman (Republican), Eugene V. Debs / Emil Seidel (Socialist)
1916 - 1917: Charles Evans Hughes / vacant (Republican)
1917 - 1919: Charles Evans Hughes / Warren G. Harding (Republican)
1916 def. Woodrow Wilson / Thomas Marshall (Democratic)
1919 - 1921: Warren G. Harding / vacant (Republican)
1921 - 1925: Warren G. Harding / Calvin Coolidge (Republican)
1920 def. Woodrow Wilson / Lawrence Tyson (Democratic)
1925 - 1929: Henry Ford / John W. Davis (Democratic)
1924 def. Warren G. Harding / J. Will Taylor (Republican), Robert M. La Follette Sr. / Burton K. Wheeler (Progressive)
1929 - 1933: Calvin Coolidge / Herbert Hoover (Republican)
1928 def. Henry Ford / John W. Davis (Democratic)
1933 - 1935: Calvin Coolidge / Andrew Mellon (Republican)
1932 def. Al Smith / William G. McAdoo (Democratic), William H. Murray / various (Southern Democratic), Norman Thomas / James H. Maurer (Socialist)
1935 - 1935: Andrew Mellon / vacant (Republican)
1935 - 1935: Jacob Coxey (Coxey's Jobless Army to Restore the Republic)
1935 - 1937: Andrew Mellon (Republican)
1937 - 1937: Henry Ford / Hugh S. Johnson (Democratic)
1936 def. Herbert Hoover / Styles Bridges (Republican), Norman Thomas / Upton Sinclair (Socialist)
1937 - 1942: Henry Ford / Hugh S. Johnson (Organization)
1942 - 1943: Henry Ford / Howard Scott (Organization)
1943 - 1949: Howard Scott / Alvin M. Owsley (Organization)
1942 - Approved by the Organization
1949 - 1955: Alvin M. Owsley / Prescott Bush (Organization)
1948 - Contested by the Organization
1948 def. Rexford Tugwell / Walter Rautenstrauch (Organization), various spoiled ballots

1955 - 1961: Buckminster Fuller / Henry J. Kaiser (Organization)
1954 - Contested by the Organization
1954 def. Prescott Bush / Howard Hughes (Organization)

1961 - 1967: Robert Moses / Philip Willkie (Organization)
1960 - Approved by the Organization
1967 - 1973: B. F. Skinner / C. Douglas Dillon (Organization)
1966 - Contested by the Organization
1966 def. Richard Nixon / Howard Hughes (Organization)

1973 - 1979: George F. Kennan / Joseph P. Kennedy Jr. (Organization)
1972 - Approved by the Organization
1979 - 1981: Richard Helms / George Bush (Organization)
1978 - Approved by the Organization
1981 - 1982: George Bush / vacant (Organization)
1982 - 1982:
Andrew Goodpaster (Military Transition Council)

The scars left by American involvement in World War I (1916 - 1919) and German-American Internment (1918 - 1919) created the powder keg of 1919 as economic recession and ethnic tensions exploded in a summer of labor strife and racial violence. President Hughes would be assassinated by an anarchist's bomb while on leave at his townhouse in New York in late summer, joining thousands upon thousands of Americans whose lives were already claimed by depression and violence.

Warren G. Harding would seemingly right the ship of state. The violence would subside by election season and by then the economy was turning up enough to prevent Wilson's comeback. But Harding would fair far worse in his own term than he did finishing Hughes' term. Corruption around Harding's Secretary of the Interior and the burgeoning oil industry would dominate the early 1920s and ultimately doom his re-election campaign as Bob La Follette's left-wing independent ticket won several western states and Senator Henry Ford was able to unite the disparate wings of the Democratic Party.

Ford's administration would find great difficulty getting its agenda through a Republican congress, largely only being able to push Republican-sponsored economic legislation. Ford's status as a potential lame duck - in an era where many Americans were withdrawing from politics - would continue past the midterms and even contribute to his narrow loss against the "Republican Dream Ticket" of former Vice President Calvin Coolidge and businessman Herbert Hoover.

With an administration untainted by the scandals of the recent past, the Republicans sought to utilize their nigh-unprecedented control of government. At least until the Black Friday crash of May, 1930. The Great Depression (1930 - 1941) crippled Coolidge's administration, especially as he pointedly attempted to roll back what little financial regulations there were in its wake. By the time election season came around in 1932, Coolidge's presidency was on life support. "Coolidgeville" tent cities had sprung up across the nation and the President's nickname "Silent Cal" was used in a far more pejorative way due to his inaction. At the 1932 RNC it seemed like Coolidge barely wanted the job anymore. But before he could formally recuse himself, Vice President Hoover attempted a challenge and Coolidge's allies cajoled him to fight Hoover and bring the nomination to a vote. With a narrow victory over Hoover on the first ballot, Coolidge now found himself trapped with the big money interests who sought to prop him up against his rivals. Treasury Secretary Andrew Mellon, a man seen as almost as responsible for the Depression as Coolidge, was now to serve concurrently as both Treasury Secretary and VP.

Meanwhile, the 1932 DNC ended with the supposed "Democratic Dream Ticket" of former New York Governor Al Smith and California Senator William G. McAdoo. This ticket was not a dream for most of the Democratic base, however. Smith's Catholicism caused a southern walkout led by the populist Oklahoma Governor William H. Murray, and the ticket's alienation of progressives was a massive shot in the arm for the surging Socialists. These problems and more would set back the Smith campaign and on election night Coolidge would pull off a narrow electoral college victory, despite losing the popular vote.

Coolidge's second administration was no better than his first. The President's health could at best be described as diminishing and so more and more responsibilities were placed on the lap of Secretary Vice President Mellon. After the 1934 midterms the Republicans would finally lose control of both houses of Congress. But now the newly inaugurated President Mellon would veto even some of the most meagre recovery plans. With the President's popularity nearing the single-digits, men like Jacob Coxey sought to galvanize extra-legal opposition to the President. In early September, 1935 "Coxey's Army" marched on Washington once again, except this time thousands marched on the houses of American governance demanding relief. The Capitol Building and White House would be briefly seized before the U.S. army would ultimately rout the marchers. Mellon, forced to evacuate to Richmond, now had his already tenuous legitimacy shattered. Upon his arrival back at the White House, congressional leaders held Mellon hostage and threatened impeachment if he doesn't vow against running in 1936 and support an aid package.

The race to succeed Mellon was already decided on the Republican side. Former Vice President Herbert Hoover ran an "I told you so" campaign while the Democrats turned to the only man who able to unite the party a decade earlier. In the end it was very close. Institutional damage to the Republican Party made voting for the GOP a poison pill for most voters and Henry Ford would be ushered back into the White House in a landslide as Norman Thomas' Socialists collected nearly 20% of the vote.

Back in the White House, Ford had a mandate large enough to do anything. And so he did. Ford called on a long-time associate, Technocracy Inc. leader Howard Scott, to join him in rebuilding the country. With the approval of the nation's business moguls and several prominent politicians, Ford suspended the Constitution and took on the American Legion as his personal bodyguard. By the fall, the United States was no more - replaced by the North American Technate and its governing Organization.

Ford's rule was comprehensive but would ultimately not last. A stroke in 1941 left him largely incapacitated, with governing responsibilities split between Chief Secretary Howard Scott and the terminally ill Vice President Hugh Johnson. In 1942's first Organization-run selection Scott and his running mate would win well over the three-fifths required for instant approval. Now, it was time for the Technate's James Madison to govern as President.

And govern he would, in the eyes of many. The implementation of the Price System was finally finished and although territorial expansion was a no-go many Latin American countries would end up adopting Technate-inspired governments, rivalling the growing spheres of Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan. The Technate would even fare better than just about any other nation during the so-called German Recession (1945 - 1949) of the late 40s.

Divisions within the Organization would boil over in time for the 1948 selection. An internal faction of liberals and progressives who had survived the Second Red Scare (1937 - 1941) had finally regrouped enough to openly challenge the hard-right wing presumptive nominee, Alvin Owsley. In the initial selection Owsley barely garnered over 50% of vote and the selection was forced into an open contest. Director for Urban Planning Rexford Tugwell - his star rising - answered the call and challenged Owsley alongside former Chief Secretary Walter Rautenstrauch. Together the two called for a return to "traditional American democracy," a relaxation on economic controls, the re-legalization of unions, and an overhaul of the new Constitution. Despite their vision they would fail. Although Owsley would barely scrape off more votes to achieve a 51% total, it would be enough to carry him over the line. Owsley's first directives in office would contribute to the start of the Third Red Scare (1949 - 1954).

The mandate that allowed Owsley to carry out an internal party purge would not last him long enough to leave a more substantive legacy. An economic downturn in 1954 would ultimately poison the nomination of his chosen successor in favor of two business gurus who to most Americans (and more importantly, most members of the Organization) embodied the new society they were in. Director for Interstate Infrastructure Buckminster Fuller was considered to be the "new Henry Ford" after his Dymaxion cars took over American roadways in the 1930s and 40s while business magnate Henry J. Kaiser used his new telecommunications clout to promise a television in the home of every American. Fuller, along with his successor Robert Moses, would create the (at least superficially) prosperous, (mostly) peaceful America that members of Generation 4 remember.

But calamity would strike in 1963. The death of Hitler led to a nuclear civil war that devastated Europe and caused the disintegration of the overseas Nazi Empire in a matter of months. Careful balance of power forged during the nascent Cold War had ended. In 1964, the leaders of Japan's corporate Zaibatsus leveraged their power to purge an increasingly aggressive and cultish armed forces. By early 1966, American military forces had been sent into more military conflicts in the past five years than in the ten before that. Out from the shadows of this chaos came America's next President, Director for Citizen Morale B. F. Skinner.

Skinner was an unorthodox candidate, with an unconventional personal background and having come from an obscure cabinet position, but when his name was floated during Organization deliberations people took note of him. Skinner vowed to use his knowledge of the human psyche to create a utopia, one where the Organization and America would be dominant while the average citizen would be complacent and satisfied. But Skinner's academic idealism wasn't universally respected within the Organization and come time for the initial selection Skinner would receive just shy of 45% of the vote, opening up space for a challenger. That challenger would come in the form of Pacifica's Commanding Director Richard Nixon, who campaigned on jingoism and confrontation with those who threatened America's resource interests. Nixon and Skinner each vigorously campaigned across Organization back-rooms but Nixon seemed to be the predicted winner. Nixon would not win in the end though, as Skinner would pull through by a fraction of a percentage point - likely due to last minute support he acquired from President Moses.

Skinner's experiments failed. His attempts to use universities as psychological testing grounds for the next utopia turned the nation's massive youth demographic against him, and his heavy-handed attempts at population control earned condemnations from across the world. Organization hawks ruthlessly criticized Skinner for his retreat from global affairs and blamed him for potentially leading Japan and decolonization movements get the upper hand. After all his promises of a better world, Skinner's faction would be rejected as Director for African Diplomacy George F. Kennan used the birth of the Pan-African Bloc to fearmonger his way into the Executive Mansion.

Kennan's wars were a disaster. The Pan-African War (1973 - 1982) resulted in millions of casualties cumulatively and the series of sporadic "Resource Wars" across the Middle East and Latin America drained American manpower and morale. The rise of Japan would be thwarted - however - by China in the Sino-Japanese War (1975). Tens of millions died in the brutal nuclear conflict and America was left as king of the ashes.

Kennan's chose successor, Richard Helms, easily won in the initial selection as a terrified Organization desperately hoped that a victory overseas would lead to the end of domestic discontent and economic stagnation. Helms did not know that he would preside over the end of the Organization's regime. The Technate was typically responsive to domestic threats (see: the crushing of the Appalachian Revolt (1952) and the King Alfred Revolt (1967)) and the price system tended to institutionally dissuade even protest but the efficacy of domestic intelligence had been decreasing in recent years and by late 1981 most of those who cared in government were anticipating a Pan-African inspired black revolt that was never seriously in the works.

And then it happened.

The Last Persecution occurred on Christmas Day, 1981. On that day factory workers lynched their bosses, soldiers turned on their commanding officers, students fought university administration, and tens of millions marched in the streets - paralyzing the Organization at its very core. In the nation's capital of Columbia, located in the exact geographical center of the country, President Helms struggled to maintain control of the country with every region outside of the capital reporting various levels of dissidence. The next morning, Helms resigned the presidency and fled to London, leaving George Bush to cling on to the end of the Organization. And cling he would. On the 27th, Columbia was put under siege by rebelling soldiers so George "The Butcher of Omaha" Bush moved the capital of his rump regime to Omaha as the city's streets ran red with dissident blood. But Bush's emergency regime wouldn't last. On February 5th, with the Organization's final holdouts under siege, President Bush signed a conditional surrender to the military leaders that had turned on the Organization just weeks before.

Now it waits to be seen whether Andrew Goodpaster and the Military Transition Council can keep together a deeply divided nation amidst a collapsing global order.
 

Blackentheborg

Dennis Skinner's molotov
Location
Llareggub, Wales
Pronouns
He/Him
Prime Ministers of New Zealand

2017-2024: Jacinda Ardern (Labour-NZFirst coalition w/ Green c&s, then Labour majority)

'17: defeated Bill English (National), James Shaw (Green), Winston Peters (NZFirst), David Seymour (ACT), Te Ururoa Flavell/Marama Fox (Māori), others
'20: defeated Judith Collins (National), David Seymour (ACT), Winston Peters (NZFirst), James Shaw/Marama Davidson (Green), Jami-Lee Ross/Billy Te Kahika (Advance NZ), Geoff Simmons (TOP), John Tamihere/Debbie Ngarewa-Packe (Māori), others

- Introduction of the Zero Carbon Bill, nationwide ban on plastic bags
- Attack on Christchurch mosque by white ethnonationalist kills 51
- First world leader to give birth in office in almost 30 years
- Land occupation standoff at Ihumātao
- Referendum to decriminalise cannabis fails by 3.6%
- COVID-19 pandemic results in national lockdown, economic slump
- Housing affordability at worst point in 'at least 17 years', NZ declared as having the highest homeless population in the OECD
- Federated Farmers strike results in repeal of planned alterations to the emissions trading scheme
- Brunswick Variant outbreak results in second national lockdown, accusations of 'socialistic fascism' by the right-wing
- 2023 Recession exacerbates housing crisis

2024-2031: Christopher Luxon (National minority w/ ACT & Conscious Conservative c&s, then Conscious Conservative c&s)
'24: defeated Jacinda Ardern (Labour), James Shaw/Marama Davidson (Green), Matt McCarten (People Before Profit), Okusitino Paseka (Conscious Conservative), Will 'Ilolahia (Polynesian Panthers), Rawiri Waititi/Mariameno Kapa-Kingi (Māori), David Seymour (ACT), others
'28: defeated Kiri Allan (Labour), Marama Davidson/Ricardo Menéndez March (Green), Brooke van Velden (ACT), John Minto (People Before Profit), Okusitino Paseka (Conscious Conservative), Vanessa Kururangi (Mana Movement), Andrew Bayly (Rally for NZ), Tākuta Ferris (Māori), others

- Resource Management Act repealed and water regulations revoked
- Privatisation of public libraries, Kiwirail and city bus services, creating conflict with City Councils
- GAPCPS trade agreement signed with China amid widespread human rights abuses
- Hospital workers protest nationwide amid budget cuts for healthcare
- Second referendum to decriminalise cannabis fails following 'unapologetic fear-mongering'
- Housing market slump sees increased sale of state houses, homelessness climbs to 3.3% nationwide
- Rupturing of the Alpine Faultline

2031-2032: Christopher Luxon & Kiri Allan (Crisis Government)
serving with National, Labour, Green, Conscious Conservative and ACT parties
- 19,202 deaths, 16,157 injured, and 11,529 people missing as of most recent census
- South Island agriculture and infrastructure declared 'unsalvageable', subsequent Migrant Crisis in the North Island
- Govt. purges remaining assets amid fiscal hole, triples national debt
- Hate crimes surge once again as emergency hosting comes into effect
- 'Millionaires fleeing kiwi shores' as property investors move en-masse to Australia
- Nelson-Tasman claimed as ground zero for the Felon Labour Agricultural Renewal Scheme
- Refugee quota halted indefinitely in face of national crisis

2032-2035: Christopher Luxon (National Majority)
defeated Jessica Hammond (Labour), Marama Davidson/Ricardo Menéndez March (Green), Brooke van Velden (ACT), James Roberts (People Before Profit), Lee Williams (Conscious Conservative), Tākuta Ferris (Māori), Solomon Tor-Kilsen (South Island Independence Movement), others
- National economy floats thanks to rapid foreign investment
- Auckland labeled 'deathtrap' due to housing shortage
- PM passes law revoking journalist protections for entities 'overtly critical of the government mechanism'
- Outlaw motorcycle clubs arrested with cache of 'military-grade weaponary, planned violent government overthrow'
- Report: 'little-to-no' evidence found of biker gangs planning coup
- GCSB preforms multiple arrests of antigovernment agitators

2035-20??: David Seymour (National Majority)
defeated Jessica Hammond (Labour), Felix Poole (ACT), Lee Williams (Conscious Conservative), Chloe Swarbrick (Green), Te Ropu Poa (Māori), Samuel Buitrago (New Communist Party of Aotearoa), others
- Widespread accusations of electoral fraud reported
- Nuclear Free Zone Act reversed to 'combat increased demands for energy'
- Hate crimes against Asian New Zealanders, Pasifika peoples surge due to increased use of domestic hosting schemes
- Prime Minister calls demands for reinstatement of the Public Health Service 'subversive marxism'
- Felon Labour Agricultural Renewal Scheme expands land purchases down South Island disaster zones
- Increased theft and assault in ultra-dense metropolitan areas spurs instatement of volunteer Civilian Patrol Corps
- Expose reveals government 'refused' to investigate mystery fires that burned down migrant tent cities

*​

Leaders of the Ātete Movement

2036-20??: Lourdes Vano

serving with Revolutionary Senior Council
- Based in South Island, carry out acts of domestic terrorism on 'Milk Farms' and structures of strategic importance in the North
- Members of the public sympathetic to Ātete harassed by law enforcement
- Prime Minister maintains Ātete is financed by 'foreign interests'
- Time Magazine features cover detailing "The Troubles Down Under"
 

Persephone

Mishima Themboy
Pronouns
they/them
Just gonna yeet this out into the ether so it's not plaguing my mind anymore. Writeup may or may not come at a later point in time.
A/N: This list is from the broader timeline of my steampunk succession game on the other place, Destiny Made Manifest, and parts of it (particularly the McClellan presidency) are subject to change.

Presidents of the American Republics (The USA, The CSA, and The CAR)

The United States of America
1861 - 1865: Abraham Lincoln / Hannibal Hamlin (Republican Party)
1865 - 1869: Abraham Lincoln / Andrew Johnson (Republican Party)
1869 - 1873: George H. Pendleton / George B. McClellan (Unionist Democratic Party)
1873 - 1884: George B. McClellan / Winfield Scott Hancock (Unionist Party)

The Confederate States of America
1862 - 1869: Jefferson Davis / Alexander Stephens (Nonpartisan)
1869 - 1873:
Alexander Stephens / Judah P. Benjamin (Democratic Party)
1873 - 1879: John H. Reagan / Robert Toombs (Democratic Party)
1879 - 1884: Jubal Early / Wade Hampton III (Democratic Party)



The Central American Republic
1858 - 1861: William Walker (Democratic Party)
1861 - 1861: Chatham Roberdeau Wheat (Interim President)
1861 - 1869: George Grimshaw (Democratic Party / Knights of Japheth)
1869 - 1879: George Washington Danson (Democratic Party / Military Clique)
1879 - 1884: Andrew Lette (National Party /
Military Clique)
 
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cikka

Keir With A Gun
Location
Kentkingsh- kentklungklicklingshirekington
Pronouns
she/her
i went slightly insane this morning



The United Communist Federation, British Regional Branch Paramount Leaders

1962: General Ivan Konev
1962-1987: Gerry Healy (Socialist Worker's Party)
1987: Peter Taaffe-Ted Knight-Arthur Scargill (Socialist Worker's Party)
1987-1988: Peter Taaffe (Socialist Worker's Party)
1988-1990: Arthur Scargill (Socialist Worker's Party)


Leaders of The United Kingdom of Great Britain

1990-1992: Derek Hatton (New Beginning)

The British Civil War
1992-2005: Stage One (Major Conflict)


MAJOR FACTIONS
The Socialist Alliance
1992: Ken Livingstone-Tommy Sheridan-Arthur Scargill
1992-2005: Tommy Sheridan
2005-: George Galloway


The Organisation of Royalists (Nicknamed "The Purple Boys")

(De Jure)
1992-: Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II

(De Facto)
1992-1995: "The Commissioner" Jeffrey Archer
1995-2005: "The Admiral" Ian Duncan Smith

2005- "The General" (Name Unknown)


MINOR INSURGENCY GROUPS
"The Tartans"
1992-2008: George Kerevan


"The Army of Wales"
1992-: No Central Leadership

"The Alliance For A White Britain"
1992-: No Central Leadership

Treaty of Calais Signed, United Kingdom of Great Britain Re-Established

2005-: Stage Two (Active Insurgency, Ongoing)

2005-2015: Charles Kennedy (New Radicals)
2005 (Majority) def: Ian Duncan Smith (Conservative), Collective Leadership (Scottish Interests), Ken Livingstone-Arthur Scargill (Stop French Interference/Free The Prisoners)
2010 (Minority) def: Ian Duncan Smith (Conservative), Michael Sugar (Torch Of Liberty), George Kerevan (Scottish Socialist Clan), Graeme Logan (Scottish Interests)

2015-: Michael Sugar (Torch Of Liberty)
2015 (Majority) def: Charles Kennedy (New Radicals), Ian Duncan Smith (Conservative), Progressive Alliance (Zac Goldsmith (Earth)-Ash Sarkar (Freedom For Minorities)), Graeme Logan (Scottish Interests)
2020 Election Suspended due to ongoing pandemic and the "Liverpool Nuke"
 
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