• Hi Guest!

    The costs of running this forum are covered by Sea Lion Press. If you'd like to help support the company and the forum, visit patreon.com/sealionpress

Lists of Heads of Government and Heads of State

Walpurgisnacht

Sequential woodcuttings
Location
Banned from the forum
Pronouns
He/Him
I think this is the stupidest idea I've ever had for a list.

For A Certain Value of Elected

Presidents of the United Kingdom:


2000-2024: Elizabeth Windsor (Independent)
def 2000: George Galloway (REVIVE--The People Power Movement), Jon Temple (Res Publica)
def 2005: unopposed
def 2010: unopposed
def 2015: unopposed
def 2020: unopposed

2024-2030: Charles Windsor (Indepedent, then Green)
def 2025: unopposed
2030-xxxx: Harry Windsor (National Health Action)
def 2030: William Windsor (Independent), Charles Windsor (Green)

The 'Millennium Republic' project was perhaps an example of Blair overreaching himself. The original idea was simple--Britain would be free from being represented on the world stage by an arbitrary unelected member of the Windsor family, and instead be able to choose some worthy statesman who could properly act as a unifying figure for the whole of the UK. Unfortunately, while the PM had managed to talk Elizabeth round into stepping down, he hadn't entirely reckoned on the queen's intense popularity with the public, which had persisted despite the scandals around Andrew and the death of Diana. When wealthy private citizen Elizabeth Windsor announced her independent run for the Presidency, she was quickly endorsed by a vast array of figures and parties, and after Labour's preferred candidate David Attenborough declined to run, there was little other alternative. Elizabeth was swept to victory over a pair of republican campaigns that spent more time attacking each other than her, and proceeded to preside much as she had done since 1953.

Then, in 2024, things changed. Again. While the country went into mourning over the death of a woman most still referred to as 'the Queen', Charles Windsor, private citizen and owner of Duchy Originals Organic Food, was startled to discover he was still next in line. Apparently Elizabeth had decided that she may as well go with tradition in naming her Vice-President. The wave of public sympathy was enough for Charles to sweep back into office, but then the trouble started. Unlike his mother, Charles wasn't content to let the country run itself. Many saw his open alignment with a political party, and his subsequent lobbying on their behalf (he even made an appearance in their European election campaign video), as not very fitting of the standards of the office. Others merely saw the causes he lobbied for as problems, disliking his preferences for premodern architecture and population control, wishing that he would speak out on inequality and mental health. Eventually, things came to a head.

The 2030 election was fundamentally a battle between two different visions of the Presidency. Should it be an impartial figurehead that represented the nation without changing it, or should it be a politicised role that tried to change the nation at the risk of no longer representing it? Charles' campaign for re-election quickly fell by the wayside, with a well-publicised falling out with new Green leader Magid Magid losing him the party's support. The election had become a race between two brothers, neither of whom seemed to really want to be there. William reiterated over and over that he was only running due to the tarnishing of the Presidential office by his father, and Harry had only agreed to run under his minor-party banner because of a perception by the public that only a Windsor could win. Now, after a family spat cunningly disguised as an election concludes, and the UK's first Presidential Instagram Account begins operation, the British people wonder how their Presidential system ended up as the worst of both worlds.
 

Bolt451

BOOK IT, TONY!
Location
Sandford, Gloucestershire
Pronouns
She/Her
Things Can Always Be Worse:
2019-2023: Boris Johnson (Conservative)

2019 (Majority) def: Jermey Corbyn (Labour), Jo Swinson (Liberal Democrats), Nicola Sturgeon (SNP), Johnathan Bartley-Sian Berry (Green Party)
2023-2024: Grant Shapps (Conservative)
2024-2032: Keir Starmer (Labour)
2024 (Lib Dem & SNP Confidence & Supply) def: Grant Shapps (Conservative), Ed Davey (Lib Dems), Kate Forbes (SNP), Johnathan Bartley-Sian Berry (Green Party), Nigel Farage (Reform)
2025 Scottish Referendum: Remain 54%, Leave 46%
2025 British Referendum: Federalism 60%, Union 40%
2026 MMP Referendum: For 53%, Against 47%
2028 (Coalition with Greens & Lib Dems) def: Rishi Sunak (Conservative), Ed Davey (Lib Dems), Kate Forbes (SNP), Mhiari Black (Scottish Progressive Party), Sian Berry-Magid Magid (Green), Nigel Farage (Reform), Laura Pidcock (Workers)

2032-2036: Nus Ghani (Conservative)
2032 (Coalition with Reform & Workers) def: Keir Starmer (Labour), Layla Moran (Lib Dems), Kate Forbes (SNP), Mhairi Black (SPP), Alexandra Philips-Magid Magid (Green), Ben Bradley (Reform), Laura Pidcock (Workers)
2036-2042: Angela Rayner (Labour)
2036 (Coalition with Greens) def: Nus Ghani (Conservative), Layla Moran (Lib Dems), Mhairi Black (SPP), Tom Pashby-Alexandra Philips (Green), Ben Bradley-Laura Pidcock (Workers-Reform), Ash Sarkar-Bradley Allsop (Alternative)
2040 (Coalition with Greens & Alternative) def: Elliot Colburn (Conservative), Katharine Macy (Lib Dems), Mhairi Black (SPP), Tom Pashby-Talia Ormand (Green), Darren Grimes (Reform Alliance), Ash Sarkar-Bradley Allsop (Alternative)

2042-: Nadia Whittome (Labour)
2044 (Coalition with Greens) def: Elliot Colburn (Conservative), Katharine Macy (Lib Dems), Mhairi Black (SPP), Tom Pashby-Talia Ormand (Green), Darren Grimes (Reform Alliance), Ash Sarkar-Lucy Madigan (Alternative)

2044...And so Labour wins another term, the Socialist Promise of Nadia Whittome and her Deputy Leader Arthur Webber curtailing the Left Wing Populism and Aging Corbynism of Alternative, Elliot Colburn’s bland but stable leadership is no match for the power of Darren Grimes and the schizophrenic Reform Alliance, Tom Pashby and Talia Ormand have showcased there Green Mandate for Change that isn’t ‘Build More Sea Walls’, Mhairi Black is rather confused how her party has managed to survive whilst the SNP descended into a squabbling match over Referendum’s, Trans Rights and Sturgeon’s legacy and Katherine Macy is just happy that the Liberal Democrat’s are still going really, gained two extra seats, thanks MMP.

Oh also the NIP is threatening to succeed from the Federal Union to uphold Burnham’s memory, the Netherlands is underwater, President Cortez is fighting the illegitimate Free States and Pakistan is radioactive slag. So...not the best scenario.

I chose someone I knew for the other Alternative leader because it isn’t hard to see him leading a Corbynite Left Wing Populist outfit. No one tell him this though.
I half jokingly told Arthur Webber on Twitter that I'd write him as an MP in some alternate history or scifi. I didnt tell him this had already happened.
 

Time Enough

"Enthusiastic Cis Male Partner"
Pronouns
He/Him
Leaders of the Labour Party:
1963-1976: Harold Wilson
1976-1979: Michael Foot
1979-1984: Denis Healey
1984-: Neil Kinnock


Deputy Leaders of the Labour Party:
1960-1970: George Brown
1970-1972: Roy Jenkins
1972-1976: Ted Short
1976-1979: Denis Healey
1979-1984: Roy Hattersley
1984-: Micheal Meacher


Prime Ministers of Great Britain:
1974-1976: Harold Wilson (Labour)

1974 (Majority) def: Ted Heath (Conservative), Jeremy Thorpe (Liberal)
1976-1978: Michael Foot (Labour)
1978-1985: Margaret Thatcher (Conservative)
1978 (Majority) def: Michael Foot (Labour), Roy Jenkins-David Steel (Alliance)
1983 (Majority) def: Denis Healey (Labour), David Owen-David Steel (Alliance), Bob Cryer (Solidarity)
1985-1988: Michael Heseltine (Conservative)
1986 (Coalition with *SDP) def: Neil Kinnock (Labour), David Owen (*SDP), Shirley Williams-David Steel (Alliance), Pat Wall (Solidarity)
1988-: Neil Kinnock (Labour)
1988 (Majority) def: Michael Heseltine (Conservative), Rosie Barnes (*SDP), Paddy Ashdown (Alliance), Frank Field-Liz Davies (Solidarity)

1976, Wilson steps down and whilst in the midst of a chaotic leadership election James Callaghan slips in the bath and suffers a concussion. Whilst not enough to stop him losing the first ballot it does give Jenkins a slight boost in support which makes him stay on the second ballot. With Jenkins and Callaghan splitting the Right, Foot manages to break in on the Left but any perception that this would mean Trotskyism and Red Flags in Britain was sadly mistaken. Foot's Government besieged by financial problems and other issues is unable to succeed in dealing with the raises in unemployment and problems with the Trade Unions, however Foot does decide to promote some new young radicals to the Front Bench with folks like Gould and importantly Kinnock getting some Junior Minister jobs. Kinnock in the dying rumblings of the Foot Government is briefly promoted to Secretary of Education as Roy Jenkins and Co decide that Labour's time is up and creates the Social Democrats decreeing that Benn was too strong an influence on Foot. In the spring of 1978, Labour goes to the polls and despite putting up a good fight, Thatcher wins a substantial majority as the Alliance bites into Labour's vote.

The subsequent leadership election is won by Denis Healey decisively against Peter Shore and the Right comes into power of the Labour Party machinations...it doesn't work out. The hunt against Militant becomes a clusterfuck and instead of a slow trickle and death of British Trotskyism the massive kick outs and perception by some on the Left that Militant is being unfairly treated by the Right means a bizarre gaggle of Bennites, Trots and Left Wing oddities join 'Solidarity'. The economy bounces back, Thatcher is rather popular and the Falklands occurs, leading to 1983 becoming a wash for Labour as Healey is unable to deal with the more modern campaigns of the Conservatives and Alliance with a landslide victory occurring for Thatcher. The subsequent leadership elections are considered a referendum on the Labour Right's ability to govern and with the Kinnock-Meacher ticket winning indicating that the answer is a firm 'NO'!

Kinnock helps correct the ship, leading a Modern but Left Wing Labour in reaction to the failure of the Labour Right to modernise either, meanwhile Solidarity's mask slips off during problems with the Liverpool Council, Thatcher battles Heseltine in 1985 over Westland and crashes and burns as Heseltine becomes leader and Owen starts disagreeing with David Steel. The chaos within the Conservative Government ripples outwards and what seems to be a definite Conservative victory becomes a hung parliament with Conservative advantage as Solidarity popularity tumbles off a cliff, Kinnock is able to use the chaos of the Tory Government to his advantage and David Owen nearly destroys the Alliance by taking the 'Gang of Four 2' with him into a coalition with the Conservatives. Within the next two chaotic years nothing much is done and Heseltine stays around by just his finger nails whilst Owen buggers off to the House of Lords in the Winter of 1988.

1988 Heseltine lose a vote of confidence and once again the parties go to the nation, and after 10 years of chaotic rule, Kinnock's stable vision of a Modern, Nuclear Free, Social Democratic Britain seems to appeal to the public over whatever Heseltine has to offer.

And so Kinnock wins and his vision of achieving a 'Bevanite 21st Century' as he joked at the 1987 Labour Party conference may turn out to be true...
 

Time Enough

"Enthusiastic Cis Male Partner"
Pronouns
He/Him
I half jokingly told Arthur Webber on Twitter that I'd write him as an MP in some alternate history or scifi. I didnt tell him this had already happened.
We must ensure that Webber never finds out about this forum for this reason (I half joke). But he would be a fun character in a '2017 Goes Differently or Something' timeline or something like that.
 

Mumby

Always mysterious!
Published by SLP
Location
Municipal Commune of Bourne
Pronouns
He/Him
really lazy list but i made it on a sunday so sue me

what if the second placed person in the primary got the nom

and if the second placed person is 'uncommitted' or something i am not making lyndon larouche president or validating stassen '84, i just assume the incumbent is renominated

1961-1965: Hubert Humphrey (Democratic)
1960 (with George Wallace) def. Nelson Rockefeller (Republican)
1965-1968: George Wallace (Democratic)
1964 (with Bobby Kennedy) def. Nelson Rockefeller (Republican)
1968-1969: George Wallace (American Independent)
1969-1972: Nelson Rockefeller (Republican)
1968 (with John M. Ashbrook) def. Bobby Kennedy (Democratic), George Wallace (American Independent)
1972-1977: John M. Ashbrook (Republican)
1972 (with Rogers Morton) def. Hubert Humphrey (Democratic)
1977-1981: Jerry Brown (Democratic)
1976 (with John Glenn) def. Ronald Reagan (Republican)
1981-1989: George Bush (Republican)
1980 (with Jack Kemp) def. Ted Kennedy (Democratic)
1984 (with Jack Kemp) def. Gary Hart (Democratic)

1989-1993: Bob Dole (Republican)
1988 (with John McCain) def. Jesse Jackson (Democratic)
1993-2001: Jerry Brown (Democratic)
1992 (with Jay Rockefeller) def. Pat Buchanan (Official 'Populist' Republican), Ross Perot (Independent 'National' Republican)
1996 (with Jay Rockefeller) def. Ross Perot (United We Stand), Pat Buchanan (Republican)

2001-2009: John McCain (United, co-endorsed by Republicans)
2000 (with Colin Powell) def. Bill Bradley (Democratic)
2004 (with Colin Powell) def. John Edwards (Democratic)

2009-2017: Hillary Rodham (Independent, co-endorsed by United and Democrats)
2008 (with Evan Bayh) def. Mitt Romney (Republican)
2012 (with Evan Bayh) def. Rick Santorum (Republican)

2017-2019: Ted Cruz (Republican, co-endorsed by United)
2016 (with Chris Christie) def. Bernie Sanders (Independent, co-endorsed by Democrats)
2019-2021: Ted Cruz (Christian Alliance)
2021-0000: Bernie Sanders (Our Revolution)
2020 (with Julian Castro) def. Bill Weld (Independent, co-endorsed by Democrats, United and Republicans)

EDIT: I've obviously head-canoned some stuff with this list, and the basic gimmick I saw with this list is that its a TL where Civil Rights legislation gets kicked down the road until the early 70s - all the while the Movement grows more frustrated and violent. This culminates in the assassination of Rockefeller by some Weather Underground type outfit. The irony is that Rockefeller is a sort of Alexander II type figure, the architect of this TL's Civil Rights Act and his death pushes into power more hardline conservatives, who bring the hammer down on the hard left while seeking the votes of Southern whites.

The Republican coalition ultimately collapses in on itself in the late 80s, it turning out that turning the Rockefeller years into a semi-mythical Camelot whilst simultaneously rolling back his legacy, is kind of contradictory. The Democrats surge back into power, successfully repeal term limits, and replace the electoral college with a two-round system. This proves extremely beneficial to the United Party of moderate conservatives, as opposed to the increasingly theocratic GOP. While the Brownite Consensus holds through the McCain and Rodham Administrations, the success of radical Bernie Sanders - a beneficiary of Brown Administration amnesty for imprisoned members of the Movement - sees Ted Cruz thrust into power where he immediately brings his personal messiah complex to bear upon the American Constitution. It is in these circumstances that 'the most important election of our lifetimes' is held in 2020.
 
Last edited:
A vaguely Mexico-like US.


1933-1940: Franklin Delano Roosevelt (Democratic)
1932 (with John Nance Garner) def. Herbert Hoover (Republican)
1936 (with John Nance Garner) def. Alf Landon (Republican)

1940-1947: Franklin Delano Roosevelt (Party of National Development)
1940 (with J. Melville Broughton) def. Harry Byrd (True Democratic), Thomas Dewey (Republican)
1944 (with Henry J. Kaiser) def. Arthur Vandenburg (Republican), Howard W. Smith (True Democratic), Raymond Moley (Independent)

1947-1953: Henry J. Kaiser (Party of National Development)
1948 (with Harry Truman) def. Dewey Short (Republican and 'establishment True Democratic' fusion), Fiorella La Guardia (Progressive), William Z. Foster (Communist), Norman Stephens (Second Silver Legion and 'grassroots True Democratic' fusion)
1953-1961: Dwight D. Eisenhower (Party of National Development)
1952 (with Thomas Corcoran) def. Robert Taft (Republican), John L. McClellan (American Conservative), Allen Dulles (National Liberal), Earl Browder (Communist)
1956 (with Thomas Corcoran) def. Ellis Yarnal Berry (Republican and American Conservative fusion), Henry Cabot Lodge (National Liberal), Earl Browder (Communist), Robert Heinlein (Independent Developmentalist)

1961-1965: Clare Booth (Party of National Development)
1960 (with James H.R. Cromwell) def. Harold Stassen (Republican), George W. Andrews (American Conservative and 'Conservative Republican' fusion), Earl Browder (Communist), Talullah Bankhead (Independent)
1965-1969: Thomas Eagleton (Party of National Development)
1964 (with Pat Brown) def. Malcolm Little (Communist), Orval Faubus (Party of American Patriots), Harold Stassen (Republican), David J. Mays (American Conservative)
1969-1971: Hubert H. Humphrey (Party of National Development)
1968 (with S.I. Hayakawa) def. Michael Zagarell (Revolutionary Communist Committee of the United States), James Burnham (American Conservative), Willie Mae Reid (Communist), Phillip Willkie (Republican)
1971-1985: S.I. Hayakawa (Party of National Development)
1972 (with Lyndon LaRouche) def. Dan Smoot (Restore America Committee), Harold Stassen (Republican), Bob Dole (American Conservative), Roger MacBride (Libertarian), Gus Hall (Communist - officially banned)
1976 (with Lyndon LaRouche) def. George McGovern (Conscience, Republican, and Libertarian fusion), Harold Stassen (Independent), Gus Hall and Rufus Shackleford (Anti-PND Front - officially banned)
1980 (with Franklin Delano Roosevelt III) def. Lyndon LaRouche (National Protection and Prosperity Front), Dan Crane (Independent Conservative), Pete McCloskey (Republican and Libertarian fusion), William Westmoreland (Independent Developmentalist), Earl Ravenal (True Libertarian), Harold Stassen (Independent)

1985-1989: Franklin Delano Roosevelt III (Party of National Development)
1984 first round (with Robert Heinlein) def. Edmund Brown Jr. (Social Union), Irwin Schiff (Libertarian and Republican fusion), Bo Ginn (Washingtonian)
1984 second round (with Robert Heinlein) def. Edmund Brown Jr. (Social Union)

1989-1993: Gary Hart (Party of National Development)
1988 first round (with David Dinkins) def. Jimmy Carter (American Restoration Movement), Ron Paul (Republican and Libertarian fusion), Kent Hance (Washingtonian), Lyndon LaRouche (Americans for Economic Prosperity), Joel Kovel (World Prosperity)
1988 second round (with David Dinkins) def. Jimmy Carter (American Restoration Movement)

1993-2001: Rick Perry (Southern Developmentalist Union)
1992 first round (with Mario Cuomo) def. Jeremiah Denton (Washingtonian), Helen Chenoweth-Hage (Libertarian and Republican fusion), Lyndon LaRouche (American Social Front), Jim Jeffords (National Republican), Joel Kovel (Green)
1992 second round (with Mario Cuomo) def. Jeremiah Denton (Washingtonian)
1996 (with Mario Cuomo) def. Bob Barr (Washingtonian), David Nolan (Libertarian), Lyndon LaRouche (Socialist), William Weld (Republican), Rynn Berry (Green)

2001-2005: Rod Blagojevich (Party of National Development)
2000 (with Henry Louis Gates Jr.) def. Lyndon LaRouche (Socialist), Joseph Sobran (Washingtonian), E. Brooke Lee Jr. (Republican), J. Marvin Herndon (Green)
2000 second round (with Henry Louis Gates Jr.) def. Lyndon LaRouche (Socialist)

2005-2010: George Voinovich (Party of National Development)
2004 (with Nancy d'Alessandro) def. Walter Jones (Washingtonian), Neil deGrasse Tyson (Party of Scientific Development), Gary Johnson (Republican), Michael Badnarik (Libertarian), Sam Webb (Socialist), Lyndon LaRouche (LaRouche for America), David Cobb (Green), Franklin Delano Roosevelt III (Independent)
2004 second round (with Nancy d'Alessandro) def. Walter Jones (Washingtonian)
2008 first round (with Nancy d'Alessandro) def. Ralph Nader (Citizens Union), Louie Gohmert (Washingtonian), Constance Cumbey (Americans Against Big Government), Ernie Chambers (Socialist), Lyndon LaRouche (New Socialist), J. Marvin Herndon (Green)
2008 second round (with Nancy d'Alessandro) def. Ralph Nader (Citizens Union)

2010-2017: Nancy d'Alessandro (Party of National Development)
2012 (with Ray Nagin) def. Rand Paul (Libertarian and Washingtonian fusion), Joe Manchin (Rooseveltian), Delois Blakely (Afro-American Action), Del Bigtree (Green), Greg Pason (Socialist), Winthrop Paul Rockefeller (Republican), Heath Shuler (Independent), Lyndon LaRouche (New Socialist)
2012 (with Ray Nagin) def. Rand Paul (Libertarian and Washingtonian fusion)

2017-present: Robert Reich (Party of National Development)
2016 first round (with Jim Hood) def. Willie Wilson (Freedom Party and Libertarian fusion), Howie Hawkins (Socialist and Green fusion), Jim Gilchrist (Washingtonian), Gordon M. Johnson (New Socialist), Lincoln Chafee (Republican), Robert Sarvis ('Splinter Libertarian'), Paul Wenner (Vegetarian)
2016 second round (with Jim Hood) def. Willie Wilson (Freedom Party and Libertarian fusion)
2020 first round (with Jim Hood) def. Joanne Jorgensen (Libertarian), Mark Meadows (Washingtonian), Faith Spotted Eagle (Socialist), H. Brush Dean III (Republican), William Kreml (Green)
2020 second round (with Jim Hood) def. Joanne Jorgensen (Libertarian)


Notes:

- Court packing goes through in 1938, conservatives split off and form the True Democratic Party (TDP)
- In Spring 1940, Roosevelt rebrands the Democrats as the Party of National Development
- In 1948, Sicilian voters overwhelmingly vote to join the US. They are admitted as the 51st state.
- War hero Eisenhower is selected in 1952. He is largely a puppet of his VP, Thomas Corcaran, a member of Roosvelt's brain trust.
- After Eisenhower/Corcoran win a landslide victory in 1956, a new constitution is ratified. It is heavily based off New Deal liberalism and among other things strikes the natural-born citizen mandate. The electoral college is abandoned and the presidential election is won by whichever candidate receives the most raw votes.
- Humphrey assassinated by CPUSA. The Years of Lead begin. The CPUSA is illegalized and the left takes to violence. This comes to an end by the late 80s.
- Hayakawa nominates Secretary of Internal Security LaRouche as VP. With LaRouche having the President's ear, the intelligence services take strong action against opposition parties (because the government here is not exactly committed to democracy)
- The ACP nominates young Bob Dole because he's inoffensive. Well, that didn't work out as the firebrand Dan Smoot leads an independent conservative campaign that rails against big government.
- In 1973, President Hayakawa announces a crackdown on the ACP. When FBI agents are killed in a raid on the headquarters, the party is banned.
- In 1976, independent Senator George McGovern runs on the newly-created pro-peace classical liberal Conscience Party line.
- After seeing LaRouche's strong run in 1980, an amendment is pushed through that establishes a two-round
- Washingtonian Party named because party members hold up the 1st President as an example of what public servants should be like. They should not hold life-long postings but instead be citizen-servants. The party advocates for small government and term limits. They have become friendly with the religious right but because of the Years of Lead, they cannot go too far right for fear of a government crackdown.
- Heinlein dies in 1987. Replaced by Gary Hart. Roosevelt, who has been diagnosed with depression and avoids public appearences, decides not to run for a second term. - President Hart is beleaguered by accusations of infidelity, and his Hart National Economic Program (the Hart Program) which is broadly neo-liberal, is abandoned by the more traditionalist Rick Perry when Hart is encouraged by party elders not to run for reelection.
- Neoliberalism makes a comeback under Voinovich in '05. President Voinovich dies of natural causes in 2010. Both Voinovich and d'Alessandro have to fight challenges from anti-neoliberal candidates (deGrasse Tyson, Nader, Manchin)
 

AlfieJ

left labour poster on here
Jungle Primary USA

1933-1945: Franklin D. Roosevelt (Democratic)
1932 def. Joseph I. France (Republican), Herbert Hoover (Republican), J. Hamilton Lewis (Democratic), Al Smith (Democratic), John Nance Gardner (Democratic)
1936 def. William Borah (Republican), Alf Landon (Republican), Frank Knox (Republican)
1940 def. Thomas E. Dewey (Republican), Robert A. Taft (Republican), John Nance Gardner (Democratic)
1944 def. Douglas MacArthur (Republican), Earl Warren (Republican), John W. Bicker (Republican), Thomas E. Dewey (Republican)

1945-1953: Harry S. Truman (Democratic)
1948 def. Earl Warren (Republican), Harold Stassen (Republican), Robert A. Taft (Republican), Thomas E. Dewey (Republican)
1953-1957: Estes Kefauver (Democratic)
1952 def. Robert A. Taft (Republican), Dwight D. Eisenhower (Republican), Earl Warren (Republican), Harold Stassen (Republican)
1957-1961: Dwight D. Eisenhower (Republican)
1956 def. Adlai Stevenson (Democratic), Estes Kefauver (Democratic)
1961-1965: Richard M. Nixon (Republican)
1960 def. John F. Kennedy (Democratic), Hubert Humphrey (Democratic)
1965-1969: Barry Goldwater (Republican)
1964 def. Nelson Rockefeller (Republican), Lyndon B. Johnson (Democratic), George Wallace (Democratic), Henry Cabot Lodge Jr (Republican)
1969-1973: Eugene McCarthy (Democratic)
1968 def. Robert F. Kennedy (Democratic), Ronald Reagan (Republican), Richard M. Nixon (Republican)
1973-1977: Richard M. Nixon (Republican)
1972 def. Hubert Humphrey (Democratic), George McGovern (Democratic), George Wallace (Democratic), Edmund Muskie (Democratic), Shirley Chisholm (Democratic)
1977-1985: Jimmy Carter (Democratic)
1976 def. Gerald R. Ford (Republican), Ronald Reagan (Republican), Jerry Brown (Democratic), George Wallace (Democratic)
1980 def. Ronald Reagan (Republican), Ted Kennedy (Democratic), George Bush (Republican), John B. Anderson (Republican)

1985-1989: Walter Mondale (Democratic)
1984 def. Ronald Reagan (Republican), Gary Hart (Democratic), Jesse Jackson (Democratic)
1989-1993: Michael Dukakis (Democratic)
1988 def. George H. W. Bush (Republican), Jesse Jackson (Democratic), Al Gore (Democratic), Bob Dole (Republican), Paul Simon (Democratic)
1993-2001: Bill Clinton (Democratic)
1992 def. George H. W. Bush (Republican), Jerry Brown (Democratic), Paul Tsongas (Democratic), Pat Buchanan (Republican)
1996 def. Bob Dole (Republican), Pat Buchanan (Republican), Steve Forbes (Republican)

2001-2005: George W. Bush (Republican)
2000 def. Al Gore (Democratic), John McCain (Republican), Bill Bradley (Democratic), Alan Keyes (Republican)
2005-2009: John Kerry (Democratic)
2004 def. George W. Bush (Republican), John Edwards (Democratic), Howard Dean (Democratic)
2009-2013: Hillary Clinton (Democratic)
2008 def. Barack Obama (Democratic), John McCain (Republican), Mitt Romney (Republican), Mike Huckabee (Republican), Ron Paul (Republican)
2013-2017: Mitt Romney (Republican)
2012 def. Barack Obama (Democratic), Rick Santorum (Republican), Newt Gingrich (Republican), Ron Paul (Republican)
2017-2021: Hillary Clinton (Democratic)
2016 def. Donald Trump (Republican), Bernie Sanders (Democratic), Ted Cruz (Republican), John Kasich (Republican), Marco Rubio (Republican)
2021-2025: Joe Biden (Democratic)
2020 def. Donald Trump (Republican), Bernie Sanders (Democratic) Elizabeth Warren (Democratic), Mike Bloomberg (Democratic), Pete Buttigieg (Democratic)
 

Thande

Directly Elected Mayor of the Western Hemisphere
Published by SLP
Jungle Primary USA

1933-1945: Franklin D. Roosevelt (Democratic)
1932 def. Joseph I. France (Republican), Herbert Hoover (Republican), J. Hamilton Lewis (Democratic), Al Smith (Democratic), John Nance Gardner (Democratic)
1936 def. William Borah (Republican), Alf Landon (Republican), Frank Knox (Republican)
1940 def. Thomas E. Dewey (Republican), Robert A. Taft (Republican), John Nance Gardner (Democratic)
1944 def. Douglas MacArthur (Republican), Earl Warren (Republican), John W. Bicker (Republican), Thomas E. Dewey (Republican)

1945-1953: Harry S. Truman (Democratic)
1948 def. Earl Warren (Republican), Harold Stassen (Republican), Robert A. Taft (Republican), Thomas E. Dewey (Republican)
1953-1957: Estes Kefauver (Democratic)
1952 def. Robert A. Taft (Republican), Dwight D. Eisenhower (Republican), Earl Warren (Republican), Harold Stassen (Republican)
1957-1961: Dwight D. Eisenhower (Republican)
1956 def. Adlai Stevenson (Democratic), Estes Kefauver (Democratic)
1961-1965: Richard M. Nixon (Republican)
1960 def. John F. Kennedy (Democratic), Hubert Humphrey (Democratic)
1965-1969: Barry Goldwater (Republican)
1964 def. Nelson Rockefeller (Republican), Lyndon B. Johnson (Democratic), George Wallace (Democratic), Henry Cabot Lodge Jr (Republican)
1969-1973: Eugene McCarthy (Democratic)
1968 def. Robert F. Kennedy (Democratic), Ronald Reagan (Republican), Richard M. Nixon (Republican)
1973-1977: Richard M. Nixon (Republican)
1972 def. Hubert Humphrey (Democratic), George McGovern (Democratic), George Wallace (Democratic), Edmund Muskie (Democratic), Shirley Chisholm (Democratic)
1977-1985: Jimmy Carter (Democratic)
1976 def. Gerald R. Ford (Republican), Ronald Reagan (Republican), Jerry Brown (Democratic), George Wallace (Democratic)
1980 def. Ronald Reagan (Republican), Ted Kennedy (Democratic), George Bush (Republican), John B. Anderson (Republican)

1985-1989: Walter Mondale (Democratic)
1984 def. Ronald Reagan (Republican), Gary Hart (Democratic), Jesse Jackson (Democratic)
1989-1993: Michael Dukakis (Democratic)
1988 def. George H. W. Bush (Republican), Jesse Jackson (Democratic), Al Gore (Democratic), Bob Dole (Republican), Paul Simon (Democratic)
1993-2001: Bill Clinton (Democratic)
1992 def. George H. W. Bush (Republican), Jerry Brown (Democratic), Paul Tsongas (Democratic), Pat Buchanan (Republican)
1996 def. Bob Dole (Republican), Pat Buchanan (Republican), Steve Forbes (Republican)

2001-2005: George W. Bush (Republican)
2000 def. Al Gore (Democratic), John McCain (Republican), Bill Bradley (Democratic), Alan Keyes (Republican)
2005-2009: John Kerry (Democratic)
2004 def. George W. Bush (Republican), John Edwards (Democratic), Howard Dean (Democratic)
2009-2013: Hillary Clinton (Democratic)
2008 def. Barack Obama (Democratic), John McCain (Republican), Mitt Romney (Republican), Mike Huckabee (Republican), Ron Paul (Republican)
2013-2017: Mitt Romney (Republican)
2012 def. Barack Obama (Democratic), Rick Santorum (Republican), Newt Gingrich (Republican), Ron Paul (Republican)
2017-2021: Hillary Clinton (Democratic)
2016 def. Donald Trump (Republican), Bernie Sanders (Democratic), Ted Cruz (Republican), John Kasich (Republican), Marco Rubio (Republican)
2021-2025: Joe Biden (Democratic)
2020 def. Donald Trump (Republican), Bernie Sanders (Democratic) Elizabeth Warren (Democratic), Mike Bloomberg (Democratic), Pete Buttigieg (Democratic)
Nice - what metric are you using to compare the two as popular vote in primaries only started to be even somewhat relevant recently? Percentage of delegates at the convention?
 

Thande

Directly Elected Mayor of the Western Hemisphere
Published by SLP
I've just gone for raw popular vote for the sake of ease but if you went down the latter route you could get some very dank results.
Ah, popular vote is good if you just want WTF results, but obviously not that meaningful a representation of support once you've got back before the 1970s when primary numbers meant very little and didn't happen in all states. Besides stuff like caucuses often not actually reporting popular vote properly even nowadays.

Also, this is relevant to a project that I've been working on since (checks notes) January and will have to start releasing once the election dust has settled.
 

Octosteel

Well-known member
Unfamiliar Paths

1845-1853: Stephen Douglas / Lewis Cass (Democratic) [1]

1844: Henry Clay / Millard Fillmore (Whig)
1848: John Clayton / Robert Charles Winthrop (Whig) [2]
1853-1857: Henry Gardner / John Scott Harrison (Whig) [3]
1852: William Marcy / Robert Hunter (Democratic)
1857-1861: Lewis Cass / Fernando Wood (Democratic) [4]
1856: Henry Gardner / John Scott Harrison (Whig)

[1] The taking of the nomination by the young charismatic Senator from Illinois was the political rejuvenation that the Democratic Party needed after their embarrassing defeat to William Henry Harrison. Douglas spared the Democratic Party the nomination of Martin van Buren who was vastly seen as out of touch with the population. Douglas's vigorous and inspirational campaign put the Clay campaign into a tailspin, leading to the desperate nomination of lightweight Millard Fillmore in a bid to win New York. Fillmore would campaign in a frighteningly nativist way which earned massive crowds but terrified the Clay campaign in terms of winning votes. In the end, Douglas would win decisively although strange swings occurred to the Whigs due to Fillmore's positions.

[2] Douglas would prove to be a popular President even as he dealt with a nascent economy. As Texas became an independent nation propped up by the French and the British and Mexicans proxy warred over influence of the vast frontier territory, America broadly stepped away from colonization and focused on domestic issues. He pushed aggressive elimination of tariffs to promote free trade, a policy amenable to the South and their cotton industry which relied on international trade. The Whigs used this point to make a furious return in the midterms. This did little to help long term issues with the Whigs. This was apparent when the party nominated John Clayton who proved to be aloof and overly attached to Whig principles when Fillmore had shown the party's base was interested in something more exciting. Even more accentuated was Clayton's pick of the young Congressman, Robert Winthrop. The party would make up some ground from 1844 but lose decisively. In a discussion with party leaders after the disastrous defeat, Winthrop, the only Whig who exited the election with higher profile, would make the case that it was essential that the party improve with immigrants if they had any chance of surviving.

[3] It was the party's failure to respond to the demands of their electorate that led to the shocking rise of Henry Gardner. Knocking out a dozen respected politicians most notably Edward Everett who he decried as weak, the rabble rousing Massachusetts Governor used effective grassroots organizations to pry the mechanisms of the party from its leadership and took the Whigs on a path of nativism and protectionism. As Winthrop watched in horror as immigrants went to the Democrats in droves, the young Speaker of the unruly Whig House saw the electoral doom that Gardner was taking the party in, something that even Gardner's choice of stalwart Whig Indiana Governor John Harrison could not change. They would be annihilated by Secretary of State William Macy in the elections no doubt. Winthrop called up friendly Whig newspapers and prepared to publish an article attacking Gardner the day after the election as a disaster for the party.

And then Gardner won. Not only won, but broke through into Arkansas, Missouri, and Louisiana, states the Whigs had always failed to win. A political tide was turning

[4] Winthrop tried working with the new President but retired in his 40s before the next midterm, defeated and dejected. The ridiculous and showman style of Gardner worked to gain immense affection from some and huge detestment from others. His immigration policies saw a total ban of all European arrivals which proved to be a boon for the Republic of Texas which received them instead. Gardner's confrontational style laser focused on the British Empire which he accused of not playing by the rules of "free trade" and enriching themselves by manipulating the markets. The brutal tariff war against the British Empire was a mixed bag, but as Gardner moved away from the nativist candidate and became increasingly the anti-British candidate, something strange occurred. Immigrants from nations that opposed Britain and traditionally Democratic voters in the South started to flock to Gardner even as normally upper class Whig voters left the party, disgusted by his attitude, governing style, and horrifying comments.

[5] While these political changes were significant, the fundamentals just were not in Gardner's favor especially after his administration's haphazard and amateur response to an outbreak of cholera including comments about how nobody should have to boil their water before drinking it. The old party stalwart and former Vice President to Douglas, at the age of 74, was elected President of the United States by threading the needle of winning back disaffected Douglas-Gardner voters, holding onto the South, and winning the upper class educated Northerners who liked Gardner's policies but hated his style which overcame Gardner's shocking gains among immigrant communities that turned New York from a swing to a solid Whig state. Cass unfortunately had little mandate, his victory not translating downballot where the Whigs gained in the House and the Senate. Even worse, Gardner decried the election as rigged, noting Democratic governors in the three Southern states he won in 1852 as being proof of rigging. Why he lost the Whig controlled state of Ohio and Kentucky was ignored. As faith in American Democracy seems to be at its lowest since the nullification crisis and President Cass elected on not much more than "not being Gardner," both parties look to the future with trepidation. Rumors circulate that Gardner intends to start his own nation wide newspaper to attack his enemies and perhaps even come back to power in 1860. Meanwhile Cass is almost certain not to run for reelection yet Vice President Wood, nominated purely as a coalition pick, seems unable to step up to the mantle. All remains to be seen in the upcoming midterms.
 

Time Enough

"Enthusiastic Cis Male Partner"
Pronouns
He/Him
Chasing Shadows California Governor ATLF (So Far):

1935-1936: Upton Sinclair (Democrat)
1934 (With Sheridan Downey) def: Frank Merriman (Republican)
1936-1939: Sheridan Downey (Democrat)
1939-1947: Leslyn MacDonald (Socialist)
1938 (With Sam Darcy) def: Sheridan Downey (Democrat-Republican)
1942 (With Gavin Arthur) def: Walt Disney (Republican-Democrat), Sam Yorty (Independent Democrat)

1947-1951: Robert W. Kenny (Republican)
1947 (With Ellis E. Patterson) def: Gavin Arthur (Socialist), Sam Yorty (Independent)
1951-: Jerry Voorhis (Socialist)
1950 (With Augustus Hawkins) def: Robert W.Kenny (Republican-Democratic), Richard Nixon (Independent Republican)

So a ATLF for @Mumby Chasing Shadows inspired by the recent chapter, Leslyn MacDonald wins in 1938, Sam Yorty runs as a Liberal against Walt Disney who's angry that the Californian State Government would support his striking workers, Robert W.Kenny wins against the chaos man that is Gavin Arthur but he loses against the charismatic Jerry Voorhis in 1950, helped by Richard Nixon running an Independent Republican as a sign of spite against Kenny. Things will probably change but this I guess is a decent prediction.
 
Last edited:

KingCrawa

Prayed for by a Brace of Monks
ATLF: Halloween, 2020

2021-2023: Joe Biden (D-DE)* / Kamala Harris (D-CA)

2020: Donald Trump (R-FL) / Mike Pence (R-IN)
2023-2024: Kamala Harris (D-CA) / Vacant
2024-2029: Kamala Harris (D-CA) / Doug Jones (D-AL)

2024: Greg Abbott (R-TX) / Daniel Cameron (R-KY)
2029-: Amy Coney Barrett (R-IN) / Kurt Daudt (R-MN)
2028: Amy Klobuchar (D-MN) / Alejandro Padilla (D-CA)

for those keeping score at home
  • Democrats have last held a Senate majority on January 3rd, 2015
  • President Harris' six years in office are the current record for longest term of any President to appoint zero (0) Supreme Court justices
  • If defined to also include all intermittent fighting between the Armistice Agreement and the Evacuation of Seoul, the total duration of the Korean conflict falls midway between the Spanish conquest of Petén and the Eighty Years' War
  • Senator Klobuchar is the third major-party candidate to lose to an opponent with the same forename, previous candidates being John Davis in 1924 and William Jennings Bryan in 1896, 1900, and 1908, and the first Democratic candidate to lose the state of Minnesota since George McGovern in 1972
  • As of the recent election of Anneliese Dodds, of all prime ministers in office this century, a majority (4 of 7) have birthplaces outside of the United Kingdom
  • Some lighter news - with less than two months until release, Avengers: Amalgam is currently projected to gross over one billion dollars, the first and last film released this decade expected to do so
I assume that Biden dies early enough that Harris ends up serving more than two years of his term?
 

Mumby

Always mysterious!
Published by SLP
Location
Municipal Commune of Bourne
Pronouns
He/Him
Chasing Shadows California Governor ATLF (So Far):

1935-1936: Upton Sinclair (Democrat)
1934 (With Sheridan Downey) def: Frank Merriman (Republican)
1936-1939: Sheridan Downey (Democrat)
1939-1947: Leslyn MacDonald (Socialist)
1938 (With Gavin Arthur) def: Sheridan Downey (Democrat-Republican)
1942 (With Gavin Arthur) def: Walt Disney (Republican-Democrat), Sam Yorty (Independent Democrat)

1947-1951: Robert W. Kenny (Republican)
1947 (With Ellis E. Patterson) def: Gavin Arthur (Socialist), Sam Yorty (Independent)
1951-: Jerry Voorhis (Socialist)
1950 (With Augustus Hawkins) def: Robert W.Kenny (Republican-Democratic), Richard Nixon (Independent Republican)

So a ATLF for @Mumby Chasing Shadows inspired by the recent chapter, Leslyn MacDonald wins in 1938, Sam Yorty runs as a Liberal against Walt Disney who's angry that the Californian State Government would support his striking workers, Robert W.Kenny wins against the chaos man that is Gavin Arthur but he loses against the charismatic Jerry Voorhis in 1950, helped by Richard Nixon running an Independent Republican as a sign of spite against Kenny. Things will probably change but this I guess is a decent prediction.
gavin is just a guy working for the macdonald campaign in the latest chapter - and my own headcanon is that macdonald doesn't necessarily win. i envisaged the socialists winning a majority in congress, but its still narrow. really the point would be its a huge achievement for socialists to be doing as well as they are, even if they lose.
 

Time Enough

"Enthusiastic Cis Male Partner"
Pronouns
He/Him
gavin is just a guy working for the macdonald campaign in the latest chapter -
Changed 1938 one to Sam Darcy instead. I could see Gavin Arthur becoming a candidate later on, mainly on the grounds of ‘he’s the Grandson of a President’, though his ‘lifestyle’ and more odd beliefs may put an end to that.
and my own headcanon is that macdonald doesn't necessarily win. i envisaged the socialists winning a majority in congress, but its still narrow. really the point would be its a huge achievement for socialists to be doing as well as they are, even if they lose.
Ah well, consider this an idea of what if Leslyn won. Though I was wondering if Voorhis and Augustus Hawkins would be congressmen together. Also I get points for that ticket right?
 

Uhura's Mazda

The Housewives' Choice
Published by SLP
Location
Tamaki Makaurau
Presidents of the Second Autearúan Republic

1891-1893: Juan Belén (Partido Colorado)
1893-1906:
Ricardo Cedeño (Partido Colorado)
1894 def: Unopposed
1900 def: Tomás Tejera (Partido Intransigente)

1906: Guillermo Gallego Juárez (Partido Colorado)
1906-1912:
José Guaidó (Partido Colorado)
1906 def: David Magallanes (Federación Laborista)
1912: Tomás Martínez (Partido Colorado) [1]
1912-1925: Guillermo Mesa (Partido Reformista)
1912 def: Tomás Martínez (Partido Colorado), Pedro Ferreira (Partido Socialista), Guillermo Vázquez (Partido Laborista Unido)
1918 def: José Guaidó (Partido Colorado), Enrique Hernández (Partido Socialista), Carlos Sotomayor (Partido Progresista Moderado)
1924 def: Enrique Hernández (Partido Socialista)

1925: Francisco de León y Bello (Partido Reformista)
1925-1928: Agustín Cortés (Military - Partido Reformista)
[2]
1928-1930: José Guaidó (Partido Liberal)
1928 def: Agustín Cortés (Partido Reformista)
1930-1935: Jorge Flores (Convergencia Nacional - Partido Liberal) [3]
1935-1940: Miguel José da Silva (Frente Popular - Partido Radical)
1935 def: Jorge Flores (Convergencia Nacional - Partido Liberal)
1940-1949: Pedro Ferreira (Partido Radical) [4]
1943 def: Saturnino Hernández (Unión Nacional), Juan Alejandro Lira (Partido Socialista), Fernán Patricio Juárez (Partido Comunista)
1949-1956: Saturnino Hernández (Unión Nacional)
1949 def: Pedro Ferreira (Partido Radical), Juan Alejandro Lira (Partido Socialista), Juan Ibáñez (Partido Comunista)
1951 def: Unopposed

1956-1957: Cristian Gallego (Unión Nacional) [5]
1957-1960: Gutierre Núñez (Partido Radical)
1957 def: Cristian Gallego (Unión Nacional), Guifré de Orellana (Falange)
1960-1971: Cristian Gallego (Military - Unión Nacional)
1966 def: Ramón de la Cruz (Partido Socialista), Arnoldo Mejía (Partido Radical), Fernando Carrasquillo (Falange), Lorenzo Frías (Partido Laborista)
1971-1972: Juan Mariscal (Unión Nacional) [6]
1972-1974: Ramón de la Cruz (Alianza Progresista - Partido Socialista)
1972 def: Juan Mariscal (Unión Nacional), Juan Obregón (Falange)
1974: Hugo Huerta (Alianza Progresista - Partido Laborista)
1974-1975: Guillermo Roldán (Alianza Progresista - Partido Radical)
1975-1976:
Gen. Roberto Maldonado (Military) [7]

[1] - Autearúa, colonised from Lima in the eighteenth century, was a remote and sparsely populated outpost of the Spanish Empire in the early nineteenth century. Nevertheless, it gained its independence from the Royalist forces and even from the Chilean naval forces sent against the inhabitants in the Wars of Independence, and the First Republic - an undemocratic period of quite literal faction-fighting between the forces of various caudillos - was established in 1822. One of these caudillos, the Uanganúi horseman and newspaper editor Juan Belén, overthrew the fractious old order in the Revolution of 1891. He gave the land a new Constitution but died before anything else could be done, even the holding of elections. Instead, the Chamber of Deputies appointed by Belenista provincial governors in turn a new President, Ricardo Cedeño. President Cedeño, a charismatic and long-winded man of stout frame, is fondly remembered for his progressive legislation: elections (although he was only ever opposed by minor dissident factions of the Colorado Party), votes for women (against his will), labour legislation (mainly the work of Guillermo Pendejo Rivas), and the appointment of mestizo people to high office (such as Jaime Carrillo, who oversaw anti-Indian legislation).

When Cedeño died, the next election was won by his Finance Minister, José Guaidó, who had to deal with the re-emergence of an obvious Opposition, formed of old First Republic conservatives and dissident Colorados opposed to the majority's programmes of agrarian reform, railway nationalisation and endemic corruption. Guaidó was impeached towards the end of his term and replaced with the President of the Senate, but Martínez in turn was overturned by the electorate in the first democratic transfer of power in the nation's history. This election was also notable for witnessing the first serious emergence of ideological parties, namely those of the Left.

[2] - President Mesa was a broad-chested farmer of reactionary opinions but without a clear means of getting them through the heterogenous councils of the Partido Reformista. He was, however, a strong organiser, and passed solid if unimaginative legislation through a very tricky series of Congresses. He is mainly remembered, however, for joining the First World War, with the sole objective of seizing Samoa from the Germans - he would have fought against the British, but considered them too strong in the region. When Samoa was made a League of Nations protectorate at Versailles, the country found a nationalist cause for many decades in the future.

Meanwhile, the Partido Colorado had grown weaker and feared the rise of the Partido Socialista, which they considered to be entirely run by Anarchists and Bolsheviks, which was in fact only partially the case. The Anarchist elements, in particular, had subsided since the failed spate of general strikes and assassination attempts of 1912-13. The Colorados merged with the Reformistas in 1923. However, politics were soon thrown into a disordered state with the death of Mesa and the succession of the aristocratic President of the Senate, who was old and weak and had odd ideas on democratic participation. The military, emboldened by the nationalist wave and their wartime experiences, overthrew de León y Bello in short order, replacing him with the young ex-soldier Cortés as head of a junta. The new President undertook an economically nationalist policy in which the Government took on the role of export agent for the primary products of the farming sector, but the implementation was so ham-fisted that the military lost confidence in their man and Cortés was forced to hold new elections.

[3] - During the military dictatorship, the bulk of the old Colorado Party had left under José Guaidó and merged with the once-feared Socialists with the sole aim of restoring a democratic state with civil liberties for most. But the Great Depression was hitting in a big way, and very little had been achieved by the elderly Guaidó before his death in 1930. By this point, the Communist and the rump Socialist parties had been legalised once more, while the bulk of the Hernández-era Socialists formed the more moderate Partido Radical with some dissident ex-Colorados who did not wish to follow the arid economic policy of the ruling faction. Jorge Flores, a man unequal to the challenges of his time, formed an alliance instead with the Partido Reformista - Cortés was in from the cold far faster than he had expected.

[4] - the Convergencia between Liberals and Reformists did not avail them much in the next presidential ballot, despite giving them the opportunity to delay it using emergency legislation of very dubious constitutional validity (which was to be copied by the next government during the World War). This time, the new Partido Radical emerged the victor - at first in a Popular Front with the Socialists and Communists, but both of these groups were dropped when they demanded that the Government go beyond the absolute minimum in the building of a welfare state. However, over the long Radical administration, during which the country was accused of profiteering from its officially neutral position in the Second World War, the burgeoning Communists proved a helpful aide to Presidents da Silva (a Brazilian immigrant) and Ferreira - at least until after the War, when the old leadership of the Partido Comunista was putsched by a more radical generation and incited a general strike which was crushed by President Ferreira. The Socialists, meanwhile, were largely ignored by the Radicals in the hope that they would go away and stop stealing their votes, although there was limited co-operation on anti-clerical legislation.

[5] - The old-line parties had united in opposition behind the youthful and manly Saturnino Hernández, an principle-free zone who had been born into a Reformista family and yet associated with both the Liberals and the Catholic Action movement in the 1930s. The wily Hernández not only united the conservative forces behind him, he also perpetrated a notorious self-coup in 1951 in order to gain the power to ban the Marxist parties - the Communists were at this time launching yet another general strike. The Radicals, under the old functionary Gutierre Núñez, failed to oppose this and revealed themselves to be even more devoid of ideals or imagination than had been apparent when they'd been voted out. However, with an administration drifting now that it had achieved ultimate power, a declining economy and a need to build up domestic industry to prevent profits from being repatriated to Britain and America, Núñez won the next election against Hernández' successor, and old supporter of Cortés.

[6] - The new Radical administration made itself immediately unpopular by raising taxes - the only way, it was argued, to get a grip on the inflation which was endemic in the country's economy. This lack of progress (and the elderly profile of the Partido Radical's top echelons) led to a surge in youth support for banned left-wing parties, and a guerilla movement sprang out of these bodies. The guerillas, inspired by Che Guevara and the Amerindian heritage of the nation, called themselves Honehechistas and took to the hills. Unwilling to use the murderous counter-insurgency methods advocated by the Generals and the police, Núñez remained inactive, shuffling pieces of paper around on his overburdened desk while matters got out of hand. After a particularly effective campaign from the leftist forces in the interior, the military stepped in and launched a swift coup d'etat against the Radicals, reimposing the Cortesista President Gallego.

Gallego was a competent and consensus-driven man, who pacified the interior with methods which would later be criticised by human rights groups, while also working towards full legality for the Left. He even operated a labour and industrial policy in keeping with the demands of the moderate centre-left. By the mid-1960s, it was possible to restore the constitution to full operation and all that was left was to execute a few mopping-up operations in the mountains. Fresh elections, though, revealed a surprise: despite a factional split in the mainly urban
Edén Province, the Socialists emerged as the main opposition party, beating the discredited Partido Colorado as well as the (centre-left in nature if not in name) Falange. Seeing forceful opposition for the first time since 1951, the conservatives began to lose confidence and forced Gallego to resign during an economic downturn - the President of the Senate, the patrician and economically liberal Mariscal, took over for the last few months of the term, but he was less of a strong leader than Gallego, and suffered from extensive factional opposition.

[7] - The 1972 elections, famously, brought into office the radical Socialist Ramón de la Cruz, a larger-than-life activist for the ending of nuclear testing in the Pacific, for nationalisation and industrial development, for a nationalist monetary policy as supported by the old Socialist Juan Alejandro Lira, and for social liberalisation. However, his administration rested on the support of the other parties of the anti-UN coalition, including the moderate Radicals, and, with the already faltering economy going into full crisis mode as the oil shock hit, the control of the Radicals over the Finance Ministry put them in a position to do exactly what they had done under Núñez - they deferred every policy that the people thought they had voted for. In 1974, de la Cruz became so impatient with his partners that he prepared his closest clique of supporters for a self-coup which would bring the Socialists into full ownership of the means of governance. However, the American Embassy learned of this almost as soon as it was thought of, as the radical nationalist economist Guillermo Suárez was later revealed as being firmly on the gringo payroll.

The CIA murdered President de la Cruz only a year and a half into his six-year term, and even his replacement (President of the Senate Hugo Huarte, a big man in the Edén-based Socialist splinter group) was deemed too closely associated with the administration's ostensible policies, and was forced to step aside after six days of nominal rule. The American intervention in Autearúa is one of the darkest chapters in the history of either country. Only the appointment of the Radical President of the Chamber of Deputies, an inoffensive farmer who had been in control of the hard-line orthodox Finance Ministry under de la Cruz, was acceptable to the Americans, and even then, this tepid support only lasted as long as the economy continued to function. Unrest broke out after the coup, unleashing years of pent-up anger at the economic situation, and the country was brought to a halt. Within months, the government was revealed to be utterly ineffective, and was overturned by a new coup - this time organised by the military without reference to any political party. The entire political system of the Second Republic had by now been discredited.

General Maldonado, one of the most divisive figures in Autearúan history, imposed a new Constitution in 1976, bringing the Second Republic to an end. He remained in power until 1984, by which time his murderous tactics against the Left had left a dark and irreparable scar on the citizenry. Since Maldonado, the Third Republic has reflected a populace that, in a very real sense, has lost its innocence.
 
Top