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Lists of Heads of Government and Heads of State

Presidents of the Pacific Coast Republic

1861-1862: William M. Gwin

(with Tomás Avila Sanchez) elected unopposed
1862: disputed between Tomás Avila Sanchez and James D. Fay
1862-1863: Tomás Avila Sanchez †
1863-1864: vacant
1864: John Mason †

Governors of the Confederate State of Jackson

1862-1863: James D. Fay


Annotations forthcoming - or maybe I'll just write a short story
 

Avalanches

FORD TO CITY: DROP DEAD
Location
Tampa, FL
Presidents of the Pacific Coast Republic

1861-1862: William M. Gwin
(with Tomás Avila Sanchez) elected unopposed
1862: disputed between Tomás Avila Sanchez and James D. Fay
1862-1863: Tomás Avila Sanchez †
1863-1864: vacant
1864: John Mason †


Governors of the Confederate State of Jackson

1862-1863: James D. Fay

Annotations forthcoming - or maybe I'll just write a short story
*banging on desk* WE WANT JOHNSTON
 

The Red

Well-known member
Published by SLP
An old one from The Other Place, motivated by a wee bit of discussion about the SPGB in the PMQs thread.

---

PoD: Joseph Chamberlain, in a particularly peckish mood one morning in 1898, eats far faster than usual and accidentally chokes to death on his sixth piece of toast. Whilst foul play is quickly ruled out, a maid is overheard lamenting of how "He should have chosen the smaller loaf".


Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom

1895-1902: Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury (Conservative) [1]
1902-1910: Arthur Balfour (Conservative) [2]
1910-1912: Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery † (Liberal) [3]
1912-1916: Herbert Asquith (Liberal) [4]
1916-1923: Arthur Balfour (Conservative) [5]
1923-1934: Stanley Baldwin (Conservative) [6]
1934-1936: C.H. Douglas (Emergency) [7]


Chairpersons of the Trades Union Congress

1936-1945: Ernest John Bartlett Allen (De Leonist) [8]
1945-1959: Fred Kite (De Leonist) [9]
1959-1975: Geraldo Wilsolinni (Atomist) [10]
1975-1988: Stafford Beer (Cybersyn) [11]
1988-1999: Tim Berners Lee (Cybersyn) [12]


Head Cloud

1999-????: Antonia Blarissimo [13]


[1] The economy is decent and the post-Gladstonian Liberals are chasing their tails trying to find an issue, any issue, that might reunite the party. They're also broke and it is this above any factor that allows the Conservative Party to come out with only a slightly decreased majority. Despite some impressive campaigning, a Mr James Keir Hardie fails to return to parliament and his fellow Labour candidates don't do much better.

[2] Risen to highest office from Salisbury's poor health, Balfour has made some headway on pensions and housing but not nearly enough to earn the cynicism of many of the voting public. His greatest achievement by far is the Entente Cordiale with France which he hails as the answer to the threat of German military supremacy on the continent and chooses to fight the 1906 election on themes of British strength. Henry Campbell-Bannermann proposes a wide range of dynamic social reforms, as well as staunch opposition to the Taff-Vale rulings that had so engraged the slowly growing Trade Union movement. Though he gains the endorsement of the Labour Representation Committee, who choose to run no candidates on the promise of 'Labourism next time' the general public are wary of the ability of a party that contains so many bitter critics of their own leader to get anything done. The 'Dreadnought Election' is a thoroughly apathetic affair that sees Balfour returned with another reduced but still comfortable majority. The LRC have gambled and lost, badly, as A.S. Albery runs his own campaign and comes out of the apathy to scrape a narrow plurality in London's East End.

The Socialist Party of Great Britain is back, baby.

[3] After two defeats the Liberal Imperialists finally have Campbell-Bannermann were they want him but Herbert Asquiths decision to wield the dagger makes him poisonous enough that the crown must fall to a man that those of more socially minded or Home Rule focused principlies believe they can at least manipulate. Electability is the essense of Rosebury not in his non-existant vigour but in his ability to follow the public mood in literally any direction it might lead him. His absorption of the LRC into the Liberal Party is a good first step, despite it breaking the ogranisation in two and after 15 years of Conservative rule people realise it's time for a change, even if what's on offer is exceptionally bland.

A depressed man with much to be depressed about would be the concluding shrug of those few historians who seek to dwell on the short lived second tenure of the first British Prime Minister to commit suicide. Campbell-Bannermann remained a bitter critic from the Lords and was soon not alone as Rosebury attempted to please every section of the Liberal Party and failed every time. Of course some continue to argue conspiracy, that Asquith had pushed him out of his box and onto the flood of approaching race horses during the 1913 derby. It was certainly Asquith who did well out of the subsequent shock to gain an endorsement of his own appeal of a return to 'normalcy' on divisive issues.

[4] Asquith united the party to some extent, and his successful expansion of pensions was agreeable to essentially everyone whilst he could at least rely on the Conservatives not to encourage increasingly radical cries for movement on Irish Home Rule and a workable solution to the legal quagmire of Taff Vale. Despite the increasing virulence of a 5-seat strong Socialist Party now emboldened by their monopoly on trade unionism he holds things together fairly competently, even as the 1914 recession begins to erode confidence in his economic polcies until France and Russia decide that Germany and Austria don't look so powerful anymore. His endorsement of a war to end Teutonic barbarism splits the Liberal Party down the middle and his defeat in the House over the issue is the final straw.

[5] Whilst the Socialists do remarkably well against a heavily split Liberal party, toppling both 'German' and 'French' incumbents. The real victory, however, belongs to a Conservative Party that has little to offer but peace, and strength. Britain is non-belligerent but Balfour is happy to keep France afloat if holds it back complete German supremacy over Euroep and despite German protest the military junta in de facto control of the country isn't particularly keen on risking a direct British intervention that could potentially break the stalemate on the Rhine and the San in favour of the Franco-Russians. The collapse of Austria-Hungary in 1922 alongside a wave of soldiers mutinies and strikes in France radically re-defines the war into a vast battle for Poland as millions of Germans and Russians are moved east and north in a titantic clash that threatens to redefine the future of Europe, and the world.

The result is inconclusive, and neither side is particularly willing to see who shall be able to recover first from the costliest battle in human history. Balfour hosts the Germans and the Franco-Russians at Chequers and subsequently resigns as the Great Peacemaker despite leaving no-one happy, except an incredibly opportunistic Italy and their newly acquired sphere of influence.

[6] In the wake of the war Britain is the most powerful nation in Europe, but as France and Russia find themselves unable to pay many debts and relations with Germany their coldest in decades, they are not immune to the general depression that hits the continent in the following years. Baldwin wins big on delivering universal suffrage but a wave of coordinated Irish Citizen Army offensives is an increasingly bloody debacle. Nonetheless he benefits from the divisions in his opposition as the Liberal Party declines in the face of the Socialists from the left and the Practicalists from the, er, forest. One preaches Union control, the other Consumer Supremacy through the National Dividend, and both are louder and more eloquent than the mild mannered Keynes or MacDonald. Even the 1933 General Strike seems unable to move him as the nation otherwise grinds to a halt but no-one is indestructible as the ICA proves for much of Westminster and indeed the King himself on the 8th of May, 1934. Only the leaders of the Practicalists and the Socialists survive, having been far further away from the blast than the Cabinets of the Prime Minister and Leader of the Opposition and only one of those is seen as particularly palatable for the surviving members of the Conservative Party.

[7] The Douglas regime is particularly brutal in its intentions of purging those elements of society they blame for the Parliamentary massacre, which includes virtually anyone of a leftist persuasion or those who happen to point out that the introduction of prosperity certificates is not only badly handled but seems to have the deliberate intention of driving Britain into economic ruin. After legislation banning the Socialist Party of Great Britain and the Liberal Party ensures a supermajority for the Practicalist-Conservative coalition, General Attlee realises he has had enough and orders the troops onto the streets as the forces of the establishment begin to come undone. The Unions have been preparing for such a confrontation as well and singing the songs of Peterloo, they begin their march across the country.





[8] Without much formality the Trade Union Congress finds itself being thrust into power in the middle of the third round of the Franco-Prussian war as both sides attempt to benefit most from the collapse of the British empire. General Attlee isn't a fan of Impossibilism, but he hates the idea of Juntas even more and if the Unions agree to widen their reach to include the electorate in exchange for keeping iron and coal in production then he's willing to permit their absorption of the British state into the syndicalist framework. Chairperson Allen turns out be rather effective in quashing sectarianism in the name of national unity (though he has to give Bose and Connolly a written guarantee of independence for their respective countries in the wake of Franco-Russian defeat) whilst also keeping his hands out of military business. As German Atomic Bombs incinerate Paris and Moscow a final settlement is reached where sections of non-working Britons are admitted into the TUC as 'Societal Factions' though some continue to argue that Attlee's military has afar too much sway and that without the Military vote there is no way that a reformist such as Kite could possibly be elected Chairperson.

[9] Far more comfortable with the outside world, Kite works relentlessly to promote skilled immigration with the promise of Union membership for all whilst closening ties to the Bose regime as a means of circumventing an increasingly dominant and coercive relationship with the new European Zollverein. Praised for reducing military influence before being condemned for overly favouring the older heavy industries he leaves the TUC both wealthier and divided at the same time.

[10] Some mutter darkly about a Gramscismo spy being the head of the workers Congress, before being silenced by those more enlightened types who reject the notion that simply because a member is Italian that they are inevitably a spy, especially one who fled as Neo-Gramscianism rose to power in the Union of Militant Socialist Councils formerly known as Italy. Wilsolinni is focused on power, unlimited power, that might result from an expansion of the Indian-TUC Nuclear Program. By the time he has resigned the island still lacks the meterless electricity that he promised to provide but his charismatic ways of delivering technocratic solutions to post-capitalist problems have earned him more than a few followers. Stafford Beer has been following the advances in German nuclear power and American cybernetics very closely, and now he has a plan

[11] The early days of 'Project Cybersyn' are remarkably clunky and indeed horrendously unpopular as rolling blackouts result from the attempt to focus the national gird on not yet properly refined supercomputers. The elderly complain that the butchers union charged them three years labour for sausages and the butchers union complain that their local machines can't get over the fact that there aren't enough pigs in Yorkshire as they might like. Slowly it gets better but it is only out of the 1984 NUM strike over fault management processers that the solution comes, as one man gets the computers to talk to each other as a means of ensuring proper energy distribution.

[12] Berners Lee is by far the least 'Executive' Chairperson yet as processing power and productivity synchronise in their advancement with each other and people begin to realise how much governance they really need when the economy is controlled by compulsory Cybersyn surveys and orders.

[13] Is it the state withering away? Is it the beginning of a totalitarian dictatorship from the Cybersyn cloud? Is it the TUC sacrificing itself in the name the silver tongued herecy of social democracy? As the Workers and Citizens Legislative Enabling (Full Communsim) Act is passed the TUC cedes its existence to the individual Unions corresponding with the Cybersyn web and the crack team of bureaucrats who oversee it. In an attempt to relax fears of 'Rule By Machines' it is given the Computer Generated Face of the head bureaucrat, the one who will answer any enquiry with a smile, the one always ready to remind that, from now on, "Things Will Only Get Better".
 

Sideways

Ultimate Lib Dem Fantasy
Published by SLP
PoD: Joseph Chamberlain, in a particularly peckish mood one morning in 1898, eats far faster than usual and accidentally chokes to death on his sixth piece of toast. Whilst foul play is quickly ruled out, a maid is overheard lamenting of how "He should have chosen the smaller loaf".
...And it very much went on from that note

I love it
 
List of the greatest Presidents since 1945 (compiled by the American Political Science Association)

1: Dwight D. Eisenhower (Republican, 1953-1961)
The general who integrated the schools, brought America together with the Interstate Highway System, and oversaw an era of prosperity.

2: Harry S Truman (Democratic, 1945-1953)
The prairie statesman who rebuilt Europe, oversaw the Korean War, and fought for the American worker.

3: Meg Whitman (Republican, 2001-2005 and 2009-2013)
The businesswoman who brought about healthcare reform, pushed for peace in Kashmir, and became a powerful symbol as the first female president.

4: Lyndon B. Johnson (Democratic, 1963-1969)
The wheeler and dealer who built Medicare and Medicaid, pushed Civil Rights through Congress, and blundered America into the Vietnam War.

5: Jack Kemp (Republican, 1993-2001)
The former football star who oversaw the opening of the Soviet Union and the dot-com boom.

6: Gary Locke (Democratic, 2013-)
The incumbent who inaugurated a new era of international trade, balanced the budget, and fought for GLBT rights. Who knows what he'll do next?

7: Reubin Askew (Democratic, 1986-1993)
The honest Governor who brokered democracy in Eastern Europe and brought the economy onto a firm footing.

8: James E. Carter (Democratic, 1977-1981)
The farmer who saw America through economic crisis and pushed for peace abroad.

9: John F. Kennedy (Democratic, 1961-1963)
The martyr who taught America to reach for the stars and stopped the Cuban Missile Crisis from descending into outright war.

10: Gerald R. Ford (Republican, 1974-1977)
The lifelong legislator who brought a measure of stability to America after Watergate.

11: Henry Cisneros (Democratic, 2005-2009)
The former mayor who fought to expand America's housing programs beyond recognition but saw his Presidency ended by scandal.

12: Ronald W. Reagan (Republican, 1981-1985)
The actor who took America further to the right than it had gone in decades.

13: Richard M. Nixon (Republican, 1969-1974)
The politician who brought about détente and ended the war in Vietnam but destroyed American trust in the Presidency for a generation.

14: Gary Hart (Democratic, 1985-1986)
The liberal whose womanizing ways ended his Presidency before it had really begun.
 

Bolt451

Seven Days to the River Tyne
List of the greatest Presidents since 1945 (compiled by the American Political Science Association)

1: Dwight D. Eisenhower (Republican, 1953-1961)
The general who integrated the schools, brought America together with the Interstate Highway System, and oversaw an era of prosperity.

2: Harry S Truman (Democratic, 1945-1953)
The prairie statesman who rebuilt Europe, oversaw the Korean War, and fought for the American worker.

3: Meg Whitman (Republican, 2001-2005 and 2009-2013)
The businesswoman who brought about healthcare reform, pushed for peace in Kashmir, and became a powerful symbol as the first female president.

4: Lyndon B. Johnson (Democratic, 1963-1969)
The wheeler and dealer who built Medicare and Medicaid, pushed Civil Rights through Congress, and blundered America into the Vietnam War.

5: Jack Kemp (Republican, 1993-2001)
The former football star who oversaw the opening of the Soviet Union and the dot-com boom.

6: Gary Locke (Democratic, 2013-)
The incumbent who inaugurated a new era of international trade, balanced the budget, and fought for GLBT rights. Who knows what he'll do next?

7: Reubin Askew (Democratic, 1986-1993)
The honest Governor who brokered democracy in Eastern Europe and brought the economy onto a firm footing.

8: James E. Carter (Democratic, 1977-1981)
The farmer who saw America through economic crisis and pushed for peace abroad.

9: John F. Kennedy (Democratic, 1961-1963)
The martyr who taught America to reach for the stars and stopped the Cuban Missile Crisis from descending into outright war.

10: Gerald R. Ford (Republican, 1974-1977)
The lifelong legislator who brought a measure of stability to America after Watergate.

11: Henry Cisneros (Democratic, 2005-2009)
The former mayor who fought to expand America's housing programs beyond recognition but saw his Presidency ended by scandal.

12: Ronald W. Reagan (Republican, 1981-1985)
The actor who took America further to the right than it had gone in decades.

13: Richard M. Nixon (Republican, 1969-1974)
The politician who brought about détente and ended the war in Vietnam but destroyed American trust in the Presidency for a generation.

14: Gary Hart (Democratic, 1985-1986)
The liberal whose womanizing ways ended his Presidency before it had really begun.
That's a really refreshing format, Wolfram :)
 
1912-1920- Robert Todd Lincoln Republican

1948-1951 Robert Todd Lincoln Beckwith Republican

1.Son of 16th president Abraham Lincoln wins g.o.p nomination defeats Woodrow Wilson u.s. does not enter w.w.1

use federal troops to fight k.k.k


2.Great grandson of Abraham Lincoln defeats Dewey to win nomination. beats Truman. u.s. doesnit enter Korea.only serves one term decides to retire in 50s. former governor of ilionoise.
 
Presidents of the Second American Republic, ranked from Best to Worst, as decided by polling of the American People:

1 George Washington (Independent, 1789-1797)
The General who won the First Anglo-American War, the father of the nation who set many of the principles of American Governance.
2 William Henry Harrison (Whig, 1837-1845)
The Hero of Tippecanoe who led us into the world stage with his intervention in Canada in the Third Anglo-American War and annexed Texas.
3 Thomas Jefferson (Republican, 1801-1809)
The Third President and Author of the Declaration of Independence, who set the pattern for American Expansion and curved the excesses of the Adams Presidency.
4 William Seward (Whig then Union, 1865-1872††)
The Man who led America through the tumult of the Southron Rebellion and was struck by a stroke just two months before its end, which led to his Union Party project being hijacked by the dual interests of graft and favoritism.
5 Andrew Jackson (Democratic, 1829-1837)
The Hero of New Orleans, considered the first Democratically-elected President who nonetheless became controversial for his actions in the Nullification Crisis of 1832, and his enactment of the Indian Removal Act.
6 Winfield Scott (Whig, 1849-1857)
Old Fuss and Feathers, not particularly remembered, he quietly enacted the Whig Party’s Platform, and attempted to steer the ship of state during the aftermath of the Great European Revolution, successfully keeping America’s Neutrality.
7 James Buchanan (Democratic, 1845-1849)
An unremarkable man, he finished the Mexican War Harrison started, and led the creation of the Rio Bravo Republic; he is also known as being the only Spartan President, albeit not publicly.
8 James Madison (Republican, 1809-1817)
This Fifth President is best known for the Foreign Policy Doctrine that bears his name and for being President during the First Era of Good Feelings.
9 John Adams (Federalist, 1797-1801)
The First Vice President, Adams is known for the controversial Alien and Sedition Acts, and keeping America at peace during her first entanglement with European Affairs during the Quasi-War.
10 Charles Sumner (Whig, 1857-1861)
A dedicated abolitionist whose heavy-handed actions during the Pawnee-Platte Debate saw the Constitutionalist Whigs split from his party under his own Vice President and threw the 1860 Election to the Democrats.
11 James Monroe (Republican, 1817-1825)
The Father of the Constitution, Madison led America into the Second Anglo-American War, which backfired from an easy war and ended with Washington in Flames.
12 Thomas Ewing Jr. (Union, 1872-1881)This General oversaw the dying days of the Southron Rebellion and enacted the Radical Reconstruction his party desired, but in the process, much of the lands he seized in the South went to his friends first before the option was given to Freedmen.
13 John Quincy Adams (Republican, 1825-1829)
The Last Republican President, and the son of the only Federalist one, John Quincy Adams was swept into office on the only House Contingent Election of the Second Republic known as the Corrupt Bargain. His rivalry with Jackson saw his party split between the Democrats and National Republicans.
14 William Tweed (Union, 1881-1893)
William Tweed inherited the burgeoning Political Machine of Ewing and elevated its corruption into an art form, he ushered in the Second Era of Good Feelings, and set the Second Republic on a course it would never recover from.
15 Graham N. Fitch (Democratic, 1861-1865)
A President who tried (unsuccessfully) to navigate the slavery issue in a time of mass upheaval, his failed compromises split his party in much the same way his predecessor had, and doomed America to a nearly seven-year Rebellion and an insurgency nearly as long.
16 Nelson A. Miles (Union, 1893-1910)
And it goes without saying that the bottom of this list is reserved for Nelson Miles, the man who became an American Caudillo, whose abuses of power set the stage for the Second American Revolution and the subsequent American Civil War, the End of the Second Republic, and the Interconstitutional Era.
 
Last edited:

Roger II

Well-known member
Interesting-I'd be curious to see a few more details about the PoD and other divergences(are the different outcomes of the Revolutions of 1848 actually what happened, a historiographic difference with OTL, or a divergence caused by American events?)
 
So I assume the First Republic is the revolutionary-era confederation?

I would very much like to see where this goes from here.
That would be correct, it’s just alternate historiography at work.
Interesting-I'd be curious to see a few more details about the PoD and other divergences(are the different outcomes of the Revolutions of 1848 actually what happened, a historiographic difference with OTL, or a divergence caused by American events?)
The PoD(s) are no Great Reform Act/no Queen Victoria, Bismarck dies in his youth, and Harrison wins in 1836. And yes 1848 resulted in a Republican United Germany
 
40.Fess Parker Republican Howard Baker 1981-1989
41. Howard Baker Republican Paul Laxalt 1989-1997

40.

In 1976 Fess parker defeated John Tunney for u.s. senate in California. 4 years later his friend Ronald Reagan former governor of California fell off his horse so Parker came into the race.


41. Howard Baker won election in 1989 narrowly defeated bill Clinton for reelection.
 
analogue

Presidents of the Fifth Republic of Texas

1930–1941: Ross S. Sterling (Democratic Party)
1941–1946: Ernest O. Thompson (Democratic Party)
1946–1946: Charles P. Cabell (Military)
1946–1950: James Allred (Liberal Union)
1950–1950: Charles P. Cabell (Military)
1950–1956: Allan Shivers (People's Party)
1956–1957: Homer P. Rainey (Democratic Party)
1957–1957: Ben Ramsey (People's Party)
1957–1957: James Earl Rudder (Military)
1957–1957: Ralph Yarborough (People's Party)
1957–1957: Edwin Walker (Military)

Fourth Interrepublic Era (Johnson Regime)

1957–1971: Lyndon B. Johnson † (National Union)
1971–1986: Sam S. Johnson (National Union)

Presidents of the Sixth Republic of Texas

1986–1988: Billy Waugh (Military)
1988–1988: Bob Armstrong (Action Party)
1988–XXXX: Billy Waugh (Military)
 
The Greatest Honor History Can Bestow...
[Part 1 of an ongoing series]

1969-1971: Richard M. Nixon ✞/Spiro T. Agnew (Republican) [1]
'68 def. Hubert H. Humphrey/Edmund S. Muskie (Democratic), George C. Wallace/Curtis LeMay (American Independent)
1971-1971: Spiro T. Agnew/Vacant (Republican)
1971-1975: Spiro T. Agnew */John G. Tower (Republican) [2]
'72 def. Edmund S. Muskie/Daniel K. Inouye (Democratic), John Lindsay/scattered (Independent Republican)
1975-1975: John G. Tower/Vacant (Republican)
1975-1976: John G. Tower •/Melvin R. Laird (Republican) [3]​
1976-1976: Melvin R. Laird/Vacant (Republican)
1976-1977: Melvin R. Laird (Republican)/Ellsworth Bunker (Independent) [4]​
1977-1981: Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr./James E. Carter (Democratic) [5]
'76 def. Melvin R. Laird/George H. W. Bush (Republican), Wally Hickel/Pete McCloskey (Independent Republican)

[1] Before Richard M. Nixon's tragic death, commentators spoke of the death of John F. Kennedy as a watershed moment, a once-in-a-lifetime experience.
The two certainly had a lot of similarities beyond both running in the 1960 election. Both were big dreamers who left behind unfinished legacies - Kennedy with civil rights and the space program, Nixon with ending the Vietnam War, getting the economy on track, and ratifying the Equal Rights Amendment. Both of them were ready young, with Nixon being elected to the Vice Presidency at 39 and Kennedy being elected to the Presidency at 43. Both of them fought adversity on their way, Kennedy with his health problems and the headwinds of anti-Catholic prejudice and Nixon with his family's modest means. Both of them were staunch anti-communists, foreign policy wonks, strong politicians.
Both of them died tragically, Kennedy shot dead in a Dallas motorcade and Nixon bleeding out on a Bethesda operating table as doctors tried to remove a clot from the President's left leg, a consequence of his chronic phlebitis. Both of them left behind the image of a martyr - Kennedy shot dead by a Communist and Nixon refusing to seek medical attention as he fought to see peace in Vietnam, détente with China and the Soviet Union, and prosperity at home - even as later historians re-evaluate their legacies. Both left tricky situations for their successors, Kennedy with Vietnam and civil rights and Nixon with both of those same things and an economic crisis atop them.
It would be reductionist to call Richard Nixon the Republican Jack Kennedy. But it wouldn't exactly be wrong.

[2] But Spiro Agnew was certainly no Lyndon Johnson. His presidency was white lower-middle-class alienation made manifest, the backlash to the civil rights movement and the welfare state in the hands of a genuine believer rather than someone like Nixon, who wanted to use that anger but didn't share the motives of his voters. Agnew neutered the EPA Nixon had established, closed off the possibility of détente and a Presidential visit to China, tore up plans for desegregation, and tried in vain to stabilize the dollar and keep the good economy of the '60s running into the era of balance-of-payments issues and the Nixon shock. But none of it worked, not really. As the President went into the 1972 election, with Ed Muskie well ahead of him in every poll and Pete McCloskey looking like Agnew's Gene McCarthy (they even sounded similar), a man from the Committee to Re-Elect the President came to his office.
In the end, it wasn't Vietnam that brought Agnew down, with Vietnamization coming at the cost of thousands or millions dead in bombing campaigns and famine and the collapse of the rickety dictatorship that was South Vietnam as the President blocked refugees to save American jobs. It wasn't stagflation, the two-headed giant that stomped on the American economy and destroyed jobs and regional economies even despite Agnew's genuine efforts, causing poverty and crime and sickness and death. It wasn't the bribes he took in Maryland or in Washington, or even the blackmailed journalists courtesy of CREEP and the Plumbers who covered them up. It wasn't the subversion of the Muskie campaign or the engineered shambles of the Lindsay campaign.
No, it was Greece. Agnew hadn't started the Papadopoulos dictatorship, but even under Nixon he had openly supported it and met with its leaders. And when he became President, he backed Papadopoulos - until he seemed weak, at which point he backed a coup against him, "like Kennedy did to Diem". And after all the blood - of the students of Greece's universities, of the purged naval officers, of the dissidents and poets hauled into the police headquarters on Bouboulina Street and the ESA facilities - America had enough, especially after Vietnam.
Mark Hatfield and George McGovern got together again to put forward another resolution demanding the US get out of Greece. When Agnew blithely ignored it, Congress dusted off the articles of impeachment left from Wright Patman's failed attempt. Agnew fought to the bitter end, but only served to alienate more and more of his former supporters. In the end, he did go quietly.

[3] The Presidency of John Tower was a curious one. One of the earliest Republicans in the South to reach high office, and one of the few Southern politicians of his generation not to openly race-bait - but also a key opponent of the Civil Rights Act. An intellectual, who came from academia and brought Savile Row suits and a thoroughgoing Anglophilia with him from the London School of Economics.
But by 1975, he was less well-known for his record, an undistinguished one of conservatism and support for more military spending, and better-known for his slow collapse over the course of his Vice Presidency, turning to drink and perhaps to corruption. Maybe it started with the divorce. Or maybe the pressure of knowing that history would not regard Spiro Agnew's #2 well got to him. But by the time he was inaugurated, John Tower was not considered a respectable enough figure to steer the ship of state through the impeachment of a sitting president.
Many people wanted him to resign immediately. Tower himself, perhaps, wanted to resign immediately. But that would have put Tip O'Neill, the Speaker who leapfrogged over Carl Albert and Hale Boggs to win his office specifically promising to impeach Agnew, in office. And to a restive nation and a party afraid that Agnew would start hollering about a coup, making O'Neill or the Democrats who supported him look like it was a simple matter of self-interest or a partisan power-grab was simply not acceptable.
So over the winter of 1975 - as the Ioannides regime retrenched in the hopes of becoming "Franco on the Aegean", as a Falangist coup against the new King of Spain devolved into another Civil War, as Indira Gandhi's seizure of power in India came to a bloody end and the alliance of convenience between traditionalists and Marxists had to be negotiated, as Chairman Mao's health declined more and more - the government of the United States was focused on negotiating an end to its own crisis of leadership.

[4] Melvin Laird was not the top choice to resolve those problems. Secretary of Defense under Nixon and part of Agnew's term, he had backed the Agnew Doctrine, though he had chosen to leave the Cabinet after the 1972 election. But he was a Nixonite without the baggage of most other Nixonites, and that seemed to count for something at least.
His presidency was one focused on putting out fires. The Spanish debacle saw American recognition of the royalists - any Americans concerned about the lack of democracy were mollified by the fact that the other options were Francoites and Marxists - but no direct aid, and pressure more towards bringing the parties to the negotiating table than anything else. Such was the Laird Doctrine, and it paid dividends - Nixon's old Secretary of State, William P. Rogers, became a national hero in Namibia for brokering South African recognition and withdrawal in the São Paulo Accords, while the Chinese leadership crisis ended with no aggressive actions, at the very least. Some saw the hand of the CIA in the new Indian constitution, with the Hindustani Federation built on nationalist and liberal lines and little influence from Sundarayya's input, but open intervention (or even the hint thereof) was out of style.
It seemed like that would be it for the Laird administration, and for the Republican Party's 8-year spell in government. Laird had ruled out running for the nomination, and after a spirited campaign, another Nixon loyalist who had gotten out while the going was good - former Texas Governor and "Democrat for Nixon" John Connally - was in the hot seat. After Agnew and Tower, Connally was considered the inevitable loser, but he was likely to at least give a respectable performance. Immediately to his left was Wally Hickel, yet another former Cabinet member but one who had resigned in protest even before Nixon's death, running as an "Independent Republican" to return the party to its Eisenhowerian roots - his running mate was former primary candidate Pete McCloskey, fired up enough by Agnew's abuses of power to run against him in '72 and ratfucked out of his House seat in retaliation only to come back as an independent two years later. And next over from there was Arthur Schlesinger, already the anointed inevitable 41st President, the court historian of Camelot who ran as a sort of appeal to the better angels of the American nature, or of the heavenly choir of public opinion that, in Schattschneider's immortal words, "sings with a prominent upper-class accent." It was all laid out so neatly - Laird would retire as a statesman without having to seek approval from the voters or spend time campaigning, and American politics would return to normalcy.
Except that Connally went down over milk money (of all the things), and the Republican National Convention nominated Laird after a messy panic. As Laird criss-crossed the country - on a reversion-to-the-mean economic bounce from the Agnew years, and looking into a bright future. Laird could almost believe he would win.

[5] But instead, it was Arthur Schlesinger. A historian and the son of a historian, the dorky-looking academic and critic of the "imperial presidency" seemed like a safe pair of hands. On a platform of making the United States less of a hegemon and more the "first among equals" of the free world through diplomacy and trade, of bringing about peace at the home front through a renewed War on Poverty, of pushing to bring minorities into a common American identity through demanding both tolerance from the majority and assimilation from minorities, of stopping the inflationary spiral that was just beginning in 1976, and most of all of bringing the power of the Presidency under control, Schlesinger won a solid majority of the popular vote and a borderline landslide in the Electoral College.
How did it go so wrong? Part of it was Schlesinger's inexperience with government. He had seen it, but from the outside, and he staffed his administration primarily with academics - though sometimes, as with Secretary of the Treasury John Kenneth Galbraith, they turned out to be competent and on-the-ball, other times that very much did not happen, as with Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Lewis Mumford. Often the flaw was not merely that the academics were out of touch but that they sought to fit humans into their models rather than fitting the models against actual humans - new Secretary of Energy Alvin Weinberg, in alliance with Vice President Jimmy Carter, responded to the outcry over nuclear power after a partial meltdown at the Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant near South Bend, Indiana, by pushing to make nuclear construction less subject to public pressure.
And often the problem was conventional wisdom. "Schlesinger", a later historian wrote, "had seemingly come to the conclusion, after decades of studying government, that the possibilities of government were limited to a really quite narrow space." He talked a big game about peace abroad, but when the Republican Party quietly torpedoed negotiations over the Panama Canal, he let Richard Holbrooke talk him into an unexpectedly bloody and contentious "intervention" there aimed at deposing Roberto Díaz. He talked about a renewed War on Poverty, but that turned out to largely just mean tax credits on new housing and more funding for school lunches. And the only part of his cultural agenda that passed, restricting immigration, was the only part palatable to the right wing.
It was no surprise that Noam Chomsky, who had been criticizing Schlesinger for a decade and a half, announced he would be running as a third-party candidate. It wasn't much of one when Frank Church announced a primary run against Schlesinger - Church had been a critic of the administration ever since it had become clear how many of Schlesinger's promises were hollow. When Ted Kennedy very pointedly refused to endorse Schlesinger's re-election, that raised a few eyebrows. Then Church nearly won the primary in New Hampshire and did win the primary in Wisconsin, then Schlesinger didn't clinch the nomination until Pennsylvania against Church and a last-minute push by former Texas governor Ben Barnes. The campaign rallied a little after the conventions - Schlesinger defeated his robotic opposite number, Illinois Senator Donald Rumsfeld, there, and then even received a bit of an October Surprise when a memorandum from Rumsfeld's service in Treasury under Laird surfaced in which he plotted to deliberately overheat the economy to try to win the 1976 election.
It wasn't enough, not nearly. Schlesinger hadn't even won his first state before crucial victories in Illinois, Pennsylvania, and New York pushed Rumsfeld over the edge - in the end, he was limited to Minnesota, Hawaii, and DC. But the final ignominy came when the Electoral College voted. Thanks to a shock win by Noam Chomsky in Massachusetts and two faithless electors in Hawaii, Schlesinger didn't even have the honor of placing second in the electoral vote.