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Lists of Heads of Government and Heads of State


Sour, Salty, and Delicious
Published by SLP
Albany, NY
American sectarianism persisting to this day always intrigued me as an idea, though even if Graham was personally anti-Catholic I doubt he'd focus on it too much as President. He doesn't really seem to be the type of person to act like that.
Yes he was exactly that kind of person.

His entire political involvement in 1960 was to stop the papist. He was also Anti-Semitic and a horrific racist. And never gave up his homophobia. He just had better PR then his peers. He would absolutely push it and the rest of his horrible views.


Well-known member
List of Prime Ministers of Scotland
2016: Alex Salmond (Scottish National Party)
2014 Referendum: 52% Yes, 48% No
2016-2018: Alex Salmond (Scottish National Party-Liberal coalition)
2016 def: Ruth Davidson (Conservative and Scottish), Kezia Dugdale (Labour), Aamer Anwar (Radical Alliance), Willie Rennie (Liberal), George Galloway (Workers' Party for Social Justice)
2018-2019: Alex Salmond (Scottish National Party minority)
2019-2020: Nicola Sturgeon (New Democratic-Radical-Liberal-Green minority coalition)
2020-2021: Ruth Davidson (Moderate-Labour-Liberal minority coalition)
2021-0000: Alex Salmond (Agrarian League-New Democratic-Green coalition)

2021 def: Nicola Sturgeon (New Democratic), Ruth Davidson (Moderate), Patrick Harvie and Lorna Slater (Green), Jo Rowling (Electoral Action of Unionists in Scotland), Anas Sarwar (Labour), George Galloway (Workers' Party for Social Justice), Cat Boyd (Radical), Willie Rennie (Liberal)

The Scottish Independence referendum sent shockwaves through the British Isles, although this was subsequently muffled by two years of dreary back-and-forth in London and Brussels (as the Catalan crisis abated, the EU came round to the idea of automatic entry for the Kingdom of Scotland), and it was almost an anti-climax when Alex Salmond transformed from First Minister to Prime Minister in March 2016 like the world's least whelming butterfly.

At the start of May, the first general election of the new state was held, to much fanfare, and to the surprise of some, the SNP lost ground to the Conservatives (who presented a cuddly image and dropped overt Unionism) and the Radical Alliance, an outgrowth of the Radical Independence Campaign. The main stories of the election were piss-fights within the Radical tent between the Greens and the RIC people who seemed to take all the top slots in the regional lists, and of course the precipitous decline of the Labour Party. A brief, and seemingly ironic, meme wave brought Rennie's Liberals over the line and into the balance of power, and the unavoidable George Galloway won a single seat in Glasgow with a new party bent on trolling everyone else in Scotland's body politic.

As before, the SNP government accomplished very little except for the dissemination of nationalist rhetoric through its co-opted cultural elite and the provision of a slightly more generous state apparatus than that which held sway in Cameron's Britain. No excitement was had (except, of course, for the Tories changing their slightly unwieldy name and Kezia Dugdale being succeeded as Labour Leader by a man who immediately became subject to a criminal investigation and resigned in ignominy) until the Prime Minister's own annus horribilis, when a number of women came forward with sexual harrassment allegations against the symbol of the nation's independence. Salmond attracted much vitriol for persisting in office, not only after the allegations but also after the Liberals crossed the floor in disgust. No vote of confidence was ever held as Parliament had been prorogued, but Salmond had certainly lost the support of the majority of legislators - this was the first challenge for Governor-General Connery, and he manifestly failed to meet it.

Over Christmas, criminal charges were laid, and the disaffected wing of the SNP split off as the NDP - importantly, under a leader notable as being a woman as well as a first-rank politician. The NDP gathered the support of the friendly minor parties and the acquiescence of the opposition parties, and won a confidence vote when Parliament regathered. Thereafter, governance was much the same as before, although enlivened by bickering between the Greens and the Radical Party that was rendered much more spicy now that both had to sit around the Cabinet table. Davidson swept this awkward alliance out of office in another parliamentary coup by allying with the old enemy in Labour - which was haemorrhaging members to the Radicals, to the new unionist party, and even to Galloway's pestilential organisation. Of course, Davidson immediately had to contend with the coronavirus pandemic, and headbangers in her own party prevented Scotland from escaping a very grim year.

Exhausted by change and by the experiences of 2020, the people of Scotland returned to the last strong leader they had known - Alex Salmond, now exonerated in questionable circumstances. Even so, he could only govern with the support of Sturgeon's splitters and the Greens, who came off decidedly better than the Radicals - although every party could congratulate themselves for beating the Liberals, dubbed 'Renniecocks' for their eagerness to participate in any government which would have them.

Unionist and crypto-unionist parties won almost half of the votes in this latest election, and it remains to be seen whether a new referendum will be held in the event of a parliamentary majority for a Reunited Kingdom. As it is, though, Jo Rowling seems to be happy to co-operate with the nationalist government now that she's won a phalanx of seats for herself and her goons - especially on what might euphemistically be called social issues.
Big fan of this, and surprised it hasn't got more commentary. Is the Rowling party's name meant to mean something as an acronym? If not its a delightful clunky single-issue party name.


Always mysterious!
Published by SLP
Municipal Commune of Bourne
War of the British Succession

1760-1810: George III (Hanover)
1810-1813: George IV (Hanover)

1813-1815: Charlotte I (Hanover), Carlottan Claim

1813-1815: Frederick I (Hanover), Frederician Claim

1813-1814: James III (Hanover), Fitzherbertite Claim

1813-1813: Charles IV Emmanuel (Savoy), Jacobite Claim

1813-1815: King Ludd (The Peoples' Tribune), Luddite Claim

1815-0000: King Ludd (The Peoples' Tribune)
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Time Enough

"Enthusiastic Cis Male Partner"
Holiday in Cambodia:
1961-1965: Richard Nixon (Republican)
1960 (With Henry Cabot Lodge Jr.) def: John F. Kennedy (Democratic)
1965-1969: Hubert Humphrey (Democratic)
1965 (With George Smathers) def: Richard Nixon (Republican)
1969-1977: Robert McNamara (Republican)
1968 (Vacant) def: Hubert Humphrey (Democratic), George Wallace (American Independent), Fred Hampton (Rainbow Coalition)
1972 (With John Connolly) def: George McGovern (Democratic)

1977-1983: Tom McCall (Third Force)
1976 (With Bill Proxmire) def: John Connolly (Republican), George Wallace (Democratic), Fred Hampton (People's)
(With Jerry Brown) def: Bob Dole (Republican), Ernest Hollings (Democratic), Tom Hayden (People's)
1982 Creation of Two Round Presidential Voting
1983-1989: Jerry Brown (Third Force)
1984 (Jerry Brown/William Scranton III, Reubin Askew/Walter Mondale) First Round Def; David McReynolds (People's), Jack Kemp (Republican)
1984 (Jerry Brown/William Scranton III) Second Round def: Reubin Askew/Walter Mondale

1989-1993: Dick Lamm (Democratic)
1989 (Dick Lamm/Sam Nunn, Bernie Sanders/Elizabeth Holtzmann) First Round def: Jerry Brown (Third Force), Pat Robertson (Republican)
1989 (Dick Lamm/Sam Nunn) Second Round def: Bernie Sanders (People's)

1993-1998: Lowell Weicker (Third Force)
1992 (Lowell Weicker/Pat Schroder, David Bonior/Lynn Woolsey) First Round def: Dick Lamm (Democratic), Ross Perot (Independent)
1992 (Lowell Weicker/Pat Schroder) Second Round def: David Bonior (People's)
(Lowell Weicker/Colin Powell, Ron Dellums/Jim Hightower) First Round def: Dick Gepherdt (Democratic), David Duke (Populist)
1996 (Lowell Weicker/Colin Powell) Second Round def: Ron Dellums (People's)

1998-2001: Colin Powell (Third Force)
2001-: Jello Biafra (People's)
2000 (Mike Gavel/Jello Biafra,Pat Buchannan/Alan Keyes) First Round def: Colin Powell (Third Force), Donald Trump (Democratic), Jimmy McMillan (Independent)
2000 (Mike Gavel/Jello Biafra) Second Round def: Pat Buchannan (Populist)

“Huh, so Biafra’s President now?”
“Mike Gavel got shot”
“So another President elect got killed?”
“Second after Romney”
“Oh yeah, the fella who we were meant to have instead Robert McNarama”
“Well...at least it lead to twenty years of Third Force rule”
“Are you telling me that’s a good thing Steve?”
“Well it lead to California Über Alles becoming a Number 6 hit in 1980 so...”
“It also lead to the slow raise of American Fascism too and the slow destruction of the Americans Welfare state”
“Well that’s why I voted for Mike Gravel”
“And why I voted for Jimmy McMillan”
“Oh for fuck sake!”
“C’mon he’s better than Pat Buchanan”
“Well I hope you voted Gravel on the Second One”
“Well yes, but does it matter now?”
“True, hope you like Eco-Socialism...I guess?”

Turquoise Blue

Acutely Tibby
Patreon supporter
The Land of the Trembling Star (UK)
"The queen [Anne] shewed me a letter wrote in the king of France's own hand, upon the death of her sister; in which there was the highest character that ever was given to any princess of her age. Mr. Richard Hill came straight from the earl of Godolphin's... to me with the news, and said it was the worst that ever came to England. I asked him why he thought so. He said it had been happy if it had been her brother; for then the queen might have sent for her and married her to prince George, who could have no pretensions during her own life; which would have pleased every honest man in the kingdom, and made an end of all disputes for the future." - William Legge, 1st Earl of Dartmouth on Louisa Maria's death.

"If It Had Been Her Brother..."

Monarchs of England, Scotland and Ireland (-1707)

Anne (Stuart) 1702-1707

Monarchs of Great Britain and Ireland (1707-)
Anne (Stuart) 1707-1714
George I and Mary III (Hanover and Stuart) 1714-1727
Mary III (Stuart) 1727-1741
William IV (Hanover-Stuart) 1741-1775
William V (Hanover-Stuart) 1775-1784
Edward VII (Hanover-Stuart) 1784-1829

Mary IV (Hanover-Stuart) 1829-

Hanoverian Claimants to the British Throne (1727-)
[Officially relinquished in 1832]
George II (Hanover) 1727-1760
George III (Hanover) 1760-1767
George IV (Hanover) 1767-1830
Henry IX (Hanover) 1830-1837

Charlotte (Hanover) 1837-

The Hanoverian Claim is now relinquished by that lineage, by the wise Henry in 1832 upon seeing the disaster that it brought the House of Hanover. Nevertheless, there are those unreconstructed Whig 'Commonwealthmen' who heavily disdain the 'crypto-Papist' Hanover-Stuarts that they would fuel the Hanoverian ambitions against the Parliamentary Settlement that declared that Mary's son with George I, the young Prince William, would be the heir.

The fact that William favoured the Tories, an abrupt shift from his father's pro-Whig favour which his mother dutifully continued in a lesser manner, fuelled those who believed the Hanover-Stuarts were just the ultimate success of the Old Pretender from beyond the grave, and the bitterness of Prince George, now King of Hanover, merely enabled those. The man never liked his father and his father him, hence why the elder George so easily accepted the Settlement declaring his children with Mary his English heirs, and it was why George rose his banners upon his step-mother's death.

Declaring William IV a 'false pretender' and accumulating those Whigs alienated by William's known Tory favour, he plunged England into the first of three Hanoverian Risings. Primarily based in the south of England, it would in many ways reflect the older Civil War loyalties, but this loyalty was weaker with Parliament fleeing north, declaring its ultimate loyalty with King William. George would be crowned in Westminster, but be forced to flee barely two years later as defeat upon defeat came after him, especially as the French made their move.

Mary was beloved in France, and George I was actually a cousin to the French Regent and actively worked with him to end the Spanish threat for good. With Spain defeated, Europe saw its jigsaw pieces shifting once again. The younger George garnered support with fellow German states and dug deep in the Hanoverian militia for the first rising, which made Louis XV calculate that if he backed the Hanover-Stuarts, Britain wouldn't work against France as much as otherwise. Legend has it that as the French approached London on William's invitation, George ordered the burning of the Palace of Westminster to 'reward Parliament like traitors are due'. Going up in ashes with it was the last bit of Whig support for the Hanoverians. Almost going up with it was a copy of the Magna Carta stored in a nearby building, but it was saved by French soldiers. That's how the popular myth tells it anyway.

After the defeat of the "Hanoverian Rising" and Hanover having the House of Hanover be replaced with a more... pliant head of state, the Tories entered a period of political ascendancy that lasted for decades. "George II" would wander around Europe, increasingly more interested in drink and mistresses than in a second try at his claim. Britain under the Tory Ascendancy in many ways reversed the Glorious Revolution, vesting more power into the monarch and away from the Parliament, which was now supposedly "non-partisan" with the old labels ostensibly gone. Nobody believed that.

With William IV settling in his role, Louis XV would find to his displeasure but not to his surprise that the traditional rivalries reignited, even if Britain were not eager to work with Germans those days. Indeed, the Tories and King William IV preferred to keep Britain aloof from the continent, preferring to focus on their imperial and trade policies rather than anything to do with the continent. This led to more of a focus on colonial expansion, and it led to a spark that led to a confrontation between Britain and France in the Ohio Valley due to colonial speculation.

With the Tories deploring the idea of raising an expensive army [which would need taxes] for some distant colonial output, it declined to send an army, rather preferring to send negotiators to the French which concluded with what the British Government deemed an amenable settlement that permitted mutual profit. This was considered a betrayal of the colonies and cultivate a belief that the Hanover-Stuarts were "in the pocket of the French". Such a small confrontation was widely published by outraged American press. The French being seen as having "won", led to a growth of resentment, as well as the escalation of normal anti-Catholicism to fervent levels in the Thirteen Colonies.

And in 1762, with the death of the first of the Hanoverian Pretenders, his grandson arrived in the Colonies in disguise. To the Americans, he was noted to be an intelligent and charismatic man who managed to quickly dominate the Congress and they quickly acclaimed him as the "true" King, crowning him George III, King of Great Britain, of Ireland and of America. That last bit was important, although historians doubt he would have genuinely followed up on this once he seized full power in Britain. The Continental Congress under President George Washington rose militia and declared an "uprising for the true liberty and security of the American People and the restoration of the true King of England".

The fact the Tories had to commit a volte-face and bring back a powerful army fractured them. The "Court Tories" that stayed in power were arguably just absolutist Whigs in how they accepted the Whig idea of a centralised state. The so-called "Non-Partisan Era" died quickly, and many ex-Whigs arrived into power. The Cabinet would achieve its modern prominence as it took on more and more duties in the war. The Second Hanoverian Rising was expensive to put down, and more or less broke the possibility of permanent British colonies in America.

After the war finished, William IV was noted to look much tired and having age catch up with him. An increased disinterest in further ruling started the modern age of "cabinet rule" and the rise of the cabinet as the true ruling force of Britain. At the head was his son Prince William, who ended up being crowned William V. However, he proved a sickly monarch, although one who desired to command his cabinet. After nine years, his Lord-President found him collapsed over his writing desk. This led to a rushed coronation for his son Edward as Edward VII.

The Edwardian Era is widely considered one of Britain's golden ages. A young uncertain man crowned in his twenties became the white-haired "Grandfather of the Empire", it is an era commonly recalled in many period dramas as one of turbulent romanticism. Helping the calm start to this era was the fact that the Hanoverian pretender after the execution of "George III" was his infant son. Commonly styled by the lingering Hanoverians as George IV, this boy was commonly brought up to believe that his destiny was to restore his throne. His brother William Henry noted that "George is surrounded by sycophants every minute of every day, bitter that our father was killed by the Stuarts. I worry for him, when his company is that deluded."

Under Edward VII, Britain became industrious, prosperous and yet greatly alone. The French Revolution in 1799 upset many and forced Britain, after so long, to be dragged back to continental matters. Forging ad hoc pacts with Austria, Russia and Prussia to put down the radicals, it forced the rise of a clear leader figure in the cabinet, which ended up the Lord-President of the Council in a natural elaboration of their role as presiding over the privy council. It is in this uncertain time of external war and internal peace that many a modern period drama prospers.

The third and last of the Hanoverian Risings was during this time. And it was the most pathetic excuse of a rising ever. The pretender, holed up in Sweden, purchased the use of a considerable company of mercenaries to take over London and declare it restored for the true King. There were one or two MPs and Lords sympathetic to the Hanoverians still, but the plot was caught out and the mercenaries utterly failed, and only in the end killed one man in their final battle. Unfortunately for all, that man was Crown Prince William. He died leaving behind a sole daughter, who immediately became heir. The final pretender to hold the claim would die of a heart attack while in a drunken fight in 1830.

As many coalitions were formed to defeat the French, Edward VII grew to dislike what he labelled as the "monkey parliament" and ceded all governmental duties he had to the Lord President, who was described by Edward, first factitiously then genuinely, as the "viceroy regnant", which would end up the official title of the head of government way later on as Tory concepts of a more powerful monarch grew to shift to a more powerful lord-president serving as viceroy. The first "viceroy regnant" would be that member of a long and loyal Tory dynasty, William Pitt the Younger, who would serve all the way to the fifth year of Edward's successor. When the French were finally defeated, Edward made clear he wanted Pitt to stay.

The ageing king, now in his sixties, grew more irritable and isolated with time, before succumbing to a quick illness and closing his eyes in 1829. He would not live long enough to see the final end to the Hanoverian dispute, to the famous "Audience of the Bloodlines" where William Henry, supposed claimant to the throne via the Hanoverian line as "Henry IX", swore fealty to Mary IV as the true monarch of Britain and abandoned all his claims ending the century-long divide between the eldest and youngest sons of George of Hanover.

William Henry would die in 1837, seeing the two lines reconciled at long last, and according to modern Hanoverians, which yes they still exist and are as tiresome as you believe they are, the claim went to his daughter who they deemed to be Queen Charlotte the First. Charlotte never expressed any interest in the throne, preferring to emphasise that her father renounced their claim and she plans to keep it that way. Meanwhile, her cousin Alexandria, marriage prospects now much bolstered by William Henry's reconciliation, would marry a German nobleman from present-day Thuringia in 1840.


Banned (for real)
Parliamentary America

1969 - 1973: Richard Nixon / Spiro Agnew (Republican Party)

1968 def: Hubert Humphrey / Edmund Muskie (Democratic Party); George C. Wallace / Curtis LeMay (American Independent Party)
1972 def: George McGovern / Sargent Shriver
(Replacing Thomas Eagleton) (Democratic Party)
1973 - 1975: Richard Nixon / Ronald Reagan (Republican Party)
1975 - 1978: Ronald Reagan / William Ruckelshaus (Republican Party)

1976 def: Jerry Brown / Henry Jackson (Democratic Party)
1978 - 1980: Tip O' Neill / Peter Rodino (Democratic Party)
1980 - 1981: Gerald Ford / John Connally (Republican Party)
1981 - 1986: John Connally / Al Quie (Republican Party)

1980 def; Tip O' Neill / Peter Rodino (Democratic Party)
1984 def: Gary Hart / George Ariyoshi (Democratic Party)

1986 - 1991: Mary Rose Oakar / Adlai Stevenson III (Democratic Party)
1988 def: Lee Iacocca / Frank Fasi (Independent); Donald Rumsfeld / Carroll Campbell (Republican Party)
1991 - 1999: Guy Vander Jagt / Paul Coverdell (Republican Party)
1992 def: Larry Agran / Butler Derrick (Democratic Party)
1996 def: Adlai Stevenson III / Evan Bayh (Democratic Party)

1999 - 2003: Mickey Leland / John Breaux (Democratic Party)
2000 def: Dan Lungren / J. C. Watts (Republican Party)
2003 - 2007: David Dreier / Christopher Cox (Republican Party)
2004 def: Bill Bradley / Dianne Feinstein (Democratic Party)
2007 - 2011: Baron Hill / Jon Corzine (Democratic Party)
2008 def: Trent Lott / John Doolittle (Republican Party)
2011 - 2019: Pete Sessions / Bob Bennett (Republican Party)
2012 def: Jan Schakowsky / Maxine Waters (Democratic Party)
2016 def: Ron Kind / Jon Tanner (Democratic Party)

2019 - 0000: Chris Van Hollen / Rosa deLauro (Democratic Party)
2020 def: Lamar Alexander / Richard Burr (Republican Party); Steve King / Jeff Sessions (America First)

Nixon holds firm throughout Watergate, willing to go through the impeachment process. The Democratic majority House does end up voting to impeach, but things get a bit trickier in the Senate where a 2/3rds vote, not a simple majority, is needed. Nixon survives the Senate impeachment with just one vote, much like Andrew Johnson before him. Yet Nixon's problems do not end there, as Democrats end up sweeping the 1974 midterms and more and more about Nixon's corruption ends up coming out, such as that he bungled the Vietnam talks in 1968 and how he plotted to assassinate Jack Anderson, who had published various exposes against the Nixon administration. Nixon would end up resigning in 1975, and would hand the reins of power to Ronald Reagan, who he had selected to be his Vice President following Agnew's resignation. Reagan is a polarizing figure with a middling approval rating, which collapses after he pardons Nixon. Many fear that Reagan will end up doing away with the New Deal and/or get America embroiled in a nuclear war. Amidst all this, the Democrats with their strong majorities in the House and Senate would amend the Constitution, changing the minimum number of Senate seats needed to remove a President through impeachment to just being 1/2 of the Senate, rather than 2/3rds. Further, the grounds for impeachment are broadened into a vague statement saying that a President may be impeached if he were to "cause harm to America's citizenry, both here and abroad".

The luck of the Democrats end here. A crowded Democratic Primary field leads to a contested convention come the summer, which after numerous ballots selects the schizophrenic ticket of Jerry Brown and Henry Jackson. The two do not particularly get along, and further, Reagan ends up mounting a much better campaign than expected. By November, the two are neck and neck, and eventually the election ends up hinging on the state of North Carolina. After a few weeks of uncertainty, the state goes to Reagan by a hair, granting him a second term. However, a year into Reagan's term, and it was revealed that Reagan did not win North Carolina fairly, but rather had won the state with the help of Jesse Helms and the North Carolina Republican Party, all of which had conspired to fabricate ballots which ostensibly came from the more rural, conservative areas of North Carolina. The outrage over this leads to the impeachment of both Reagan and Ruckelshaus, and the ascension of Speaker Tip O'Neill to the office of the Presidency.

But O'Neill isn't as lucky, either. After going through two major scandals, O'Neill wishes to calm the American people down and reconcile the country. But after an Iranian student group storms and eventually begins massacring numerous Americans in America's embassy in Tehran, it is clear that O'Neill's presidency won't be as smooth as he had hoped it would be. While a war could unite the populace, memories of Vietnam are still fresh in the America psyche, and furthermore as Iran collapses into a Civil War most Democrats begin to believe that it may be best if America stays out of that quagmire. But the Democratic electorate is not the American electorate, and so, the 1978 Midterms become the first time the GOP has captured both Houses of Congress since the late 1940s. They use the "cause harm to America's citizenry" clause to investigate and eventually impeach both O'Neill and Rodino, bringing Republican Gerald Ford into office, who then makes the Republican nominee John Connally as his Vice President.

Connally would win 1980 easily, ditto for 1984 as the scandal-ridden Gary Hart is made the Democratic nominee. But Connally wouldn't finish out his second term, after a scandal emerged when Seymour Hersh, a noted investigative journalist, was killed in a car bomb on January 23rd, 1985. Later evidence would emerge that Hersh was planning on revealing that John Connally, as a favor to his friend, Oscar Wyatt, head of the Coastal Oil Corporation, had been engaging in secret hostage dealings with Iraq, which had been under US sanctions since its unilateral annexation of Ahwaz in 1982. Iraq would take hostages, and in exchange would be granted a favorable deal by Coastal Oil in order for them to be released. That would've been bad enough, had it not been for the Connally Administration's subsequent attempts at covering up any Iraqi involvement in Hersh's killing. When that came out, the scandal was enough for both Democrats, along with a few Republicans, to remove Connally and Quie from power (Quie was removed for being "complicit", even though he insisted he had no knowledge of it, nevertheless the Democrats would set a precedent that complicity in a high crime is pretty much a high crime itself).

Mary Oakar would be the first Arab-American, and Woman, President of the United States. She would win in a three way race in 1988, but she would be impeached by the Republican-controlled Congress after she was caught up in a banking scandal during her time in the House. Stevenson would also be impeached using the Quie precedent. Speaker of the House Guy Vander Jagt would become the 43rd President. His second term would be marked with an economic downturn which would become a recession, but Jagt would remain firm to his fiscal conservative beliefs and veto a relief bill proposed by the Democratic controlled Congress. Speaker Leland declared that by vetoing the bill that Jagt was "causing harm to America's citizenry" and would lead the way in impeaching him.

Jagt's impeachment made it clear that impeachment would just be a political tool used by whatever party was in control of both Houses of Congress. Leland, too, would be impeached after not going with an Israeli operation to destroy Libya's nuclear reactors, which the Republican-controlled House said that, by allowing Libya to develop nukes that he was also "causing harm to American's citizenry". The real elections happen every two years instead of four, and America is described by most political observers as a "semi-parliamentary" system. Sleep well, Woodrow Wilson, you may have failed with the League of Nations and Versailles, but at least America now has a parliamentary style of government.
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Time Enough

"Enthusiastic Cis Male Partner"
A Realignment of the Left:
1992-1996: Neil Kinnock (Labour)

1992 (Coalition with Liberal Democrats) def: John Major (Conservative), Paddy Ashdown (Liberal Democrats)
1994 AV Referendum: Yes 46%, No 54%

1996-1999: Michael Heseltine (Conservative)
1996 (Majority) def: Neil Kinnock (Labour), Paddy Ashdown (Liberal Democrats), Jimmy Goldsmith (Referendum)
1999-2001: Michael Howard (Conservative)
2001-2009: Peter Hain (Labour)

2001 (Coalition with Liberal Democrats) def: Michael Howard (Conservative), Charles Kennedy (Liberal Democrats)
2002 MMP Referendum: Yes 57%, No 43%
2005 (‘Progressive Alliance’) def: Iain Duncan Smith (Conservative), Charles Kennedy (Liberal Democrats), Roger Knapman (UKIP), Caroline Lucas (Greens), Robert Kilroy-Silk (Veritas)

2009-2012: George Osborne (Conservative)
2009 (Coalition with Democrats) def: Peter Hain (Progressive Alliance-Labour, Liberal Democrats, Greens), Roger Knapman (UKIP), Tony Blair (Democrats), Robert Kilroy-Silk (People's), Alex Salmond (SNP)
2012-2016: Cathy Jamieson (Labour)
2012 (‘Progressive Alliance’) def: George Osborne (Conservative), Roger Knapman (UKIP), Tony Blair (Democrats), Robert Kilroy-Silk (People's), Alex Salmond (SNP), Lynne Jones (Red & Greens), George Galloway (Workers)
2015 Federal Devolution Referendum:
Yes 51%, No 49%
2016-2020: Stephen Crabb (Conservative)
2016 (Coalition with Democrats) def: Cathy Jamieson (Progressive Alliance), Diane James (UKIP), Tony Blair (Democrats), Nigel Farage (People's), Nicola Sturgeon (SNP), Lynne Jones-Natalie Bennett (Red & Greens), George Galloway (Workers)
2020-: John Leech (Progressive Alliance)
2020 (Majority) def: Stephen Crabb (Conservative), Chukka Umunna (Democrats), Nigel Farage (People's), Nicola Sturgeon (SNP), Rachel Maskell-Benali Hamdache (Red & Greens), Jared O'Mara (Workers)

After rewatching the 1992 General Election Coverage I conceived this horrifying scenario of every piece of talk about the Centre-Left joining forces to combat the Conservatives into a reality.
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Uhura's Mazda

Fyodor Mikhailovich Baggins
Published by SLP
Tamaki Makaurau
List of Kings of Albion
1807-1810: James I (House of MacDonald) [1]
1810-1813: Lucian I (House of Bonaparte) [2]
1813: Charles Lucian I (House of Bonaparte)
1813-1814: Napoleon I (House of Bonaparte)
1814-1848: Edmund VII (House of Mortimer) [3]
1848-1850: Roger III (House of Mortimer) [4]

[1] - It is commonly said that, for all the evil he did, Napoleon Bonaparte contributed magnificently to the development of Europe to the extent that he unified the fractious principalities of Germany and Britain. In terms of the latter, it would perhaps have been possible for the Kingdom of England to have remained relatively hegemonic until the whole edifice was split asunder by the Tripartite Indenture of 1405 - the founding document of a military effort to overthrow the last accursed usurper of that ailing Kingdom. Divided into three parts, the islands of the Atlantic soon found themselves home to a panoply of polities - the most numerous of which were located in the high country of Wales, as a result of that nation's partible inheritance laws; but the over-mighty and independent-minded vassals of the up-jumped aristocrats in command of North- and Southumbria should not be ignored.

The whole of Europe, therefore, breathed a sigh of relief when Napoleon I sent a fleet bearing his Grand Army of the North against the Rose Garden Coalition and destroyed their armies at the world-renowned battles of Crawley, Chessington, Derby and Waterloo (named in jest as a result of the Grand Duke of York's ill-timed visit to the lavatory). The Emperor reorganised the British statelets into the Transmancaline Confederation (renamed as the British Confederation within weeks) with himself at the head, while the bulk of the land was accorded to the Kingdom of Albion. To keep order on the ground, Napoleon appointed as King one of his Marshals, Jacques MacDonald, who came from a Scottish family: his father had been exiled for his participation in the last of the major revolts in favour of the House of Balliol. MacDonald had been out of favour at the start of the invasion, but his turning of the cavalry of the Duke of Warwick at Kettering ultimately won him a throne.

'James I of Albion' had only a brief period of pre-eminence, largely spent in imposing a unified system of weights and measures on the Confederation and in exhausting disputes with the mediatised and secularised ex-Prince-Bishop of Durham. By 1810, he no longer had the approval of the Tuileries, and was forced to trade down to become of the monarch of Northern Lusitania.

[2] - By now, Napoleon was so dynastically-minded in his ambition that he regretted creating any throne that could not be occupied by a Bonaparte. Unfortunately, he was so successful at this point that he was seriously running out of brothers to promote - hence the rapprochement with Lucien Bonaparte. Interestingly, Lucian I was still popularly considered to be an opponent of Napoleon, and in consequence was cheered to the echo at his coronation. Of course, the populace was entirely correct in perceiving that their new King was not a lap-dog of Napoleon: he gave serious thought to joining the Sixth Coalition, and probably would have been followed by around a dozen of the Welsh Principalities and the Margraviate of Mar.

In the end, Lucian was brought down by his softness towards the Irish - the various Irish Republics of 1798 had been intended to be given to Albion, but the departure of the Grand Army made this basically unenforceable, and the Irish enjoyed a distinct level of freedom from Customs inspections. This meant two things: firstly, they were able to trade with Ancien Regime exiles in what is now Canada; secondly, Napoleon was cut off from a source of revenue. Lucian gave his apologies for his inability to comply with an Imperial request to bring the Irish to heel, and abdicated in favour of his young son. The reign of Charles Lucian I lasted only a fortnight before the garrisons openly sided with the Emperor, who now accepted another throne for himself.

[3] - Napoleon, of course, didn't have the upper hand in Britain for long, being crushed by a Russo-Prussian ambush at Amboise. Stepping into the breach in Albion was Edmund 'VII', son of the former King of Southumbria, who had been leading a paltry court in exile in Newfoundland since the invasion. Edmund persuaded the Congress of Vienna that Napoleon's redrawing of the borders of Britain had been essentially well-intentioned, and nabbed the primacy of the archipelago for himself. His reign is remembered nowadays as one of immense technological progress, but also one in which the clash between the Ancien Regime and the Napoleonic constitutional innovations of the last few years caused an equally massive hindrance to human happiness. London became home to endemic riots and petty revolutions, while dangerous radicals laid low in lawless locales like the Principalities of Durham and Mann.

Finally, after decades of enervating controversy over matters such as the emancipation of the Protestants and the creation of a Parliament, demands for a Constitution reached fever pitch in the midst of a general European cri-de-coeur in 1848. Edmund VII was forced by a baying mob to abdicate in favour of his slightly less unpopular son - and returned to a Canadian exile.

[4] - Roger III gave the people a Constitution - but it turned out to give the vast majority of the power to the King, and before long the royal family had been dispatched (either to the guillotine or to Newfoundland: most of them had no firm preference) and replaced with a Republican mode of governance. The British Republic (save for the small monarchist outpost of Margate) joined the Irish Republics in the Confederated States of Albion, which soon came to encompass the whole of Britain. And, save for a distinctly unwise experiment in Imperial government in the 1940s, these islands have ever since been whole and entire of themselves - and free from the taint of monarchism.

Time Enough

"Enthusiastic Cis Male Partner"
Standing For Something...

1990-1991: Michael Heseltine (Conservative)
1991-1997: Neil Kinnock (Labour)

1991 (Majority) def: Michael Heseltine (Conservative), Paddy Ashdown (Liberal Democrats), Rosie Barnes (*SDP)
1995 (Majority) def: Michael Howard (Conservative), Paddy Ashdown (Liberal Democrats)

1997-1999: Margaret Beckett (Labour)
1999-2009: Michael Portillo (Conservative)

1999 (Coalition with Liberal Democrats) def: Margaret Beckett (Labour), Malcolm Bruce (Liberal Democrats)
2003 (Majority) def: John Hutton (Labour), Mark Oaten (Liberal Democrats), Tony Blair (Change 03')
2008 (Majority) def: John Hutton (Labour), Lynne Featherstone (Liberal Democrats), Tony Blair (Change), Alex Neil (SNP)

2009-2012: Alan Duncan (Conservative)
2012-: Mark Seddon (Labour)

2012 (Coalition with Liberal Democrats) def: Alan Duncan (Conservative), Lynne Featherstone (Liberal Democrats), Stephen Dorrell (Change UK), Alex Neil (SNP)
2014 DevoMax Referendum: Yes 60%, No 40%
2016 (Majority) def:
Andrea Leadsom (Conservative), Lynne Featherstone (Liberal Democrats), Amber Rudd (Alliance for Change!)

Can Seddon Do It Again?

23 April 2020

"It seems that Mark Seddon is planning to have a snap election in May and given how the polls are looking for him, this is understandable. With the main opposition the Conservatives divided on the EU with there Leader Tobias Ellwood seeming unable to cope and the Alliance lurching around under Andrew Adonis, it’s less Seddon’s to win and more his to lose.

That being said to two parties do offer a potential challenge. The Liberal Democrat’s maybe be able to make gains under new leader John Leech, who seems to appeal to the young voters who have grown up with Seddon and want change but not more Toryism. His attacks on Labour’s arms length relationship with the EU and a strong lack of electoral reform beyond the regional assemblies.

The other is the Workers Party, started by Chris Williamson following his ousting due to Anti-Semitic statements. An odd combination of Soft Left cranks, Blue Labour folks and John Spellar this party seems like it could maybe make some cut through in the Labour Heartlands if the polls are to be believed. Much of this has been attributed to raising new comer Rosie Duffield who’s politics seem to change depending one the room she is in (a part from a constant layer of Trans/Homophobia).

Only time will tell if Seddon has managed to gain another majority."

The Seddon-Featherstone Ministry (2012-2016):

Prime Minister:
Mark Seddon
Deputy Prime Minister and Secretary of State for Education: Lynne Featherstone
Chancellor of the Exchequer: Alan Simpson
Secretary of State for Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Affairs: Jeremy Corbyn (res. 2013), Hilary Benn
Secretary of State for Home Affairs: Michael Meacher (res. 2014), Andrew Smith
Secretary of State for Defence: John Healey
Leader of the House of Commons: Nick Brown/Mike Williams
Secretary of State for Trade and Industry: Andrew Smith (res. 2014), Lisa Nandy
Secretary of State for Energy: John Thurso (res. 2013), John Leech
Secretary of State for Health: Bob Ainsworth (res. 2014), Debbie Abrahams
Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs: Lynne Jones
Secretary of State for Employment: David Howarth
Secretary of State for Transport: Tom Brake
Secretary of State for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport: Natashcha Engel (res. 2014), Andy Burnham
Secretary of State for Housing, Communities and Local Government: Julia Goldsworthy
Chief Secretary to the Treasury: Ed Miliband
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster: Jenny Willott

The Second Seddon Ministry (2016-):
Prime Minister:
Mark Seddon
Deputy Prime Minister and Secretary of State for Employment: Jon Cruddas
Chancellor of the Exchequer: Alan Simpson (res. 2019), Ed Miliband
Secretary of State for Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Affairs: Lynne Jones
Secretary of State for Home Affairs: Lisa Nandy
Secretary of State for Defence: John Healey (res. 2018), Clive Lewis
Leader of the House of Commons: Nick Brown
Secretary of State for Trade and Industry: Ed Miliband (res. 2019), Cat Smith
Secretary of State for Energy: Andrew Gwynne
Secretary of State for Education: Owen Smith
Secretary of State for Health: Debbie Abrahams
Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs: Rachel Maskell
Secretary of State for Transport: Andy MacDonald
Secretary of State for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport: Andy Burnham (res. 2017) Tom Watson
Secretary of State for Housing, Communities and Local Government: Jon Trickett
Chief Secretary to the Treasury: Cat Smith (res. 2019), Rebecca Long Bailey
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster: John McDonnell


a subscription to supply the people with staves
Banned from the forum
The World Policeman

1929-1937: Herbert Hoover (Republican)
def 1929: (with Charles Curtis) Al Smith (Democratic)
def 1932: (with Oliver Gardner) Al Smith (Democratic), Huey Long (Share The Wealth), James Heflin (Independent Democrats)

1937-1949: Henry J. Kaiser (Democratic)
def 1936: (with Eurith Rivers) Huey Long (Share The Wealth), Bruce Barton (Republican)
def 1940: (with Eurith Rivers) Robert E. Wood (Republican), Burton K. Wheeler (Share The Wealth)
def 1944: (with Paul V. McNutt) Burton K. Wheeler and James W. Wadsworth (United Opposition Ticket)

1949-1957: Brien McMahon (Democratic)
def 1948: (with J. William Fulbright) George Bender (United Opposition), Russell Long ("True" Share The Wealth)
def 1952: (with J. William Fulbright) Hamilton Fish III (United)

1957-1965: Nile Kinnick (United)
def 1956: (with Otto Passman) J. William Fulbright (Democratic)
def 1960: (with Otto Passman) W. Averell Harriman (Democratic)

1965-1969: Lucius D. Clay (Democratic)
def 1964: (with Richard Ichord) Otto Passman (United)
1969-1973: Mac Mathias (United)
def 1968: (with John S. Cooper) Lucius D. Clay (Democratic)
1973-1981: Henry Jackson (Democratic)
def 1972: (with Farris Bryant) Mac Mathias (United)
def 1976: (with Farris Bryant) Donald Duncan (United)

1981-1985x: Dixy Lee Ray (Democratic)
def 1980: (with David Kennedy) Pete Stark (United)
1985-xxxx: Ron Dellums (United)
def 1984: (with John W. Gardner) Dixy Lee Ray (Democratic), Helen Chenoworth (American Patriots)

Tsar of New Zealand

Sir Humphrey was the protagonist, change my mind
Where people are one and they get things done
Inspired by a recent thread on here, I've dug out one I was going to use for an HoS list challenge on Manifest Destiny but never quite finished.

Tippecanoe and Article II

Presidents of the United States

1837 - 1841: Martin Van Buren (Democratic)
1836 (with Richard Mentor Johnson) def. William Harrison (Whig), Hugh White (Whig), Daniel Webster (Whig), Willie Mangum (Whig)
1841 (Mar-Apr): William Henry Harrison (Whig)
1840 (with John Tyler) def. Martin Van Buren (Democratic)
1841 - 1842 (Acting (disputed)): John Tyler (Whig, then Independent)
(June) (Acting): Samuel L. Southard (Whig)
April 1842: Impeachment of John Tyler
1842 - 1843 (Acting): John White (Whig)
(Mar-May) (Acting): John Davis (Whig)
1842 special election, presidential: Henry Clay (Whig) [135] def. Martin van Buren (Free-Soil Democratic) [75], Richard Mentor Johnson ("Mule" or "Jackass" Democratic) [52], John Tyler (New Democratic-Republican) [9], Samuel Ward King (Law and Order) [4]
1842 special election, vice-presidential: John Davis (Whig) [139] def. George Dallas (Free-Soil Democratic) [75], Preserved Fish ("Mule" Democratic) [52], John Calhoun (New Democratic-Republican) [9]
1843 contingent election, first ballot: Henry Clay [11] def. Martin Van Buren [6], Richard M. Johnson [6], deadlocked [3]
Ballots 2 through 104:
no resolution
1843 - 0000: Martin Van Buren (Free-Soil Democratic)
1843 contingent election, ballot 105: Martin Van Buren [14] def. Henry Clay [6], Richard M. Johnson [6]

Really, John Tyler should have seen it coming. His fellow Whigs were uneasy about the newly-minted Vice-President's eagerness to step into Harrison's shoes scarcely a month into his term, but they might have accepted Tyler's accidental leadership if he'd presented himself as a reluctant caretaker and just stuck to the Party line.

Instead, he insisted on being called "President" (which made it very awkward when Congress found its notification of availability, addressed to the "Vice-President", returned unopened), told Henry Clay to go hang, and vetoed the National Bank and the Whigs' tariff proposals in an open declaration of war.

After Clay engineered the resignation of the entire Cabinet and left his ally, the president pro tempore of the Senate, first in line to the (Acting) Presidency, articles of impeachment were drafted and bitterly debated through the fall and winter of 1841. Lured by the prospect of catching the Whigs in disarray in the inevitable special election, enough Democratic Senators swung behind the vote to convict, and His Accidency became the first President Vice-President to be removed from office. Henry Clay had won.

And then Samuel L. Southard went and goddamn well died.

One President dying was unfortunate; his successor being impeached by his own party was an embarrassment; his successor dropping dead, to be replaced by the third Acting President in the space of fourteen months, was a humiliation.

The 1842 presidential vote looked uncomfortably close for the Whigs, especially with Tyler's revenge campaign messing with the numbers, but still very winnable. The Speaker of the House was very quietly riding out his four months to the November special elections and happily signed off on the tariff, the National Bank Bill was waiting to enter Congress, and the Democrats were splitting six ways from Sunday over the slavery issue.

And then Rhode Island tipped the pisspot into the soup bowl, as Clay was shut out by the state elders' quixotic campaign to protest at the Federal government's refusal (inability, really) to intervene in the Dorr Rebellion. After the Electoral College deadlocked on the Presidency, the election went to a deadlocked House for an equally deadlocked contingent election, and come March 4 the United States had its fourth Acting President in two years.

It was ironic, really, that Henry Clay would be on the receiving end of a Corrupt Bargain. But after the Connecticut and Virginia delegations flipped in their late elections, the Whigs had a clear message that they were being held responsible for the chaos of the last two years. The trickle of votes sloshing around between ballots would turn into a flood towards the least appalling compromise candidate, sweeping the man who had been blamed for the depression of 1837 back into the Oval Office as the one entrusted to lead America back to prosperity. Martin Van Buren was back, and nobody was particularly happy about it.

Outside the United States, the world has not stood still. Texas, waiting anxiously to find out whether it did or didn't have a friend it could depend on, has thrown its lot in with the British. Abolition is a high price to pay for a guarantee of independence, but Mexico is right there and getting its shit together with unpleasant speed. This has frustrated the Southern Democrats, who are demanding Van Buren do something about it, even as the Northern Democrats get hot under the collar about Oregon. As the President - who has pledged to honour the two-term precedent to make way for a "real" President - desperately tries to stitch the Party of Jackson back together in time for the 1846 election, tensions are at fever pitch.

Meanwhile, in the farthest reaches of Mexico, an American immigrant building a sawmill in the Sierra Nevada is about to notice something in a river that might just manage to make the whole situation even worse.
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Uhura's Mazda

Fyodor Mikhailovich Baggins
Published by SLP
Tamaki Makaurau
List of British Prime Ministers
1945-1955: Clement Attlee (Labour)

1945 def: Winston Churchill (Conservative), Archibald Sinclair (Liberal), Ernest Brown (Liberal National), Malcolm MacDonald (National Labour), Bob Edwards (ILP), Harry Pollitt (Communist), C. A. Smith (Common Wealth)
1950 def: Winston Churchill (Conservative), Gwilym Lloyd-George (Liberal), Malcolm MacDonald (National Labour)
1954 def: Winston Churchill (Conservative), Gwilym Lloyd George (Liberal), Stephen King-Hall (National Labour)

1955: Herbert Morrison (Labour)
1955-1959: Hugh Gaitskell (Labour)

1959-1964: Harold Macmillan (Progressive Conservative)

1959 def: Hugh Gaitskell (Labour), Nigel Nicolson (Centre), Richard Acland (Coalition for a New Democracy)
1964-1965: Patrick Gordon Walker (Labour)
1964 def: Harold Macmillan (Progressive Conservative), Frederic Bennett (Centre), Bertrand Russell (New Democracy)
1965: George Brown (Labour)
1965-1975: James Callaghan (Labour)

1968 def: Selwyn Lloyd (Progressive Conservative), Frederic Bennett (Centre), A. J. P. Taylor (New Democracy)
1972 def: Charles Hill (Progressive Conservative), Gwynfor Evans (New Democracy), Frederic Bennett (Centre), Desmond Donnelly (Reform)

1975-1977: Anthony Crosland (Labour)
1977: Denis Healey (Labour)

1977-1978: Keith Joseph (Progressive Conservative-Centre coalition)

1977 def: Denis Healey (Labour), Jeremy Thorpe (Centre), Gerry Fitt (New Democracy)