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Lists of Heads of Government and Heads of State


Jabs First Brexit
Published by SLP
I can't really see the SPD being sold on restoring the monarchy, even symbolically. OTL they did compromise quite a bit with Weimar's ideals but that was under much greater threat and being squeezed hard to their left while facing the far right.
That is probably the weakest part of it, but this is after quite a few decades of divergence. The point is that everyone is fed up with the Weimar presidency having too much power, and the SPD would probably rather have a purely ceremonial president rather than restore the monarchy, but the votes are there for the latter not the former.


Token Marxist
That is probably the weakest part of it, but this is after quite a few decades of divergence. The point is that everyone is fed up with the Weimar presidency having too much power, and the SPD would probably rather have a purely ceremonial president rather than restore the monarchy, but the votes are there for the latter not the former.
That was always the dumbest part of the Weimar system, and already a concession to monarchist leanings, which makes the monarchists closing the door on it quite funny in its own way.


Drunk like a fox appointed professor of drunking a
Published by SLP
Albany, NY
@Thande's post combined with @Tsar of New Zealand's wonderful reply has given me an idea for what I call List Challenges. These would operate similarly to the Vignette Challenges: someone would come up with a topic (for example "Britain after Sea Lion") and people create lists and descriptions about that topic. Like the Vignette Challenge at the end of the month there would be a vote on the best one, and then the cycle repeats every month..

What do you guys think?
We've already done it.


Always mysterious!
Published by SLP
Municipal Commune of Bourne
this is something along the lines of @Thande's prompt, though probably not quite what he intended

The Strange Afterlife of Tory Scotland

POD: William Power wins the 1940 Argyllshire by-election, and following that the SNP leadership.

1945-1953: Clement Attlee (Labour)
1945 (Majority) def. Winston Churchill (Conservative-Liberal National Pact), Archibald Sinclair (Liberal)
1950 (Majority) def. Winston Churchill (Conservative-Liberal-National Liberal Anti-Socialist Alliance), John MacCormick (Scottish National), Megan Lloyd George (Radical)

1953-1958: Herbert Morrison (Labour)
1953 (Majority) def. Winston Churchill (Conservative-Liberal Anti-Socialist Alliance), John MacCormick (Scottish National)
1958-1966: Harold Macmillan (New Democratic)
1958 (Coalition with SNP) def. Herbert Morrison (Labour), John MacCormick (Scottish National)
1961 (Minority, with SUP confidence and supply) def. George Brown (Labour), Johnnie Buchan (Scottish Unionist), Basil Brooke (Ulster Unionist), Oliver Smedley (Free Trade League)

1966-1975: Tony Greenwood (Labour)
1966 (Majority) def. Harold Macmillan (New Democratic), Johnnie Buchan (Scottish Unionist), Alfred Roberts (Free Trade League), Brian Faulkner (Ulster Unionist)
1970 (Majority) def. Reginald Maudling (New Democratic), Alick Buchanan-Smith (Scottish Unionist), Arthur Seldon (Free Trade League), William Craig (Ulster Unionist)


Well-known member
"The Sun In The Meadow Is Summery Warm..."

For the American Right the years after Ronald Reagan's loss to Jimmy Carter were harsh ones. Though Carter would be repudiated by his own party and the Country four years later for certain segments of the Right the return of Gerald Ford who sought to control the state rather than starve it was still too much. In their rage for years to follow they would split the right an ensure more and more of the hated reforms they saw in the world taking place. "Negros" and "Women" and "Worse" began to appear in Presidential Tickets, Federal ordinances, new laws, economic and social changes kept going. The fact that they were too slow for many in the Democratic Party meant nothing. The fact that the Republicans were "Fiscally obsessed" meant nothing. Only the longshot hopes of a total victory kept them going as they, and those hardcore Conservatives who chose to stay away from the Populist Party kept looking for a hero. But in 1992 the Populist Party was "Hijacked" by people with different visions of America. And its greatest result would set the stage for its own doom.

But A year before Perot there was a spot of hope for these people. Even then many of them took years more to be willing to recognize it for what it was. The Thought Police after all were insidious. Even Patriots could fall under their sway. But as America changed. As America turned its back more and more on what it had been in their hearts the Governor of Louisiana became a rallying figure. And then in 1996 a greater hope as the REAL Americans took back the Republican Party. Surely the vote was rigged in the end to defeat Buchanan but the stage was set. And in 2000 they would get their chance. And when it came, what had to be divine will followed: Jeb Bush failed. Colin Powell failed to win the Democratic Nomination. Perot Stood Aside. Somehow in a fit of delirium, they won the Republican Nomination. The talking heads swore up and down it would be the greatest defeat for the Republican Party in its history. Herbert Hoover could be redeemed by it. And then the Democrats picked Turner and shattered. And the efforts to organize a National write-in campaign failed. And millions of white Americans talked to themselves behind closed doors, in private backyard parties, and in their beds at night. For some there was haggling. For others silent and bloody hopes. And for too few of them, there was the commitment, but for them, and millions of other Americans who did not have a place in the Governor's vision it would not be enough.

And so in January of 2001 the political establishment stood by, and the former Imperial Wizard of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, the former President for the National Association for the Advancement of White People, and the violent, hate-mongering governor of Louisiana, David Duke became President. They told themselves he would fail. They told themselves impeachment would be inevitable. Delusion was more comfortable then hard truths: The country had failed and what would follow would be their own fault.

1974-1977: Gerald R. Ford, Jr. / Nelson A. Rockefeller (Republican)
1977-1981: James E. Carter / Walter F. Mondale (Democratic)

1976: Ronald W. Reagan / John B. Connally, Jr. (Republican)
1981-1985: Gerald R. Ford, Jr. / George H. W. Bush (Republican)
1980: Edward M. Kennedy / Marie C. M. “Lindy” Claiborne Boggs (Democratic)
1985-1993: John H. Glenn / Thomas J. Bradley (Democratic)
1984: George H. W. Bush / Pietro V. “Pete” Domenici (Republican), Jesse A. Helms, Jr. / James G. “Bo” Grits (Populist)
1988: Robert J. Dole / Kay A. Orr (Republican), Lawrence P. McDonald / Alexander M. Haig, Jr. (Populist)
1993-1995: Gary W. Hart / Barbara C. Jordan (Democratic)
1992: H. Ross Perot / Clinton Eastwood, Jr. (Independent / Populist), Pierre S. “Pete” Du Pont IV / C. Trent Lott (Republican)
1995-2001: Gary W. Hart / Nancy P. Pelosi (Democratic)
1996: Patrick J. Buchanan / Donald H. Rumsfeld (Republican), H. Ross Perot / John S. McCain III (Independent), Robert K. Dornan / Jack F. Kemp (Populist)
2001-200X: David E. Duke / Helen M. P. Chenoweth (Republican and Populist)
2000: Robert E. Turner III / Joseph R. Biden (Democratic), Dennis J. Kucinich / Cynthia A, McKinney (Reform)
I love Slow Burn. I've been planning a vignette myself based on Senator Duke :p

Very well done


Victory Dance of the Penguin Race
Banned from the forum
He was obsessed with both making anti-Semitic pronouncements and also constantly bringing up the adventures of British explorer and missionary David Livingstone.
you bastard

Do enjoy the Red Baron trying to do a Plane Blitzkreig resulting in, essentially, a Sitzkreig that ends with Germany blinking first and dropping the matter--an extended crisis like that is more interesting than the possibility of WW2: More Planes Edition. Can't imagine Denmark is happy about the whole thing.

Uhura's Mazda

oh no, shards
Published by SLP
Tamaki Makaurau
List of Irish Heads of State

Directors of the Hibernian Republic
1798-1802: Robert Emmett, Lord Edward FitzGerald, Theobald Wolfe Tone (United Irishmen)
1802-1805: Lord Edward FitzGerald, Theobald Wolfe Tone, John Murphy (United Irishmen)

The Irish rebellion of 1798, aided by the French general Lazare Hoche, struck fear into the British, even though the French had difficulty delivering reinforcements over the years due to British sea power and, at one point, General Bonaparte's decision to disobey orders and lead his army to Egypt instead. This just made the United Irishmen rebellion that bit more fearful: the irregular rebels were managing to hold off British armies on their own merits.

Monarch of the Irish Kingdom
1805-1813: Eugene I de Beauharnais

Of course, without secure supply lines to France, the first lunge towards Irish independence was doomed. Doubly so when Emperor Napoleon putsched the existing native leaders to make room for his step-son. Triply so when the Duke of Wellington embarked on his still-renowned Insular War.

Monarchs of the Kingdom of Ireland
1813-1820: George III von Hannover
1820-1830: George IV von Hannover
1830: William IV von Hannover

Retribution, needless to say, was brutal, and the Restoration Kingdom of Ireland was kept at arm's length from Westminster on account of the fact that English rights such as Habeas Corpus were severely curtailed in the occupied island of Ireland. Before long, though, a further revolutionary wave combined with a tax issue to incite the Second Irish Revolution.

Presidents of the Second Irish Republic
1830-1837: Daniel O'Connell (Liberal)
1837-1844: Richard Lalor Sheil (Conservative)
1844-1848: General Morgan O'Connell (Liberal)

O'Connell had previously been a moderate nationalist and emancipator of Catholics, but was pushed into the violent 'Tithe War' for independence by the sheer momentum of the situation. With Independence secured, though, and O'Connell himself barred from re-election by the Drogheda Constitution, Irish politics was soon cleft by the rise of clericalist radical Conservatives, who ranged against the secularist Liberals and temporarily 'stole' the votes of the masses, thus leaving the Liberals dependent on the support of the Protestant aristocracy and unable to execute their land reform schemes. Even the doughty reputation of the younger O'Connell, a veteran of the Latin American and the Irish Wars of Independence, couldn't prevent the Young Ireland movement from whipping up the victims of the Potato Famine into a revolutionary frenzy.

Presidents of the Third Irish Republic
1848-1852: Feargus O'Connor (Radical)
1852-1853: Thomas Davis (Radical)
1853-1858: Charles Gavan Duffy (Radical)
1858-1863: John Mitchel (Radical)
1863: Kevin Izod O'Doherty (Radical)
1863-1864: William Smith O'Brien (Radical)
1864-1868: Charles Gavan Duffy (Radical)
1868-1873: Thomas D'Arcy McGee (Conservative)
1873-1878: Isaac Butt (Conservative)
1878-1883: Charles Stewart Parnell (Radical)
1883-1888: Edmund Dwyer Gray (Radical)
1888: John Dillon (Radical)
1888-1890: Charles Stewart Parnell (Radical)
1890-1893: John Redmond (Radical (Personalist))
1893-1898: Justin McCarthy (Fusion)
1898-1903: John Dillon (Fusion)
1903-1908: William O'Brien (Reform)
1908-1913: Tim Healy (Fusion)
1913-1918: John Dillon (Fusion)
1918-1918: John Redmond (Reform)

The Radical Ascendancy which ensued from the 1848 Revolution failed to live up to the promises made on the streets and on the electoral platforms, as various promising Presidents resigned due to insanity or died dragged Ireland into the American Civil War on the side of the Confederacy - in fact, Mitchel's considered opinion was that Jefferson Davis wasn't racist enough. After two decades of post-revolutionary consensus, the Conservatives finally came back under a former Radical, D'Arcy McGee, who promptly rescinded what little the Radicals had achieved. The Conservatives, to be fair to them, did manage to promote limited agrarian reform and industrial development, principally in the field of shipbuilding and railways.

However, the Conservative Government was swept away in turn by the rebirth of the Radicals under Parnell, who promised much (again, chiefly in terms of land reform) but achieved little due to the innovative obstructive tactics developed by his opponents in a hostile Congress. Between Parnell's two terms, his proxies held sway, but Parnell didn't enjoy his second term for long, as one of his lieutenants (Tim Healy) revealed his extramarital affair with Kitty O'Shea to the nation. Parnell was forced to resign and his Vice-President faced an even more hostile Congress until 1893, when a coalition between the Conservatives and the anti-personalist Radicals came to office in a landslide - thanks partly to the unanimous and voluble backing of the Bishops.

Successive Fusion Presidents, secure in their ascendancy, rested on their laurels (apart from a brief moment when the heirs of Parnell rekindled the land reform bogey in 1903 without managing to carry the Senate), until the First World War, when John Dillon's neutral stance came under heavy fire (literally) with the sinking of the Titanic out of Belfast dockyards. Ireland reluctantly joined on the side of the Entente, fighting alongside the ancestral foe, and Dillon was shellacked in the first post-war election by the Reformer John Dillon, who had been in favour of the War all along (and had lost a brother to it). More significantly, John Redmond also promised land and labour reform, which excited the voters no end - but he died before getting the opportunity to satisfy them.

Leader of the Irish Socialist Republic ('Dublin Soviet')
1919: James Connolly (Socialist)

Impatient of reform and sceptical of Reform, the Irish Socialist Party succumbed to the temptation to join in the wave of leftist revolts following the Bolshevik Revolution and the return of the troops. Connolly, Larkin, and their supporters held the Four Courts and Customs House against the Irish Republican Army for weeks (turning them into pock-marked places for pilgrimage for modern Socialists) before being gunned down in a heroic last stand at Kilmainham Gaol.

Presidents of the Third Irish Republic (continued)
1918-1923: Edward Carson (Reform)
1923-1925: D. D. Sheehan (Farmer-Labour)

Redmond's Vice-President had been selected as a sop to the Protestant minority in Ulster, who still voted Radical en masse due to the sentiment that the Fusionists were a Papist proxy. Unfortunately for Redmond's voters, Carson's political sympathies were not in tune with his predecessor's politics, and - frightened by the Bolshevik menace which was making itself felt in Dublin - he instituted a repressive police state and followed a deeply conservative policy. With both major parties discredited in the eyes of both workers and small farmers, the time was ripe for a new party to emerge: the Farmer-Labour Party, which won the Presidency on a minority vote and used executive fiat to push radical measures through a recalcitrant Congress. The situation became fraught, and it wasn't long before Congressmen such as Eamon De Valera were bringing revolvers into Parliament House.

Presidents of the New Irish State ('Fourth Irish Republic')
1925-1926: General Eoin O'Duffy (Army Council)
1926-1930: General Eoin O'Duffy (Corporatist)
1930-1944: Padraig Pearse (Corporatist)
1944-1977: Sean MacBride (Corporatist)

Crisis point came in 1925, when the military stepped in to remove the radical President and his Cabinet. Inspired by Mussolini and Primo de Rivera, General O'Duffy put a halt to all activity which might be seen as Socialist, and went on to legitimise his rule with a new single-party constitution. O'Duffy only lasted as long as the economic good times, with his place being taken by the powerful orator Padraig Pearse, who remained neutral during the Second World War and was castigated for his harsh policies against the English minority. Latterly, allegations have been made about the horrendous sexual abuses perpetrated by President Pearse with the full connivance of the Catholic Hierarchy.

It is possible, however, that Sean MacBride was an even worse leader: reflexively authoritarian even among his own bosom supporters, he paid scant heed to human rights law in his desperation to maintain and expand the New State. His paramilitaries tortured dissidents while even economic freedoms were curtailed: the entire credit system was nationalised and turned into a private chequing account for the regime. Economic disaster struck in the 70s, at a time when the younger generation were becoming liberated (despite the best efforts of Church and State), with the obvious result that the largely peaceful Shamrock Revolution finally restored democracy in 1977.

Presidents of the Fifth Irish Republic
1977-: Jack Kennedy (Democratic)

Time Enough

"Enthusiastic Cis Male Partner"
Presidents of the United States:
1897-1905: William McKinley (Republican)

1896 (With Garret Hobart) def: David B. Hill (Democratic), Tom Watson (Populist) , Joshua Levering (Prohibition), Charles Matchett (Socialist Labor)
(With Theodore Roosevelt) def: David B. Hill (Democratic), William Jennings Bryan (Populist), Eugene V.Debs (Socialist Labor)
1905-1913: Charles W.Fairbanks (Republican)
1904 (With Theodore Roosevelt) def: William B.Cockran (Democratic), William Jennings Bryan (Populist), Eugene V.Debs (Socialist Labor)
1908 (With Gifford Pinchot) def: Alton B. Parker (Democratic), William Jennings Bryan (People’s), Eugene V.Debs (Socialist Labor)
1913-1915: George B.McClellan Jr. (Democratic)
1913 (With Woodrow Wilson) def: Charles W.Fairbanks (Republican), George W.Norris (Reform), Williams Jennings Bryan (Farmer), Eugene V.Debs (Socialist Labor)
1915-1917: George B.McClellan Jr. (National Union)
1917-1921: George B.McClellan Jr. (National Union)
1917 (With William Cameron Sproul) def: Thomas L. Hisgen (Reform), Robert M. La Follette (Independent Progressive), William Sulzer (Farmers), Eugene V.Debs (Socialist Labor), Emil Seidel (Socialist)
1921-1925: Homer S. Cummings (Reform)
1920 (With William Randolph Hearst) def: George B.McClellan Jr. (National Union), William Sulzer (Farmers), Eugene V.Debs (Socialist Labor)
1925-1933: Frank O. Lowden (National Union)
1924 (With John W.Davis) def: Homer S. Cummings (Reform), Daniel Hoan (Farmer-Labor), Arthur E. Reimer (Socialist Labor)
1928 (With John W.Davis) def: William Borah (Reform), Homer Bone (Farmer-Labor), James P. Cannon (Socialist Labor)

1933-1937: Al Smith (National Union)
1933 (With Herbert Hoover) def: William Borah (Reform), Floyd B.Olson (Farmer-Labor), James P.Cannon (Socialist Labor), William Z.Foster (Workers Credit)
1937-1941: William Lemke (Reform)
1936 (With Bronson M.Cutting) def: Al Smith (National Union), Elmer A.Benson (Farmer-Labor), Vern Smyth (Socialist Labor), William Z.Foster (Workers Credit), Gerald Nye (America First)
1941-1943: Harry F. Byrd (National Union)
1940 (With Robert A.Taft) def: William Lemke (Reform), Elmer A.Benson (Farmer-Labor), Earl Browder (Socialist Labor), William Z.Foster (Workers Credit), Gerald Nye (America First)
1943-1945: Robert A. Taft (National Union)
1945-1949: Henry A. Wallace (Farmer-Labor)
1944 (With Earl Browder) def: Robert A. Taft (National Union), Bronson M.Cutting (Reform), William Z.Foster (Workers Credit), James P.Cannon (Independent Socialist), Gerald Nye (America First)
1949-1953: Henry A.Wallace (American Labor)
1948 (With Earl Browder) def: John Bricker (National Union), Sheridan Downey (Reform), Thomas Ryum Amlie (Democratic Farmer-Social Democratic), Eugene Dennis (Workers Credit), Robert Rice Reynolds (America First)
1953-: Earl Browder (American Labor)
1952 (With Walter Reuther) def: Barry Goldwater (National Union), Hubert Humphrey (Reform), Frank Zeidler (Social Democratic), Eugene Dennis (Workers Credit), Hamilton Fish III (America First)

American Gains it's First Syndicalist President

Harry Newman, 5th November 1952

"After a tense election campaign, Earl Browder of the American Labor Party has decisively won the second election for American Labor against the inspired campaigns of the Conservative Barry Goldwater and the Liberal Progressive Hubert Humphrey. Browder, a prominent member of American Labor since it's inception and a prominent member of the IWW and Socialist Labor Party has presented a manifesto that intends to bring about Syndcalist reforms to American Society that's stagnating against the Socialists might's of Britain and the Russian Republic...

The New President has been congratulated by outgoing Russian Republican President Ivan Maisky who commented that he's "pleased to see Socialism finally taking off outside Europe and that America will finally be joining the Socialist International". British Prime Minister Clement Attlee also mentioned that he hopes to be working more with the Americans and Browder in the future..."

Based upon a Presidential Tickets list for the Socialist Labour Party by @neonduke
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Drunk like a fox appointed professor of drunking a
Published by SLP
Albany, NY
I'm culpable of it as much as the next person but the National Union getting revived is a thing we probably need to do less. It was a cheap term that was never meaningful in 1864 and prominently was tarnished by Andrew Johnson's attempts to create a new party. Much like the Federalists before Hamiltons rehabilitation in the 1890s/1900s it's really a term we should avoid.

That said it's a good list @Time Enough


Racist name by the way,
Published by SLP
The Champions: Part One

1966-1970: Daniel Johnson (Union Nationale)
1966: Jean Lesage (Liberal)
1970-1982: Robert Bourassa (Liberal)
1970: Daniel Johnson (Union Nationale), Camil Samson (Parti créditiste), Pierre Bourgault (RIN)
1974: Pierre Bourgault (RIN), Camil Samson (Parti créditiste), Jean-Guy Cardial (Union Nationale)
1978: Pierre Bourgault (RIN), Fabien Roy (Parti créditiste)

1982-1991: Jérôme Choquette (Parti national populaire)
1982: Robert Bourassa (Liberal), André D'Allemagne (RIN)
1986: Lise Bacon (Liberal), G.-Raymond Laliberté (New Democratic), André D'Allemagne (RIN)

1991-1995: Raymond Garneau (Liberal)
1991: Jérôme Choquette (Parti national populaire), Henri-François Gautrin (New Democratic), André Gaulin (RIN)
1995-2002: Henri-François Gautrin (New Democratic)
1995: Marcel Masse (Parti national populaire), Raymond Garneau (Liberal), André Gaulin (RIN)
1999: Daniel Johnson, Jr (Liberal), Marcel Masse (Parti national populaire), Mario Beaulieu (RIN)

2002-2004: Nycole Turmel (New Democratic)
2004-2013: Liza Frulla (Liberal)

2004 (Minority): Nycole Turmel (New Democratic), Éric Caire (Parti national populaire), Mario Beaulieu (RIN)
2008: Nycole Turmel (New Democratic), Josée Verner (Parti national populaire),
Pierre Curzi (RIN), Scott MacKay (Green)
2013-2013: Benoît Pelletier (Liberal)
2013-2018: Gilles Ducceppe (New Democratic)

2013 (Minority): Andre Bachand (Parti national populaire), Benoît Pelletier (Liberal), Pierre Curzi (RIN), Scott MacKay (Green)
2018-: Maxime Bernier (Parti national populaire)
2018: Gilles Ducceppe (New Democratic), Amir Khadir (RIN), Thomas Mulcair (Liberal), Georges Laraque (Green)

The PoD here is that Pierre Trudeau never joins the Liberal Party of Canada; Jean Marchand instead enters and wins the race for the Liberal leadership and wins a more modest majority in 1968. With the Saint Baptiste Day riots butteflied away, Pierre Bourgault's Rassemblement pour l'indépendance nationale emerges as the Quebec's strongest sovereigntist outfit as René Lévesque's Mouvement Souveraineté-Association fizzles. Over the seventies, RIN makes breakthrough after breakthrough but its militant rhetoric, the radical left-wing agenda and defective leadership cause it to hit a clear, hard ceiling. The rise of the FLQ over this period, constant bombings and shootings and threats, egged on by parts of the nationalist intelligentsia and a less than decisive response from Ottawa also limited the appeal of an RIN that was less than condemnatory of direct action. Following the assassination of John Turner in 1975 and the state of emergency that followed, a crack-down on the FLQ and related groups hit the RIN hard. In the midst of this and the decline and fragmentation of Quebec's nationalist right, Bourassa is able to win three successive landslides, shaping Quebec in his image, doing his best to placate rising Quebec nationalism as low-level political violence dogged the province through the seventies.

Quebec's conservatives and right-wing nationalists eventually coalesced around Jérôme Choquette's Parti national populaire, a more moderate nationalist outfit that took a hard line on language and terrorism, happy to bandy around the threat of an independence referendum. The PNP government found allies in Ottawa; first with the leftist Trudeau, signing up to his grand schemes of repatriation and a true constitution for Canada; then with John Crosbie and his small government agenda. Brutal cuts amid a recession ended the first PNP government and it's Liberal successor saw little in the way of change.

The long-dormant Quebec NDP was brought to life by Pierre Trudeau, culminating in the party being brought to power in the early 1980s by a near-sweep of the province. This in turn revived the provincial branch, as it became clear that the province was more than open to Social Democracy. The revived party, with a former federal minister installed as it's leader, slowly gained ground from all three established parties before forming the government in an upset in 1995 amid a backlash to austerity measures. Gautrin took advantage of the balanced budgets achieved by his predecessors to push through generous expansions in the welfare state and infrastructure projects, but faced a backlash as the NDP remained divided over issues of Quebec nationalism and disputes mounted with the party's union allies and it's federal counterpart, unenthused about it's shamelessly leftward drift.

This was largely corrected with the forceful leadership of Liza Frulla, who claimed the LIberal leadership in an upset. She gained many plaudits in Quebec for her confrontations with the right-wing government in Ottawa over social issues and cuts to transfer payments, but her complacency over remaining lingering issues with the French language dogged her, as did increasing investigations and accusations of corrupt dealings with Quebec businesses. When Frulla was booed when throwing the first pitch at a Montreal Expos game in 2012, it was clear that she would not be leading the party into a third term, nor would anyone else.

Ducceppe's victory rode the wave of the Federal NDP's victory months earlier, but proved to be controversial as Ducceppe signed an agreement to work with the RIN despite it's hardline stances and baggage with the now largely-moribund FLQ, being criticised for this by no less than the Prime Minister. Tougher laws on the French language and the "preservation of Quebec culture" created only more divisions across Canada and stoked a revived cause of nationalism. This came to be taken up in the form of Maxime Bernier's insurgent populist campaign for the premiership, railing against the limits of multiculturalism, the encroachment of English Canada onto Quebec culture and once again threatening a referendum on Quebec's place in the confederation. He is playing with fire.
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Well-known member
I'm culpable of it as much as the next person but the National Union getting revived is a thing we probably need to do less. It was a cheap term that was never meaningful in 1864 and prominently was tarnished by Andrew Johnson's attempts to create a new party. Much like the Federalists before Hamiltons rehabilitation in the 1890s/1900s it's really a term we should avoid.

That said it's a good list @Time Enough
But I love the idea of the First National Union (and Federalist) party, Second, etc so much :cry:


Jabs First Brexit
Published by SLP
I'm culpable of it as much as the next person but the National Union getting revived is a thing we probably need to do less. It was a cheap term that was never meaningful in 1864 and prominently was tarnished by Andrew Johnson's attempts to create a new party. Much like the Federalists before Hamiltons rehabilitation in the 1890s/1900s it's really a term we should avoid.

That said it's a good list @Time Enough
I had a similar thought when I saw in "If Gordon Banks Had Played" the use of the term "National Conservatives" to describe Tories who had crossed the floor to keep Labour in power - yes it gives you an AH 'aaaaah' feeling, but why on earth would they seek a comparison with Ramsey Mac considering what happened to him? Of course, there is the option of 'not the name they picked, but the one their opponents/the meedja pejoratively gave to them and stuck'.

I think for the US, there is a window of plausibility for 'National Union' as there will be a slice of the population who know enough about history to recognise the intended comparison, but not enough to know about how it turned out. I don't think the same is true of 'Federalist' for most of US history.