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Lists of Heads of Government and Heads of State

Yokai Man

Well-known member
How did Bryan Gould get into the leadership?
I took some inspiration from Alfie’s latest list and put Bryan where he’s less successful without Thatcher remaining in office ,as well as the Conservatives having a little more luck and managing to convince voters they’re preferable to a “loose lefty” like they portray Gould in this timeline.

Again,more of a concept piece.
 

Ares96

Where Fun Meets Awesome Meets Agriculture
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I've noticed an awful lot of these lists (I am somewhat guilty of this as well) feature OTL stable countries having crisis points and revolutions (in an electoral or literal sense). What if someone tried the opposite, e.g. the Third or Fourth French Republics continuing to the present day, Italy still being Japan-like with the Christian Democrats dominant to now, etc.?
I’ve been mulling over an idea that’s vaguely like this, but I don’t know if it’s something I’ll ever post.
 

Nanwe

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I've noticed an awful lot of these lists (I am somewhat guilty of this as well) feature OTL stable countries having crisis points and revolutions (in an electoral or literal sense). What if someone tried the opposite, e.g. the Third or Fourth French Republics continuing to the present day, Italy still being Japan-like with the Christian Democrats dominant to now, etc.?
I took the French Fourth Republic all the way to 1968 in a list scenario myself, but after that I think it's tricky. The 1958 change of personnel was significant so it's hard to predict. Some figures would likely emerge (VGE, Mitterrand, Defferre) and others who played PM roles in 1957 but were very young could too (Maurice Faure, Félix Gaillard, Bourgès-Maunoury). Others, like PMF, Mollet or Pinay would remain far more significant.

For the Italian DC it shouldn't be too hard in terms of finding people, many PD politicians come from the DC or DC-close environments anyway, including Renzi, Gentiloni, Letta, Mattarella or Prodi. But the hard trick is to keep on finding reasons for governments to fall and the coalition partners to demand shuffles. Maybe avoid the debt-fuelled growth of the 80s and the domestic situation of the 90s is easier but that requires re-thinking the Craxi-Andreotti-Fornali (CAF) axis and that's tricky.

Here:

The 4.1 Republic

Prime Ministers of France

1951-1952: René Pleven (UDSR)
1951 (Troisième Force majority): Guy Mollet (SFIO), Maurice Thorez (PCF), Jacques Soustelle (RPF), Georges Bidault (MRP), Henri Queuille (PRS), Independent Republicans, Roger Duchet (CNIP), René Pleven (UDSR), Félix Houphouët-Boigny (RDA)
1952: Edgar Faure (Radical)
1952-1953: Antoine Pinay (Independent Republican)
1953-1954: René Mayer (Radical)
1954: Edgar Faure (Radical)
1954-1955: Paul Reynaud (CNIP)
1955: René Pleven (UDSR)
1955-1956: Guy Mollet (SFIO)
1956 (no majority): Guy Mollet (SFIO), Maurice Thorez (PCF), Pierre Henri-Teitgen (MRP), Roger Duchet (CNIP), Pierre Mendès France (PRS), Pierre Poujade (UFF), Jacques Chaban-Delmas (RS), François Mitterrand (UDSR-RDA), Edgar Faure (RGR)
1956-1957: Pierre Mendès France (Radical)
1957: Robert Lecourt (MRP)
1957-1958: Maurice Bourgès-Maunoury (Radical)
1958-1960: Pierre Pflimlin (MRP)
1960-1961: François Mitterrand (UDSR)
1961-1963: Christian Pineau (SFIO)
1961 (Republican Front majority): Christian Pineau (SFIO), Camille Laurens (CNIP), Maurice Thorez (PCF), Jean Lecanuet (MRP), Maurice Faure (PRS), Georges Bidault (CR), François Mitterrand (UDSR-RDA), Pierre Poujade (UFF), Edmond Michelet (RS)
1963-1964: François Mitterrand (UDSR)
1964-1965: Jean Lecanuet (MRP)
1965-1966: Félix Gaillard (PRS)
1966-1968: Antoine Pinay (CNIP)
1966 (Centre-right majority): Gaston Defferre (SFIO), Raymond Mondon (CNIP), Waldeck Rochet (PCF), Pierre Mendès France (PRS), Jean Lecanuet (MRP), Léon Martinaud-Déplat (CR), Edmond Michelet (RS), François Mitterrand (UDSR)
1968-0000: Valéry Giscard d'Estaing (CNIP)

Presidents of France

1946-1953: Vincent Auriol (SFIO)
1954-1962: Henri Queuille (Radical)
1962-1969: Paul Coste-Floret (MRP)
1969-0000: Pierre Schneiter (MRP)

Prime Ministers of Saarland

1947-1960: Johannes Hoffmann (CVP)
1947 (majority) def. Richard Kirn (SPS), Heinrich Schneider (DPS), Fritz Nickolay (KP)
1952 (majority) def. Richard Kirn (SPS), Fritz Bäsel (KP)
1955 (CVP-SPS coalition) def. Humbert Ney (CDU-Saar), Heinrich Schneider (DPS), Richard Kirn (SPS), Kurt Conrad (DSP), Fritz Nickolay (KP)
1956 (CVP-SPS coalition) def. Richard Kirn (SPS), Heinrich Schneider (DPS), Franz-Josef Röder (CDU-Saar), Fritz Nickolay (KP), Humbert Ney (CNG)

1960-1968: Erwin Müller (CVP)
1961 (CVP-CDU coalition) def. Richard Kirn (SPS), Heinrich Schneider (DPS), Franz-Josef Röder (CDU-Saar), Fritz Nickolay (KP), Humbert Ney (CNG)
1966 (majority) def. Richard Kirn (SPS), Heinrich Schneider (DPS), Fritz Nickolay (KP), Humbert Ney (CNG)

1968-0000: Franz Schneider (CVP)

European Commissioners for Saarland [0]

1956-1966: Louis Beel
1966-0000: Pierre Wigny

Presidents of the European Executive Council

1957-1962: Paul-Henri Teitgen (MRP-EDU)
1957 (EDU-ESF-FLDP grand coalition) def. Hendrik Fayat (ESF), René Pleven (FLDP), nationalists, communists
1962-0000: François de Menthon (MRP-EDU)
1962 (EDU-ESF coalition) def. Paul-Henri Spaak (ESF), Pieter Oud (FLDP), Giorgio Amendola (FECP), nationalists
1967 (EDU-FLDP coalition) def. Willy Brandt (ESF), Gaetano Martino (FLDP), Giorgio Amendola (FECP), nationalists


The 1948 local elections had been the breakthrough of the Gaullist political party and perhaps the harbinger of De Gaulle's return to power building on discontent with communism, instability and inflation. Instead, by the time the 1951 elections, the General would see his hopes dashed. The electorate did support him, but less than he had expected and definitely less than in the 1948 local election. A combination of the new electoral law and momentum had crushed his hopes. The RPF would remain one of the largest parties in parliament[1], but the resistance of the Third Force parties - despite their differences - isolated them from power until 1953. First, the Marie-Barangé law and then, the EDC project had divided the parliamentary majority, almost inevitably.

What De Gaulle did not - could not - expect was that one politician from the Fourth Republic would prove popular: Antoine Pinay. Pinay, with his weekly radio shows, his pragmatic conservatism and average Frenchman aspect - including a thick Auvergnat accent - had become one of the very few popular politicians of the 1950s. The Mendès France of the right. During his premiership, Pinay and his foreign minister, Robert Schuman ratified the Common Army project in Parliament - amidst great acrimony, normalised relations with Adenauer by managing to sign a pre-agreement on the status of the Saar territory and pursued the Indochina War to a stalemate thanks to the recruitment of a Vietnamese Army to support the French troops [2]. Eventually, Pinay would resign after the MRP announced it would not approve his budget for 1954 [3].

In December 1953, the first televised presidential election in France's history took place. After six rounds of voting, the venerable Radical politician Henri Queuille was elected for his septennat.[4]

The 'sortie honorable' from Indochina was achieved in 1954 under the premiership of Edgar Faure. Faure would also have to face the start of hostilities in Algeria, that came to dominate French politics for nearly a decade, plunging the economy into a balance of payments and inflationary crisis along the way. Simultaneously, the tax increases and the economic modernisation plans caused uproar amongst the lower-middle classes of France's south-east, giving birth to the Poujadiste movement, that would turn into a far-right party once in parliament.

The 1956 election, held shortly after the Hungarian invasion was a godsend to the socialist party, which recovered working-class voters from the Communists [5], making it the largest party in parliament for the first time since 1936. Guy Mollet would manage to craft a centre-left government with the support of Mendès France's Radicals [6] and the MRP (among others). The various governments of this parliamentary arithmetic would prove very successful in many aspects, from social reform policies, particularly housing and the ratification of the Political Community treaty to imposing a liberal colonial policy by granting independence to Morocco and Tunisia, the loi cadre for Subsaharan Africa and the new Statute of Algeria and most importantly, constitutional reforms that reinforced the executive. In 1961, the same centre-left coalition won the election, ultimately granting Algeria independence within the French Community in 1964. The support of the MRP as a whole and elements of the modérés and the CNIP for the liberal colonial policy led to the foundation of Centre Républicain, a right-wing, pro-Algérie française party, first led by Georges Bidault.

The arrest of Bidault, who had become heavily involved in far-right terrorist activities in Algeria and in France against the government and other liberal figures was shocking to France, as Bidault had been a first-minute résistant. He was replaced by Martinaud-Déplat, who while arguing for a more conservative colonial policy and for a more strident anti-communist policy, was a more politically acceptable choice. The CD would become the most right-wing element in the governments of Antoine Pinay and Valéry Giscard d'Estaign after 1966.

[0] The European Commissioner for Saarland is appointed by and responsible to the Council of Ministers of the European Community (not the same as the Executive Council). The Commissioner can neither be German nor French nor a Saarlander, but he is subject to approval from the French and German governments, who can veto any nominee they do not approve of.
[1] A worse result than OTL, which means that the loi d'apparentements kicks in in more constituencies.
[2] Something along these lines was proposed OTL but never quite materialised under general Navarre.
[3] Again, similar to OTL, the MRP was very uncomfortable with supporting a right-wing government without SFIO involvement. Once the EDC Treaty is passed TTL, they no longer have a reason to swallow their moral concerns.
[4] OTL, it took 13 rounds and the elected was René Coty, who managed to get elected because he had been sick during the EDC debates of May 1952, and as a result, no one knew whether he was a cédiste or an anticédiste, hence being acceptable to both sides. Televising that awful performance is widely accredited with hurting the legitimacy of the 4th Republic.
[5] No Suez Canal crisis TTL.
[6] Like OTL, PMF managed to take over the party after Edouard Herriot's death, expelling right-wing-leaning Radicals like Edgar Faure, René Mayer or Léon Martinaud-Déplat.
 

Thande

Jabs First Brexit
Published by SLP
I took the French Fourth Republic all the way to 1968 in a list scenario myself, but after that I think it's tricky. The 1958 change of personnel was significant so it's hard to predict. Some figures would likely emerge (VGE, Mitterrand, Defferre) and others who played PM roles in 1957 but were very young could too (Maurice Faure, Félix Gaillard, Bourgès-Maunoury). Others, like PMF, Mollet or Pinay would remain far more significant.

For the Italian DC it shouldn't be too hard in terms of finding people, many PD politicians come from the DC or DC-close environments anyway, including Renzi, Gentiloni, Letta, Mattarella or Prodi. But the hard trick is to keep on finding reasons for governments to fall and the coalition partners to demand shuffles. Maybe avoid the debt-fuelled growth of the 80s and the domestic situation of the 90s is easier but that requires re-thinking the Craxi-Andreotti-Fornali (CAF) axis and that's tricky.

Here:
Thanks! This also made me realise that 'surviving Spanish Republic' would also be a good (but challenging) example.
 

Nanwe

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Thanks! This also made me realise that 'surviving Spanish Republic' would also be a good (but challenging) example.
Well, I don't quite have that myself but I do have a barebones "Restauración monarchy democratises" list:

Kings of Spain
1902-1906: Alfonso XIII (House of Borbon)
1906-0000: Alfonso XIV (House of Borbon)
1906-1918: Maria Cristina (House of Habsburg-Lorraine)

Presidents of the Council of Ministers of Spain
1906: Segismundo Moret (Liberal)
1906: José López Domínguez (Liberal)
1906: Segismundo Moret (Liberal)
1906-1907: Antonio Aguilar y Correa, Marquess of Vega de Armijo (Liberal)
1907-1914: Antonio Maura (Conservative)
1907 (Conservative majority) def. Segismundo Moret (Liberal),
1911 (Conservative majority) def. Jose Canalejas (Liberal),

1914-1918: José Canalejas (Liberal)
1914 (Liberal majority) def. Antonio Maura (Conservative),
1918-1919: Eduardo Dato (Conservative)
1918 (Conservative majority) def. Jose Canalejas (Liberal),
1919-1920: Antonio Maura (Conservative)
1920-1924: José Canalejas (Liberal)
1920 (Liberal majority) def. Antonio Maura (Conservative),
1924-1925: José Sánchez-Guerra (Conservative)
1924 (Conservative minority with Lliga supply and confidence) def. Jose Canalejas (Liberal),
1925: Gabino Bugallal, Count of Bugallal (Conservative)
1925-1927: Eduardo Dato (Conservative)
1927-1929: Manuel García-Prieto (Liberal)
1927 (Liberal-Socialist-Reformist coalition) def. Eduardo Dato (Conservative),
1929-1933: Niceto Alcalá-Zamora (Liberal)
1931 (Liberal-Socialist-Reformist coalition) def. Jose Sanchez Guerra (Conservative),
1933-1937: Miguel Maura (Conservative)
1933 (Conservative-Social People’s-Lliga coalition) def. Indalecio Prieto (Spanish Socialist Worker’s), Niceto Alcala-Zamora (Liberal), Jose Calvo-Sotelo (Social People’s), Francesc Cambo (Lliga), Melquiades Alvarez (Reformist)
1937-1941: Indalecio Prieto (Spanish Socialist Worker’s)
1937 (Socialist-Liberal-Democratic coalition, then Socialist-Liberal-Democratic-Conservative-Lliga coalition) def. Miguel Maura (Conservative),
1941-1946: Diego Martínez Barrio (Liberal Democratic)
1941 (Socialist-Liberal-Democratic-Conservative-Lliga coalition) def.
1945 (Socialist-Liberal-Democratic coalition) def.

1946-0000: Indalecio Prieto (Spanish Socialist Worker’s)
 

Mumby

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The Ballad Of Julian Lewis

1976-1984: Jim Callaghan (Labour)
1978 (Minority, with Liberal c&s) def. Margaret Thatcher (Conservative), David Steel (Liberal), William Wolfe (Scottish National), Harry West (Ulster Unionist)
1983 (Majority) def. Ian Gilmour (Conservative), David Steel (Liberal), Jim Molyneaux (Ulster Unionist), Winnie Ewing (Scottish National), Jeremy Corbyn (Independent Labour)

1984-1988: Bill Rodgers (Labour majority)
1988-1992: Michael Heseltine (Conservative)
1988 (Minority) def. Bill Rodgers (Labour), Peter Tatchell & Arthur Scargill (Independent Labour), Cyril Smith (Liberal), Winnie Ewing (Scottish National), Jim Molyneaux (Ulster Unionist)
1992 Maastricht referendum; 55% NO, 45% YES

1992-1993: Bill Rodgers (Labour)
1992 (Minority) def. Michael Heseltine (Conservative), Derek Wall & Lesley Mahmood (Independent Labour), Winnie Ewing (Scottish National), Jim Molyneaux (Ulster Unionist), Alan Beith (Liberal)
1993 Maastricht referendum; 58% NO, 42% YES

1993-2000: David Owen (Labour)
1995 (Coalition with ILP) def. Michael Heseltine (Conservative), Derek Wall & Lesley Mahmood (Independent Labour), Winnie Ewing (Scottish National), Jim Molyneaux (Ulster Unionist)
2000-2007: Ian Lang (Conservative)
2000 (Coalition with SNP and UUP) def. David Owen (Labour), Jean Lambert & John McDonnell (Independent Labour), Winnie Ewing (Scottish National), John Taylor (Ulster Unionist), Gerry Adams (Sinn Fein)
2005 (Minority, with UUP c&s) def. David Owen (Labour), Peter Hain & Caroline Lucas (Independent Labour), John Taylor (Ulster Unionist), Tommy Sheridan (Scottish Socialist), Gerry Adams (Sinn Fein)

2007-2010: Nick Clegg (Conservative minority, with Ulster Unionist confidence and supply)
2010-0000: Julian Lewis (Labour)
2010 (Coalition with Solidarity) def. Nick Clegg (Conservative), Peter Hain (Solidarity), John Taylor (Ulster Unionist), Annabelle Ewing (Scottish National), Gerry Adams (Sinn Fein), Ian Parsley (New Ulster Movement)

A relatively simple conceit here - Julian Lewis's OTL infilitration of then-Labour MP Reg Prentice's CLP lasts rather longer as the Labour Party endures the crises of the late 70s and expels Militant (along with an adjacent chunk of the Labour Party's hard left), while Maggie's failure results in the Tories being led by Neoliberal Wets hardly conducive to Lewis' own brand of politics.
 

Thande

Jabs First Brexit
Published by SLP
The Ballad Of Julian Lewis

1976-1984: Jim Callaghan (Labour)
1978 (Minority, with Liberal c&s) def. Margaret Thatcher (Conservative), David Steel (Liberal), William Wolfe (Scottish National), Harry West (Ulster Unionist)
1983 (Majority) def. Ian Gilmour (Conservative), David Steel (Liberal), Jim Molyneaux (Ulster Unionist), Winnie Ewing (Scottish National), Jeremy Corbyn (Independent Labour)

1984-1988: Bill Rodgers (Labour majority)
1988-1992: Michael Heseltine (Conservative)
1988 (Minority) def. Bill Rodgers (Labour), Peter Tatchell & Arthur Scargill (Independent Labour), Cyril Smith (Liberal), Winnie Ewing (Scottish National), Jim Molyneaux (Ulster Unionist)
1992 Maastricht referendum; 55% NO, 45% YES

1992-1993: Bill Rodgers (Labour)
1992 (Minority) def. Michael Heseltine (Conservative), Derek Wall & Lesley Mahmood (Independent Labour), Winnie Ewing (Scottish National), Jim Molyneaux (Ulster Unionist), Alan Beith (Liberal)
1993 Maastricht referendum; 58% NO, 42% YES

1993-2000: David Owen (Labour)
1995 (Coalition with ILP) def. Michael Heseltine (Conservative), Derek Wall & Lesley Mahmood (Independent Labour), Winnie Ewing (Scottish National), Jim Molyneaux (Ulster Unionist)
2000-2007: Ian Lang (Conservative)
2000 (Coalition with SNP and UUP) def. David Owen (Labour), Jean Lambert & John McDonnell (Independent Labour), Winnie Ewing (Scottish National), John Taylor (Ulster Unionist), Gerry Adams (Sinn Fein)
2005 (Minority, with UUP c&s) def. David Owen (Labour), Peter Hain & Caroline Lucas (Independent Labour), John Taylor (Ulster Unionist), Tommy Sheridan (Scottish Socialist), Gerry Adams (Sinn Fein)

2007-2010: Nick Clegg (Conservative minority, with Ulster Unionist confidence and supply)
2010-0000: Julian Lewis (Labour)
2010 (Coalition with Solidarity) def. Nick Clegg (Conservative), Peter Hain (Solidarity), John Taylor (Ulster Unionist), Annabelle Ewing (Scottish National), Gerry Adams (Sinn Fein), Ian Parsley (New Ulster Movement)

A relatively simple conceit here - Julian Lewis's OTL infilitration of then-Labour MP Reg Prentice's CLP lasts rather longer as the Labour Party endures the crises of the late 70s and expels Militant (along with an adjacent chunk of the Labour Party's hard left), while Maggie's failure results in the Tories being led by Neoliberal Wets hardly conducive to Lewis' own brand of politics.
Wouldn't Nick Clegg in 2007 be seen as incredibly young after all those predecessors? Granted, it could happen, but it seems like an unusual set of circumstances.
 

Time Enough

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I ain't denying that there, Alfie.
I took some inspiration from Alfie’s latest list and put Bryan where he’s less successful without Thatcher remaining in office ,as well as the Conservatives having a little more luck and managing to convince voters they’re preferable to a “loose lefty” like they portray Gould in this timeline.

Again,more of a concept piece.
Well it ain't a bad concept I have to say. I'm guessing from the rest of what we see Labour becomes dominated by the Soft Left more or less (unless David Miliband is some great moderniser or something).
Italy still being Japan-like with the Christian Democrats dominant to now, etc.?
Someone page @Comisario he may have some thoughts.
 

morbidteaparty

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The Ballad Of Julian Lewis

1976-1984: Jim Callaghan (Labour)
1978 (Minority, with Liberal c&s) def. Margaret Thatcher (Conservative), David Steel (Liberal), William Wolfe (Scottish National), Harry West (Ulster Unionist)
1983 (Majority) def. Ian Gilmour (Conservative), David Steel (Liberal), Jim Molyneaux (Ulster Unionist), Winnie Ewing (Scottish National), Jeremy Corbyn (Independent Labour)

1984-1988: Bill Rodgers (Labour majority)
1988-1992: Michael Heseltine (Conservative)
1988 (Minority) def. Bill Rodgers (Labour), Peter Tatchell & Arthur Scargill (Independent Labour), Cyril Smith (Liberal), Winnie Ewing (Scottish National), Jim Molyneaux (Ulster Unionist)
1992 Maastricht referendum; 55% NO, 45% YES

1992-1993: Bill Rodgers (Labour)
1992 (Minority) def. Michael Heseltine (Conservative), Derek Wall & Lesley Mahmood (Independent Labour), Winnie Ewing (Scottish National), Jim Molyneaux (Ulster Unionist), Alan Beith (Liberal)
1993 Maastricht referendum; 58% NO, 42% YES

1993-2000: David Owen (Labour)
1995 (Coalition with ILP) def. Michael Heseltine (Conservative), Derek Wall & Lesley Mahmood (Independent Labour), Winnie Ewing (Scottish National), Jim Molyneaux (Ulster Unionist)
2000-2007: Ian Lang (Conservative)
2000 (Coalition with SNP and UUP) def. David Owen (Labour), Jean Lambert & John McDonnell (Independent Labour), Winnie Ewing (Scottish National), John Taylor (Ulster Unionist), Gerry Adams (Sinn Fein)
2005 (Minority, with UUP c&s) def. David Owen (Labour), Peter Hain & Caroline Lucas (Independent Labour), John Taylor (Ulster Unionist), Tommy Sheridan (Scottish Socialist), Gerry Adams (Sinn Fein)

2007-2010: Nick Clegg (Conservative minority, with Ulster Unionist confidence and supply)
2010-0000: Julian Lewis (Labour)
2010 (Coalition with Solidarity) def. Nick Clegg (Conservative), Peter Hain (Solidarity), John Taylor (Ulster Unionist), Annabelle Ewing (Scottish National), Gerry Adams (Sinn Fein), Ian Parsley (New Ulster Movement)

A relatively simple conceit here - Julian Lewis's OTL infilitration of then-Labour MP Reg Prentice's CLP lasts rather longer as the Labour Party endures the crises of the late 70s and expels Militant (along with an adjacent chunk of the Labour Party's hard left), while Maggie's failure results in the Tories being led by Neoliberal Wets hardly conducive to Lewis' own brand of politics.
Bill Rodgers as Labour leader and PM?

Bob pls my loins
 

Time Enough

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Bill Rodgers as Labour leader and PM?

Bob pls my loins
Don't want to toot my own horn too much by I've done this as well...
Driving headlong into the Centre: A Prime Minister of Great Britain List:

1974-1976: Harold Wilson (Labour)
1974 (Majority) def: Ted Heath (Conservative), Jeremy Thorpe (Liberal)
1975 Conservative Leadership Election Keith Joseph def: Ted Heath, Geoffrey Howe
1976-1978: Micheal Foot (Labour)
Labour Leadership Election 1976: Micheal Foot def: Tony Benn, Denis Healey, Peter Shore
Liberal Leadership Election 1976: John Pardoe def: David Steel
1978-1982: Keith Joseph (Conservative)
1978 (Majority) def: Micheal Foot (Labour), John Pardoe (Liberal)
Labour Leadership Election 1979: Bill Rodgers def: Peter Shore, David Owen, Eric Heffer

1982-1990: Bill Rodgers (Labour)
1982 (Majority) def: Keith Joseph (Conservative), John Pardoe (Liberal), Eric Heffer (Socialist Labour)
Liberal Leadership Election 1983: David Penhaligon def: John Pardoe, David Steel

Socialist Labour Leadership Election 1985: Pat Wall def: Derek Hatton, Terry Fields
1986 (Majority) def: Keith Joseph (Conservative), David Penhaligon (Liberal), Pat Wall (Socialist Labour)
Conservative Leadership Election 1986: Micheal Heseltine def: Geoffrey Howe, Margaret Thatcher
1990-1994: Ann Clywd (Labour)
Labour Leadership Election 1990: Ann Clywd def: Chris Smith, Bernie Grant
Socialist Labour Leadership Election 1990: Derek Hatton def: Lesley Mahmood
1990 (Majority) def: Micheal Heseltine (Conservative), David Penhaligon (Liberal), Derek Hatton (Socialist Labour)

Conservative Leadership Election 1990: Chris Patten def: Ken Clarke
Socialist Labour Leadership Election 1991: George Galloway def: Derek Hatton, Arthur Scargill
Liberal Leadership Election 1992: Alan Beith def: Ming Campbell
1994-1999: Chris Patten (Conservative)
1994 (Majority) def: Ann Clywd (Labour), Alan Beith (Liberal), George Galloway (Workers)
Labour Leadership Election 1994: Tony Lloyd def: John McDonnell, Sue Slipman, Charles Kennedy
1999-2004: Tony Lloyd (Labour)
1999 (Coalition with Liberals) def: Chris Patten (Conservative), Alan Beith (Liberal), George Galloway (Workers)
Conservative Leadership Election 2002: Emma Harriet Nicholson def: Chris Patten
2004-2011: Emma Harriet Nicholson (Conservative)
2004 (Majority) def: Tony Lloyd (Labour), Alan Beith (Liberal), George Galloway (Workers)
Labour Leadership Election 2004: Barry Gardiner def: John McDonnell, Paddy Tipping, Frank Dobson, Sue Slipman
Liberal Leadership Election 2004: Ming Campbell def: Mark Oaten
2008 (Majority) def: Barry Gardiner (Labour), Ming Campbell (Liberal), George Galloway (Workers)
Labour Leadership Election 2009: Barry Gardiner def: Alan Johnson, Oona King
2011-2016: Barry Gardiner (Labour)
2011 (Coalition with Workers) def: Emma Harriet Nicholson (Conservative), Ming Campbell (Liberal), George Galloway (Workers)
Liberal Leadership Election 2011: Steve Gilbert def: Mark Oaten, Ed Davey
Conservative Leadership Election 2012: Liz Truss def: Andrea Leadsom, Anne Widdecombe
2016-2020: Liz Truss (Conservative)
2016 (Coalition with Liberals) def: Barry Gardiner (Labour), Steve Gilbert (Liberal), George Galloway (Workers), Anne Widdecombe (National)
Labour Leadership Election 2016: Karen Lee def: Emma Hardy, Dawn Butler, Emily Benn
Workers Leadership Election 2017: Frances Curran def: Laura Pidcock, Cat Boyd
2020-: Karen Lee (Labour)
2020 (Majority) def: Liz Truss (Conservative), Steve Gilbert (Liberal), Frances Curran (Workers), Anne Widdecombe (National)

Simple idea really, Foot and Joseph being Prime Ministers one after another sours the British public on the ideas of ‘extreme’ Left/Right ideas which Bill Rodgers capitalises on with his Centrist vision of a Modern Mixed Market Economy. Of course this requires reducing the power of the Unions which angers some of the more Left Wing MPs of Labour who create the Socialist Labour Party. Luckily for Rodgers the Left Wing votes he loses he gains back with Centrist votes.

The 80s are a time of change towards Rodgers vision and a popular Labour Government whilst the Tories descend into infighting. Eventually they get Micheal Heseltine as there candidate but the problems are still there and they lose a third election, this time to the Soft Left Ann Clywd who implements some slightly more radical ideas (but not too radical). Ann loses 94 to Chris Patten helped by George Galloway reviving the Socialists Labour Party (which nearly collapsed under Derek Hatton) into a more Populist Left Wing organisation which succeeds in the places which have felt left behind from Rodgers reforms.

Patten is a competent Prime Minister, but a small recession in 1996 ruins his chances at a second term. Tony Lloyd gets into power in 1999 but due to the Worker’s party fails to gain a majority. His coalition with the Liberals is a competent affair with increased devolution and a number of assemblies appearing but attempts to implement Alternative Voting fail and a reformed Conservatives under Emma Harriet Nicholson beats down Lloyd.

Nicholson enjoys seven years of power, bringing in her idea of the ‘New Society’ a series of Neoliberal reforms that allows the Government to replace public spending with private in certain sectors and to run Britain ‘like a business’. Things go as okay as they can, with continued support for the EU and much more until a worldwide recession in 2010 causes the wheels to fall of the Nicholson train.

Barry Gardiner, the Soft Left superstar takes over and despite advice not to, pursues a coalition with the Workers Party. This doesn’t go well as accusations of Communist infiltration, Anti-Semitism and Eurosceptism run rampant. This leads to Gardiner’s government to collapse and Liz Truss to come in. But the Tories have had there own problems as Anne Widdecombe breaks of from the Tories and creates a National Populist Right Wing Party which saps the Tory vote in a variety of places. Truss is forced to create a coalition with the Liberals but her opinions on Transgender issues and her failed attempts to revive the Nicholson ethos caused her to lose to a revived Labour Party.

Karen Lee, Lincoln MP and one of the members of the revived Socialist Campaign Committee won the leadership election against a field of awkward Soft Lefties and Blairites. Deflating the Workers Party’s hold and bring about an idea of Socialism for the 21st Century, Lee won the 2020 election by a significant majority. Now she’ll have to keep her aim of reviving British Socialism as the future beckons.
 

neonduke

Continuity Amazon Delivery
Post War Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom of Great Britain And Ireland

1945 - 1953: Clement Attlee (Labour)
def: Winston Churchill (Conservative and Unionist), Sir Archibald Sinclair (Liberal Party), Thomas J. Campbell (Irish Nationalist Party), Jim Larkin (British and Irish Workers League), Richard Acland (Common Wealth), Harry Pollitt/James Gralton (Communist party of Great Britain and Ireland), Hugh MacDiarmid (Scottish Workers Republican Party), Anti-Conscription League (Nora Connolly O'Brien)[1]
1950 - 1953: minority with British And Irish Workers League and Common Wealth C&S def: Winston Churchill (Conservative and Unionist), Sir Archibald Sinclair (Liberal Party), Hugh Delargy (Irish Nationalist Party), Jim Larkin (British and Irish Workers League), Richard Acland (Common Wealth), Harry Pollitt/Dominic Behan (Communist party of Great Britain and Ireland), Hugh MacDiarmid (Scottish Workers Republican Party), Gwynfor Richard Evans (Plaid Cymru)
1953 - 1955: Winston Churchill (Conservative and Unionist)†[2]
def: Clement Attlee (Labour), Hugh Delargy (Irish Nationalist Party), John Bannerman (Liberal Party), Jim Larkin (British and Irish Workers League), Richard Acland (Common Wealth), R. Palme Dutt/Dominic Behan (Communist party of Great Britain and Ireland), Hugh MacDiarmid (Scottish Workers Republican Party), Gwynfor Richard Evans (Plaid Cymru)
1955 - 1958: Sir Basil Brooke (Conservative and Unionist)[3]
1958 - 1963: Hugh Gaitskell (Labour)
def:
Sir Basil Brooke (Conservative and Unionist), Hugh Delargy (Irish Nationalist Party), John Bannerman (Liberal Party), Nora Connolly O'Brien (British and Irish Workers League), Lawrence Daly (Scottish Workers Republican Party), Noel Browne (Common Wealth), Dominic Behan (Communist party of Ireland)[4], Gwynfor Richard Evans (Plaid Cymru), Teddy Taylor (Scottish Loyalist League), Bill Lauchlan (Communist party of Great Britain)
1963 - 1968: Tony Crosland (Labour)
1968 - 1970: Barbara Castle (Labour)[5]

coalition with the Irish Nationalist Party & Common Wealth def: Reginald Maudling (Conservative and Unionist), Paddy Devlin (Irish Nationalist Party), Jo Grimond (Liberal Party), Noel Browne (Common Wealth), Nora Connolly O'Brien (The Workers Party), Lawrence Daly (Scottish Workers Republican Party), Dominic Behan (Communist party of Ireland), Gwynfor Richard Evans (Plaid Cymru), Teddy Taylor (Scottish Loyalist League), Bill Lauchlan (Communist party of Great Britain)
1970 Irish Independence Referendum: 68% No 32% Yes [6]
1970 - 1974: Reginald Maudling (Conservative and Unionist)
def: Barbara Castle (Labour), Jo Grimond (Liberal Party), Tomás Mac Giolla (The Workers Party), Charles Haughey (Irish Nationalist Party), Jimmy Reid (Scottish Republican Party), John McQuillan (Communist party of Ireland), Gwynfor Richard Evans (Plaid Cymru), Teddy Taylor (Scottish Loyalist League), Noel Browne (Common Wealth), Dave Cook (Communist party of Great Britain)
1974 - 1975: Brian Faulkner (Conservative and Unionist)
1975 EEC Membership Referendum: 51% No 49% Yes [7]
1975 - 1978: Jo Grimond (Liberal)[8]
minority with Scottish Republican Party/Plaid Cymru/Irish Nationalist Party C&S def: David Owen (Labour), Tomás Mac Giolla (The Workers Party), Charles Haughey (Irish Nationalist Party), Jimmy Reid (Scottish Republican Party), John McQuillan (Communist party of Ireland), Gwynfor Richard Evans (Plaid Cymru), Teddy Taylor (Scottish Loyalist League), Dave Cook (Communist party of Great Britain)
1976 Irish Devolution Referendum: 54% Yes 46% No
1976 Scottish Devolution Referendum: 60% Yes 40% No
1976 Welsh Devolution Referendum: 57% Yes 43% No

1978 - 1988: David Owen (Labour)
1978 def: Jim Prior (Conservative and Unionist), Jo Grimond (Liberal party), Charles Haughey (Irish Nationalist Party), Jimmy Reid (Scottish Republican Party), Tomás Mac Giolla (The Workers Party), Gwynfor Richard Evans (Plaid Cymru), John McQuillan/Dave Cook (CPGBI) [9]
1983 def: Jim Prior (Conservative and Unionist), Charles Haughey (Irish Nationalist Party), Alan Beith (Liberal party), Jimmy Reid (Scottish Republican Party), Proinsias De Rossa (The Workers Party), Dafydd Wigley (Plaid Cymru), Dave Cook (CPGBI)
1988 EEC Membership Referendum: 53% Yes 47% No
[10]
1988 - 1997: Michael Heseltine (Conservative and Unionist)
1988 def: David Owen (Labour), Charles Haughey (Irish Nationalist Party), Alan Beith (Liberal party), Margo McDonald (Scottish Peoples Party)[11], Proinsias De Rossa (The Workers Party), Dafydd Wigley (Plaid Cymru), Dave Cook (CPGBI)
1992 coalition with
Liberals def: John Major (Labour), Charles Haughey (Irish Nationalist Party), Ken Livingstone (Official Labour Left)[12], Alan Beith (Liberal party), Margo McDonald (Scottish Peoples Party), Proinsias De Rossa (The Workers Party), Dafydd Wigley (Plaid Cymru)
1997 - 2007: John Major (Labour)
1997 minority def: Michael Heseltine (Conservative and Unionist), Mary O'Rourke (Irish Nationalist Party), Ken Livingstone/Proinsias De Rossa (Democratic Left of GB&I), Margo McDonald (Scottish Peoples Party), Paddy Ashdown (Liberal party), Dafydd Wigley (Plaid Cymru)
1999 coalition with Liberal Party def: Francis Maude (Conservative and Unionist), Mary O'Rourke (Irish Nationalist Party), Michael D. Higgins (Democratic Left of GB&I), Paddy Ashdown (Liberal party), Margo McDonald (Scottish Peoples Party), Dafydd Wigley (Plaid Cymru)
2004 coalition with Liberal Party and Democratic Left: def: Francis Maude (Conservative and Unionist), Michael D. Higgins (Democratic Left of GB&I), Mary O'Rourke (Irish Nationalist Party), Paddy Ashdown (Liberal party), Colin Fox (Scottish Peoples Party), Ieuan Wyn Jones (Plaid Cymru)
2007 - 2012: Peter Robinson (Conservative and Unionist) [13]
def: John Major (Labour), Mary O'Roukre (Irish Nationalist Party), Edward Miliband (Democratic Left of GB&I), John Bruton (Liberal party), Colin Fox (Scottish Peoples Party), Ieuan Wyn Jones (Plaid Cymru)
2012 - XXXX: Leo Varadker (Labour) [14]
2012 def: Peter Robinson (Conservative and Unionist), Bertie Ahern (Irish Nationalist Party), Edward Miliband (Democratic Left of GB&I), John Bruton (Liberal party), Colin Fox (Scottish Peoples Party), Eve Myles (Plaid Cymru)
2017 minority with Irish Nationalist C&S def: Jeremy Hunt (Conservative and Unionist), Bertie Ahern (Irish Nationalist Party), Edward Miliband (Democratic Left of GB&I), John Bruton (Liberal party), Jo Swinson (Scottish Peoples Party), Eve Myles (Plaid Cymru)
2019 Irish Independence Referendum: 52% Yes 48% No

[1] A minor party notably for having only 4 MP's and solely concerned with protesting conscription on an all UK basis, it id provided a springboard for Connolly O'Brien to eventually move to and lead the BIWL).

[2] Struck down by a massive stroke and passed away two days later, Churchill was mourned on all sides of the house but there was an element of relief too as his physical and mental ailments were becoming all too apparent.

[3] Regarded as a flexing of the muscles by the Irish wing of the party Brooke was seen as a throwback to the old Patrician days of the Conservative party and his little hidden anti-Catholicism did little but rile up the Nationalist Party and make the Tories seem out of touch.

[4] Palme Dutts quixotic second go at leader did nothing but exacerbate the already existing fault lines between the British and Irish sections of the party, leading to Bevan and the Irish contingent walking out at the 1957 party congress.

[5] Crosland never had an easy relationship with the Left of the Labour party and after a poor showing at the 1968 election was removed via internal coup and replaced with Castle who was able to form a coalition with the Irish Nationalist and the Irish rump of the Common Wealth party. While there were rumblings of a split by the Right Crosland surprisingly counselled moderation, realising that Castle would likely destroy herself catering to her erstwhile allies.

[6] Crosland was right, with a crushing defeat for Irish independence and a successful vote of no confidence soon following. Castle fell on her sword along with Paddy Devlin of the Nationalists. Noel Browne and the Common Wealth were absolutely crushed, retaining only a handful of seats and winding up soon after with the remains of the party merging with either The Workers Party or the Liberals.

[7] ironically it was a referendum that would do for Castle's successor in Number 10 albeit in this case it was Maudling stepping down after losing a vote in parliament on the exact wording of the bill and casting a light on how divided the Conservative and Unionist party were on Europe. The Tories knew their hold on power was on a knife edge and then the Irish Unionists had to go and play silly buggers again, demanding their man be given the top spot or else they would torpedo the Yes vote in Ireland. This in turn blew up in their face when a successful ground game by the the Workers Party and the Nationalists returned a majority No vote in Ireland, just enough to give No the victory. Faulkner was out and the Irish Unionists were firmly put back in their box for a generation.

[8] With the two major parties still at war with each other (although Owen had nearly tamed the Labour Left) the Liberals where able to sneak enough seats to be able to form a very shaky minority with the various Nationalist parties. The price would be more referendums, this time localized ones for devolved governments. The brainchild of Haughey, who saw them as a way for the Irish Nationalists to claw back some momentum after the disastrous Independence referendum, it nearly went to pot with the Irish vote coming closest to No. Still he had done it, helped by a Conservative party not exactly anxious to help its troublesome Irish wing.

[9] Enough water was under the bridge for the Communist Party to merge again, albeit with a much more influential Eurocommunist wing.

[10] Where the Tories failed David Owen ahd succeeded, all it cost was a renewed civil war in the party and defeat to the Conservatives.

[11] A rebranding as it turns out a lot of Scots actually liked the Royals, add to that that many of the newer recruits were ore Nationalist than Socialist. Republicanism is technically part of the party platform but you need to dig deep in the manifesto to find it.

[12] "If you are not for the party you are against the party, and if you are against the party you are not needed here" John Major' forceful oratory at the Labour party conference and his efforts to exile the Trotskyite elements of the party finally bore fruit. Ken Livingstone would take his 12 MPs out of the Labour party and into the wilderness, before finally merging with the Workers Party and CPGB&I to form the Democratic Left.

[13] The Irish Unionists finally put forward a figure that looked promising, socially conservative and tough on law and order Peter Robinson looked just the man to take the Conservative party into the 21st Century. A good media performer, if somewhat stern, Robinson was a good foil for the increasingly tired Major. However there were already warning signs such as a tendency to use a few too many anti-Catholic dog-whistles, threats towards the now fairly popular devolved administrations and a tendency to keep bringing up the background of the new young popular Labour leader.

All of this he probably could have batted away but then the bottom fell out of the world economy and it became clear the Emperor was wearing no clothes. Robinson would hold on with a death grip for the rest of his term but he was just delaying the inevitable.

[14] The son of an Indian father and Irish mother, born in Ireland but raised in Birmingham. Only beaten to the title of youngest ever Prime Minister by Pitt the Younger Leo Varadker took the reins with a massive majority and a country crying out for change. He struggled manfully with the challenge but it is unlikely but the austerity cuts of the previous government came back to bit during his term. Still he managed to push through a number of social changes, such as Equal Marriage and Liberalization of the antiquated abortion laws but this wasn't enough to save his majority at the 2017 election. Confidence and Supply with the Irish Nationalists was the only realistic option open to Varadker and the price was clear. Still he was broadly confidant that this referendum would be easily defeated, just like the last time. What he didn't count on was a masterful populist campaign by Betrie Ahern, channeling the spirit of his mentor Charles Haughey.

And so on a fresh Spring morning the United Kingdom woke to the news that it would soon become a very different place.

 

Time Enough

"Enthusiastic Cis Male Partner"
Pronouns
He/Him
Noel Browne (Common Wealth)
The only thing more Noel Browne than this is if after several years in the Workers Party, left, started a Democratic Socialist Labour Party, dissolved that and joined Labour, is expelled by Owen and joins Ken Livingstone's group before death
 

Time Enough

"Enthusiastic Cis Male Partner"
Pronouns
He/Him
The Kingdom of God?-A Presidents List:
1929-1933: Herbert Hoover (Republican)

1929 (With Charles Curtis) def: Al Smith (Democratic)
1933-1941: Huey Long (Democratic)
1932 (Vacant) def: Herbert Hoover (Republican)
1936 (With Burton K.Wheeler) def: Hamilton Fish III (Republican), Upton Sinclair (EPIC-Progressive)

1941-1943: Charles A.Lindbergh (Republican)†
1941 (With Robert A. Taft) def: Huey Long (Democratic), Gerald L. K.Smith (America First), Upton Sinclair (EPIC-Progressive)
1943-1945: Robert A. Taft (Republican)
1945-1953: Jerry Voorhis (Democratic)
1944 (With Frank Porter Graham) def: Robert A. Taft (Republican), Gerald Nye (America First)
1948 (With Frank Porter Graham) def: Douglas MacArthur (Republican), Robert Rice Reynolds (The America Party), Vito Marcantonio (Labor)

1953-1957: Frank Porter Graham (Democratic)
1952 (With Glen H.Taylor) def: Douglas MacArthur (Republican), Robert Rice Reynolds (The America Party), Vito Marcantonio (Labor)
1957-1965: Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. (Republican)
1956 (With George W.Romney) def: Frank Porter Graham (Democratic), John Gates (Labor)
1960 (With George W.Romney) def: Elliott Roosevelt (Democratic), John Gates (Labor), Strom Thurmond (The America Party)

1965-: Glen H.Taylor (Democratic)
1964 (With Virginia Foster Durr) def: George W.Romney (Republican), Dorothy Ray Healey (Labor), George Wallace (The America Party)

America’s descent into Poisonous Populism can be tracked to the death of Al Smith in ‘32 and the subsequent rise of his running mate, Huey Long to the Presidency. Long takes to the Presidency and injects his brand of Left Wing Populism into the Democratic Party allowing for many Progressives, Populists and former Socialists to seep into the party. Long's policies are popular, but his attempts to balance his Left Wing Progressive support, with his Southern Populist support is a constant balancing act. Whilst this is happening, corruption oozes into the Government as Long gives big jobs to friends, benefactors and allies. But when the '36 election hits, people on the face of it don't notice much. Life seems to be getting better and the Republicans nominating the Conservative Hamilton Fish who manages to anger the Left Wing through his opposition to the Share the Wealth Programs but also anger the Southern Populists through his support for African American Civil Rights doesn't do terribly well, though the real winner of the '36 election is Upton Sinclair as his EPIC-Progressive Coalition does incredibly well and is an indication of the Leftward shift of American politics. It's after the '36 election that wheels fall of the Long Machine, as the Dust Bowel hits hard, Corruption is revealed as Bridges and buildings collapse and this just fuels the forces of Far Right reaction in the nation. It's into this vacuum steps Charles A.Lindbergh who wins the Republican nomination with awkward support from the Conservative faction of the Republicans (the Liberal faction having been cowed by some defections to Progressive parties across the country). Campaigning on Reform, Isolationism and Anti-Corruption, Lindbergh wins quite handily, as Long loses support to America First and EPIC-Progressive Coalition.

Lindbergh though isn't incredibly good at being President, his attempts at appeasing the Right Wing Populist rhetoric that got him elected with the Conservative support from the Republicans means he spends much of his time in office unable to do much of anything. Whilst Reform and Anti-Corruption occur, Isolationism doesn't as eventually America is bought into War against Japan and then Germany in 1942 as the President is forced by the Democrats and Republicans to declare War after several incidents of unchecked Axis aggression. Of course, this angers the America First/Fascist crowd who helped Lindbergh win and during a Lindbergh rally he's assassinated by a band of American Nazi's. After the so called 'Red Week' an orgy of violence and destruction caused by Fascists and sympathisers, Taft imposes Martial Law and so called 'Anti-American' organisations are banned. Taft's couple of years in office are about trying to manage the War Effort as well as trying to push through some of his Anti-Trade Union bills which goes about as well as you expect. It's with no great surprise when Jerry Voorhis wins the 1944 election by a landslide.

A Progressive Democrat, Liberal and Cooperative spokesman (and a massive fan of the Social Gospel) Jerry Voorhis is the man best suited to create what could be best described as a very American form of Social Democracy if anything. Voorhis uses the economy of the War effort to help jump start an economic boom, his dealings with Trade Unions (as well as enshrining the right to form a Union as part of the Constitution much to the chragin of Conservatives across the board) allow them to truly flourish for the first time in a long time (no longer having to deal with constant strike breaking and other elements) and also implement a number of Social Liberal policies...he also bans the Communist Party which appeases the 'Jerry Voorhis may be a Red' Crowd. The Voorhis Government gets along with the Labour Government of Attlee with both influencing the other in different ways (Voorhis would take elements of the NHS to be part of his eventual American Health Corporation scheme). Voorhis wins the '48 election quite handily, as even the bravado of MacArthur doesn't far well against Voorhis's cool charm and popularity amongst working Americans. It's after '48 that Voorhis really makes some enemies.

A man who had an awkward relationship with his Southern compatriots, Voorhis's Second Term would be focusing on Civil Rights and attempts to implement various Civil Rights bills. Of course this angers the Southern Democrats who often ally with more Conservative Republicans members to smack them down. Voorhis's support for Operation Dixie also angers more Conservative voices across the country, as Southern Industry finds itself Unionised which is the start of the slow collapse of Jim Crows Laws as Black and Poor White Americans use help from certain Unions to bring there bosses to account. Voorhis would also call a vote (a referendum is shot down) on entering the War to support South Korea which passed but still would annoy the Anti-Communists who wanted Voorhis to instantly go to War. He also manages to make even more business enemies as he supports a number of Social Democratic South American and Central American countries against the Businesses supporting him. For the most part Voorhis leaves office a popular man but his successor Former Vice President Frank Porter Graham is less lucky.

Relying on support from his odd but fiery running mate Glen H.Taylor to win the Democratic Primary, the more intellectual Graham seems like a duller man compared to Voorhis and wins the '52 election by the skin of his teeth, as angry right wing votes drift away from the MacArthur campaign to the America Party; a gaggle of racists, fascists and the incredibly Right Wing. Graham's few years in office aren't much to right home about, further attempted expansions of Civil Rights, continuing the expansion of Voorhis's Welfare State and funding an increase in CoOps across the nation. But when '56 comes around Frank Porter Graham loses handily to Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. as a mixture of apathy to the Democrats, the America Party not running (deciding that Cabot Lodge is better than Graham anyday) and a strong Labor campaign lead by John Gates. Despite there wishes that Cabot Lodge may offer some Right Wing change of some kind (remembering his Pre War years and family names) the team of Lodge and Romney is a more Business focused Liberalism more than anything with Labour Union powers being reduced and Welfare being cut, with Civil Rights changes still occurring and Lodge even appointing an African American to the cabinet.

The America Party manages to gain all the angry Conservatives from the Democrats and Republicans, particularly a number of the State Rights folks like Strom Thurmond. Whilst not strong enough to ever win a Presidential, they become an immense annoyance to Lodge trying to get policies through (Liberals from both parties often have to work with each other despite other differences). Still Cabot Lodge is rather popular, he wins the 1960 Presidential election against the upstart that is Elliott Roosevelt (who just beat Glen H.Taylor in the primaries) and continues his business friendly Liberal rule for the most part. Even moments like the Cuban incident which indicates the end of Voorhis's 'Live and Let Live' towards South/Central American Social Democracies that aren't fully aligned with America. It's in the 60s, particularly the passing of the 1962 Civil Rights act that the boiling pot of Right Wing America spills over. The South had been a hot bed of violence for about fifteen years now but in what many would dub the 'Second Red Week' race riots across the South against African Americans, Union Members and 'Supposed Communists' leads to Lodge having to implement martial law and huge arrests occur. This leads to the remaining Conservative Republicans walking over to the America Party, causing Lodge to have to work with the Democrats more and more. When 1964 occurs, Lodge's former Vice President George W.Romney only just wins the Republican nomination against the insurgent Gerald Ford as the party is squabbling over what there place in the world is. But it doesn't matter, the Civil Rights Cowboy Glen H.Taylor, running on an incredibly Liberal program, almost Socialist in nature manages to capture the feeling of anger and apathy towards the Lodge Government, as Taylor is playing with Bob Dylan and Pete Seeger to crowds of inspired youths, Romney is having awkward talks with business leaders.

It's no surprise when Taylor manages to pip Romney to the post and he is ready to slap down those who will try and stop him finishing off Voorhis's 'Kingdom of God'.
 
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