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Lists of Heads of Government and Heads of State


A jpeg stock photo of gas station flowers
Published by SLP
Teignmouth, Devon
@Time Enough liked the old version of this that ended with "the Greens will likely be in power for a long time" so... an updated version of my political journey in list form

A World Turned Upside Sideways

1997-2003: Tony Blair (Labour)
The last Labour government was elected on a small majority, with the Liberal Democrats close to second place. Devolution for Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland was implemented. The government's handling of the Milennium Bug Crisis caused a massive split in the party and Blair limped on, even managing to push the elections back a year to deal with the crisis.

2003-2008: Charles Kennedy (Liberal Democrat)
Propelled into government as the party most strongly associated with opposition to Blair's handling of Y2K and international terrorism, the Liberal Democrats avoided the wars in the Middle East, implemented STV, brought in the Euro, created an elected Senate and bought in regional devolution, but did little to deal with left wing agitation that broke out in the next election. Particularly during the Credit Crisis.

2008-2011: Caroline Lucas (Green Party England & Wales)
Caroline Lucas had never served in Parliament, but found herself suddenly at the front of a Red-Green Alliance. The new government worked towards implementing LVT, legalised Cannabis, and brought in gay marriage but came to be seen as revisionist by the more left wing elements, who were brought into power following a general strike.

2011-2014: Ian Bone (Anarchist)
Britain's revolutionary government spent three years operating on a narrow majority, having to make deals with the Liberals, Greens, and even the Conservative-Labour Alliance to pass laws. Those laws included full drug decriminalisation and massive defunding for police, along with incentives to help people establish communes and worker's co-ops. Three years in, they finally failed to cobble together enough support to keep the government running and an election was called.

2014-2018: Natalie Bennett (Green Party)
The first Green majority government was elected on a landslide and has overseen a period of relative prosperity where Britain has lead moves towards disarmament, nuclear decommissioning and environmental policies. The Greens were riding high, but their policy of offering an EU referendum and campaigning to remain in the EU backfired with a vote to leave which split the government, leading to collapse.

2018-2020: Jeremy Corbyn (Labour)
Labour returned to power with a minority government but held power for two years, pushing the country towards nationalisation, and further towards pacifism. The Green New Deal was supplemented by what came to be known as The Red New Deal - an attempt to help workers buy out their companies. Labour's biggest problem was the rise of Normalism - a political ideology that was anti-Brexit, anti-Green, pro-capitalist, and coalesced over opposition to trans rights as conversations about gender self-ID began in 2019. In late 2019 Normalist terrorists overreached, using a dirty nuclear bomb on London Pride. A major clampdown was planned on Normalism, however it had supporters in all parties. When J.K Rowling was bought into custody, there was rioting and a brief attempt at a parliamentary coup. While order was restored, the traditional party system collapsed utterly.

2020: Munroe Bergdorf (Trans Rights Independent)
The new anti-normalist coalition is headed up by an MP who was forced out of Labour after accusations of racism against white people. Where Labour promised gender self-ID binary trans people over 18 the new government has implemented self-ID without a declaration for all with explicit protections for non-binary people. Brexit has been delayed due to the pandemic but Bergdorf plans to hold a second referendum in 2021, before resigning and hopefully allowing normal party politics to return. Provided the mainstream parties are in a state where one of them can win an election.

Time Enough

"Enthusiastic Cis Male Partner"
@Time Enough liked the old version of this that ended with "the Greens will likely be in power for a long time" so... an updated version of my political journey in list form
Well this ended...umm, alright I guess. Like a Dirty Bomb being detonated ain't the best thing in the world but hey Munroe Bergdorf is Prime Minister so eh


Active member
I’m going to use Sideways’ post as an excuse to do my own political journey list as I hadn’t joined back when that was a thing. It’s fairly standard stuff for a lefty British millennial, bereft of any p h r e s h takes TM.

Looking back over past personal lists, the amount of people who were Jon Cruddas supporters is incredible given that I now have to google him to make sure he’s still an MP.

Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom
2010–2014: Gordon Brown (Schools and Hospitals)

2010 GE: Def. Nick Clegg (Seems Nice Enough)

Leaders of the Scottish Socialist Republic
2014: Alex Salmond/Nicola Sturgeon/Colin Fox (Moderate/Progressive/Socialist Triumvirate)

Co-conveners of the Devolved Commonwealth
2014–2015: Ed Miliband (Progressive Democrat) & Caroline Lucas (Green)

(With support from Owen Jones, John Harris)
2015–2017: Jeremy Corbyn (Radical Socialist) & John MacDonnell (Marxism for the 21st Century)
(With support from Owen Jones, Various Others)
2017–2019: Emily Thornberry (United Left) & John MacDonnell (Marxism for the 21st Century)
(With support from Owen Jones, replaced by Nathan J. Robinson)
2019–20??: Angela Rayner (United Left) & Mhairi Black (Scottish Progressive)
(With support from Nathan J. Robinson)

Time Enough

"Enthusiastic Cis Male Partner"
get on board - it's a fun thing to do
My own quite dull version:
2011-2015: Ed Miliband (Labour)
2011 (Majority) def: David Cameron (Conservative), Nick Clegg (Lib Dem)
2015-2016: Jeremy Corbyn (Labour)
2015 (Majority) def: David Cameron (Conservative), Nick Clegg (Lib Dem)
2016-2017: Lillian Greenwood (Labour)
2017-2019: Karen Lee (Labour)

2017 (Majority) def: Theresa May (Conservative), Tim Farron (Lib Dem)
2019-: Lisa Nandy (Labour)
2019 (In coalition with Lib Dem) def: Theresa May (Conservative), Layla Moran (Lib Dems)

Gary Oswald

Old and Foolish now
Sea Lion Press staff
Decolonisation in Africa left the challenge of how the newly independent countries would organise themselves. Socialists and Pan Africans favoured primarily a series of federations of states along the lines of the USA or the USSR. This was the so called Casablanca Model after the meeting in Casablanca which saw the Mali Federation expand into the West Africa Federation.

More conservative Africans favoured stronger nation states with more sovereignty. They were happy with alliances as a way of making joint declarations and free trade blocs but they had no desire for a joint army and wanted guarantees of complete control over their own laws and taxes. As Maurice Yameogo of Upper Volta put it 'they did not merely wish to replace rule from Paris with rule from Dakar'. This became known as the Monrovia model after the oldest independent African republic.

In East Africa, there was to be no question that it would be the Casablanca model that would take hold. Julius Nyerere went so far as to delay the independence of Tanganyika so that it would happen at the same time as Uganda and Kenya. Nor was there any argument about who would be the first Chairman.

Chairman of the East African Federation

1967-76: Dedan Kimathi (National Union)
1976-79: Edward Mutesa (Values)
1979-80: Barthélémy Bisengimana (Values)
1980-86: Abdulrahman Muhammad Babu (Revolutionary Worker's League)
1986-90: Pierre Mulele (Revolutionary Worker's League)
1990-91: Paul Bomani (National Union)
1991-96: Pierre Buyoya (National Union)
1996-97: Pierre Buyoya (Unity)
1997-2003: John Garang (Liberty)
2003-05: Charity Ngilu (Democratic Movement)
2005-12: Mohamed Bacar (Liberty)
2012-: Shriti Vadera (Democratic Movement)
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Token Marxist
get on board - it's a fun thing to do
Considering France has fixed terms elections, it wouldn't be as interesting Also I'm stumped about the how considering how unlikely any of it would be, my political views are quite outside the mainstream.

So I'm going to be creative and inject a bit of alternate lead up to it, still mostly just using people who did run for office. The main difference here is just an earlier and bigger economic crisis to give my postman boy a shot (he got 4% so uh, he needs the help).

Fifth republic, 2007-2012: Olivier Besançenot (LCR/Union of the left) - minority government with PS support
First round: def Ségolène Royal (PS), Nicolas Sarkozy (UMP)
Second round: def
Jean Marie Le Pen (FN)
Union of the left forms as a confederation of far left movements to run a common campaign after an earlier economic crisis has even worse consequences, cascading into widespread economic destruction. It craters UMP's popularity due to the crisis happening while they're in government. The PS fumbles their answer despite the open door this should have left them and the first round is extremely contested, with Union of the left squeaking into second place against a FN also benefiting from the crisis. A few concessions about the nature of post election government with the PS manage to reassure the moderate left enough to win the second round, and Besançenot is sworn in as president, overseeing the recovery through rather radical measures, including support for worker buyout of failing companies, stimulus conditioned on worker participation and guarantee to maintain jobs, work programs for the unemployed, reduction in work hours across the board to distribute remaining work, rent cancellation and stimulus investment in local production to ensure increased self reliance. A lot of the programs get chipped away at in the assembly and senate, but it still changes the French economic situation quite a bit. With the economy stabilizing enough to guarantee people's needs, the Union government attempts to reform away the 5th republic but it is defeated in the assembly due to PS objection.

Fifth republic, 2012-2017: Philippe Poutou (NPA/Union of the left) - coalition with PS diss.
First round: def Jean-François Copé (UMP), Jean-Marie Le Pen (FN)
Second round: def François Hollande (PS)

Besançenot retires after one term, satisfied with the economic recovery but unhappy about the inability to reform France further. With the economy steady and France reassured that the left can govern, the Union shifts gear to concerns about the political system, campaigning hard on the failed attempt to reform the republic, promising a participative constitutional convention, with a lot of grassroot support by organizations that spouted during the worst of the depression. The promise of consulation on the reforms does attract other left leaning democracy enthusiasts fed up with the 5th republic and the Union manages a victory against a PS drifting to the right and rejecting the idea of a second minority government, but absorbing an ailing UDF's left wing. An UMP change in leadership fail to distance them from the crisis enough to help them despite absorbing the rest of UDF and the FN's railing about the dirty reds in the Elysée doesn't really endear them outside their base. The Union ends up governing in coalition with PS dissidents interested in a constitutional assembly, which takes the bulk of its focus, but it also oversees the participative economic plans it put in place, while the PS dissidents who joined the government try to smooth things over with the European Union despite the divergent economic positions. A less troubled time also gives it more room to address social issues, passing gay marriage and improving transgender care, including dropping the prerequisite of SRS for civil status change.

Fifth republic, 2014-2016: Participative assembly on the constitutional project - Participative Socialist Republic (Union of the left/PS diss.)
def: Parliamentary Republic (PS), No Change (UMP), National Republic (FN), Socialist Republic (Union of the left diss.), Citizens' republic (Ind), Federal Republic (Regional)

Fifth republic, 2016: Referendum on the Participative Republic as the 6th republic - YES (Union of the left, PS diss., Ind left, Regional)
def: NO (UMP, PS, FN, Ind right)

Sixth republic, 2016-2018: Benoit Hamon (PSP/Union of the left) - majority government
def: Edouard Philippe (LR diss./Ind center), François Fillon (LR), Yannick Jadot (EELV), Marine Le Pen (FN), Raphaël Glucksmann (PS), Priscillia Ludosky/Eric Drouet (Citoyens), Manuel Valls (PS diss.)
The success of the participative assembly and referendum buoys the union into the new participative elections, but also opens the door to fully admitting the dissident PS wing into the Union, as the Parti Socialiste Participatif. Hamon runs an energetic primary within the Union on the need for continuous education about the participative model and a new way of thinking about an economy where human labour is less and less required, arguing for an universal income scheme funded by taxes on the remaining capitalist sector and on automation. He accrues a lot of positive coverage for appealing to new converts while being left wing enough to not antagonize the older wing of the Union, and this translates directly to a victory in the participative election. The nature of the new republic means that rather than a single ticket, all the parties of the Union are represented directly, while he gets to lead the government. The rest of the political sphere splinters when faced with the new system, with participative representatives often less loyal to the party and willing to follow different leaders. The Hamon government falls to a vote of no confidence from participative representatives of the Union over his handling of European judgement against some of the more radical French economic measures, his willingness to pull back some of the measures infuriating the rest of the Union.

Sixth republic, 2018: participative no confidence vote: against the government (Union of the left, Citoyens, FN, LR)
def: for the government (PSP, PS, EELV, LR diss.)

Sixth republic, 2018-2020: Jean-Luc Mélenchon (LFI/Union of the left) - majority government
def: Edouard Philippe/Manuel Valls (Democracy!), Benoit Hamon/Eric Piolle (PSP/PS/EELV), Marine Le Pen (FN)
The election following the fall of the government is a stark departure for the good feelings of the post referendum vote. PSP leaves the Union while maintaining its support for the new republic, and join in with the center left, the center congregate around PS dissident and LR dissident figures calling for unity against the "tyranny" of the participative republic, while the FN run their usual quixotic campaign, increasingly irrelevant in the face of more direct means for people to air their grievances. But the most notable about face is in the Union, where Mélenchon's new movement collects less ideologically committed people united by the wave of Euroskepticism. His government is ultimately short lived because force of personality cannot replace organization, and after 2 years spent in Brussels more than in Paris without much to show for it while the rest of the Union has to run everything else in the background as his movement falls into infighting, he throws the towel and retires.

Sixth republic, 2019-*: Collective Leadership (Union of the left) - minority government with PSP support, then majority government
As the campaign to replace Mélenchon is heating up, the first cases of Covid19 are detected in France, and the Union quickly votes in a collective government to oversee the handling of the pandemic using the minority of participative delegates they still have support from despite LFI's collapse. Despite the radicals within the union being ascendant with the debacle of the less ideologically committed attempts at government, the PSP does agree to bring the government over the line and find enough voters willing to push their delegates in voting for it in the light of the looming pandemic. As the colossal potential for economic damage is revealed, the radicals find themselves vindicated and quick recall of moderate delegates bring them to a majority, enough to pass a comprehensive program of direct relief to quarantined people and direct command of the economy to ensure necessities keep flowing while minimizing exposure due to less critical work. Might get them in trouble with the EU later, but they'll think about it when everything isn't on fire anymore.

Here, I did a thing. By the way, I think this is the first bit of AH I've posted here. Hopefully it looks good.

I broke the 5th republic because 1) I hate it and 2) no fixed terms means more fun for me.
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Token Marxist
Good work Nyvis. Nice thinging.

I'm surprised it's not way more radical tbh. I was expecting revolution of one kind of other
It's a government leader list, that would be awkward.

Some of the characters in it have distinctly revolutionary bent despite running in elections, so I imagine this United left would have something to say about the nature of bourgeois democracy too (for example, NPA only grudgingly participate in elections and it's a very contentious issue among the party). But the French revolutionary left is anemic and I'm not really into starting a revolution you're not going to win quickly, because that's usually what lead to terrible "practical" measures that defeat the point.

Also elections are weirdly compelling even when you're aware of how much garbage they cover :ROFLMAO:

So I gave them a convenient crisis to exploit, and the French system makes it somewhat easy to abolish itself if you have popular support.

I imagine worldwide media coverage would call it a revolution. I might do an "America reports on the happenings in the unstable country of France" with exactly the same things happening but a typical bias about foreign leftists.

But this is also supposed to reflect my own misgiving about the less grounded forms of revolutionary leftism, hence the swing between more radical leaders and less radical ones.

Edit: also, well, in a system where I get to put whoever I want into power, where's the need for a revolution? :unsure:
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Gary Oswald

Old and Foolish now
Sea Lion Press staff
First Citizens of the Free City of Sunderland

1987-2006: Chris Mullin (Workers)
2006-08: Colin Wilbourn (Independent)
2008-17: Lee Martin (Anti-Deficit)
2017-19: Heather Fagan (Liberal)

2019-: Raf Mulla (Solidarity)

The 2006 'dreamscape' disaster in which several people died during the celebrations of Sunderland's independence thanks to a stampede didn't have to be the end of Mullin's long rule as unchallenged ruler. The man himself was still a popular figure despite his alliance with Edinburgh dragging the city into an unpopular war and economic malaise. But his staff reacted poorly, refusing to allow Mullin to speak to the crowds, and anger built up to the point that his resignation was demanded. It was an undignified end for a man who'd so defined the modern history of the city.

A neutral figure was picked to replace him until new elections could be held but Wilbourn's hope of a quiet uneventful stewardship was quickly dashed. The ship building industry which the city had been relying on had failed to adapt to the times by moving to cruise ships and other more sophisticated ships. And as tankers increasingly began to be made quicker and cheaper elsewhere, the industry became increasingly precocious. In 2008 the bottom finally fell out of the industry. Huge bailouts managed to keep the docks open but at the cost of leaving the city in even more debt and with rising unemployment.

Martin was a rough, uneducated man. To him the problem that the city didn't have enough money was a relatively simple one to solve, he'd treat it much like he did his own expenses back when he was on the dole. He'd spend less, giving up on Mullin's extensive welfare system and vigorous foreign policy. It was a simple common sense answer that appealed to a people feeling desperate for change. Unfortunately, it also didn't work. With no money coming in from the government to stimulate spending, the city stagnated and as homeless people starved and Newcastle emboldened, by the military cuts, prowled at the border, the city began to wonder if the cost of this austerity was worth it.

After nine years of decline, Martin was voted out and was replaced by Heather Fagan, who became the first female leader of the city since independence. Fagan had originally entered politics on the radical ticket of unification with the other local polities but had joined the more respectable liberal outfit several years earlier. Her platform was aimed firmly at Martin supporters who thought he'd gone just a bit too far. The deficit was still to be reduced of course, but more money could be spared to the city's poorest. Martinism with a human face was not enough to sate the demands for change however and Fagan lasted only two years before being overthrown in a general strike.

Raf Mulla had been one of the founder's of the cities anarchist punk music scene and had becoming increasingly the face of welfare as the Martin regime withdrew from their responsibilities, running food stalls and squats in the city. His message of mutual support and the end of the old hierarchies in his music and articles meant he also increasingly became the voice of resistance and opposition. Upon Fagan's resignation, he was installed as leader and thus ushered in a new era for the Free City.

Turquoise Blue

Impatiently Tibby
Patreon supporter
The Land of the Trembling Star (UK)
Turquoise Dreamscapes (updated from 2018)

Gordon Brown (Labour majority) 2007-2010
When Brown decided to call an election in 2010, a hung parliament emerged, but a very unusual one where the Lib Dems surged, Labour held first place narrowly despite coming third in votes, and the Tories second, like always. Negotiating a Lib-Lab coalition, one thing Clegg demanded was his retirement within the next year or so, which Brown agreed to.

Gordon Brown (Labour-Liberal Democrat coalition) 2010-2011
Brown's second ministry was to be brief as the ambitious people in his cabinet all planned for the eventual leadership challenge. It was a relief to everyone involved, including the Prime Minister, when it was finally called and they all could openly stand.

Ed Miliband (Labour-Liberal Democrat coalition) 2011-2012
The rise of the Alliance of Regions in early 2012 brought Labour to a new low in polls, which turned out to be the end to Miliband's first ministry as Clegg announced he would withdraw support and force a vote of no confidence in the Government.

Nick Clegg (Liberal Democrat-Labour coalition) 2012-2013
Clegg has done it, he has brought Labour low and became the first Liberal prime minister since David Lloyd George. With the Tories firmly rejecting a Grand Coalition, Labour was brought back in government this time as a junior partner. The Lib Dems this time would be the ones hammered in the polls as the Scottish election saw a wipeout in favour of the SNP and Plaid Cymru surged to win a Rainbow Coalition. Labour, still led by Ed Miliband after he fought off the second attempt at winning the leadership from his brother, decided to do unto Clegg the same as he did unto them.

Caroline Lucas (Green minority) 2013
In the end, the Tories collapsed as the Greens surged on a NIMBYist platform and both the Lib Dems and Labour lost. Labour however, recovered quite a bit while Clegg saw his party collapse to 23 seats. Lucas' ministry was inexperienced and after a major foreign policy fumble, a vote of no confidence was called and the Great British Public became frustrated at their ever-changing Government.

Leanne Wood (Alliance of Regions-Labour-Liberal Democrat-Green "Rainbow Coalition") 2013-2014
With the Tories resurgent under a charismatic leader, they came close to winning a majority, but in the end, all other parties agreed to form a Rainbow Coalition led by the leader of the second-biggest party, the Alliance of Regions. Wood's ministry was predictably chaotic, but she did implement universal devolution over the UK and establish an elected Senate to replace the House of Lords.

Ed Miliband (Labour majority) 2014-2015
In the end, it all proved too much, and the people decided to cast their vote for Labour to have a great big majority in the fourth election in four years. Miliband's second ministry would prove much more successful than his first, but just as brief. In 2015, the Labour Party split as the hard-left led by Jeremy Corbyn split off as the People's Socialist Movement or something, and that led to Miliband calling a general election to take them by surprise. It didn't exactly work out that well for Miliband honestly, as he lost power.

Leanne Wood (Alliance of Regions-Liberal Democrat coalition) 2015-2017
While Miliband's gambit did wipe out the PSM, the British voters were still angry at the fifth election in five years and chose to vote for the Regionalists instead. Wood's second ministry would mainly be known for the referendum on to get Britain in the Euro, which narrowly passed, but led to a popular backlash a year later and led to a new election as the Lib Dems withdrew from the coalition.

Sadiq Khan (Labour-led "Ministry of All the Talents") 2017-2018
Prime Minister Khan elected to bring all the major parties together (Labour, Lib Dems, Tories, Regionalists, Greens) to form a "ministry of all the talents" to rise above the fractious politics that has doomed Britain to elections after elections after elections. The clash between the Tories and the Regionalists led the Ministry of All the Talents to fracture and ultimately end Khan's government.

Adam Price (Alliance of Regions-led "Ministry of All the Talents") 2018-2019
As the Conservative Party fractured as many of the more reactionary backbenchers refused to sit under Adam Price, Europe started to loom large as an issue. The Conservatives, as a request for continuation of the Ministry of All the Talents, demanded a new referendum on the Euro. Turns out many people increasingly had "buyer's remorse" from the issue as the economy stagnated. The noted-Eurosceptic PSM was gaining even more. The referendum ended up a narrow "Leave the Eurozone" margin, and this led the Prime Minister to announce his resignation.

Jo Swinson (Liberal Democrat-led "Ministry of All the Talents") 2019-2020
The person chosen to succeed him was Jo Swinson of the Liberal Democrats. The Conservatives was increasingly disgruntled with how little influence they got in the Ministry of "All the Talents", and Swinson was seemingly one to fudge the actual "Eurexit" from the Eurozone due to being a die-hard Remainer. The honeymoon rapidly ran out and a vote of no confidence with the Greens jumping ship ended her government and called a new election.

Lisa Nandy (Labour-led "Ministry of All the Talents") 2020-present
And now we're here. With the British people at once indulging chaotic coalition politics and yet loathing multiple elections, the grand coalition that was the so-called "Ministry of All the Talents" chugged on. Lisa Nandy, the new Labour leader after Sadiq Khan stepped down in 2019, would appoint Conservative Rishi Sunak as her new Chancellor of the Exchequer to continue the bizarre and nonsensical non-ideological coalition.

And oddly enough, as Britain deals with multiple crises such as global warming, a pandemic, rising fascism in the world and human rights violations elsewhere, they cling further and further to the government and its promise of post-political "strength and stability". The British people just refuse to touch politics, branding it all as anathema. Even J.K. Rowling's attempts to stir up a culture war just got her books no longer bought and her branded as too "political". Meanwhile, even as this happens, quiet social reforms chug on. The United Kingdom is known as one of the most progressive countries on LGBT rights, including extensive trans protection. Yet you wouldn't know it, as there's a quiet chill on political discourse.

With the anti-coalition Conservatives and the Green Party wiped out, the PSM being the only opposition and yet lagging in the polls, and the Lib Dems scolded by the voters, the Eurexit would be set on an orderly process, while new housing reforms (started in the Miliband years) would lead to many houses being built, many Hong Kongers would be welcomed to Britain's shores as the nation labelled itself a "country of sanctuary" and a formalised "Great Contract" with the devolved regions (started under Price) would be finalised, turning Britain officially into a federation.

As people universally wear masks to deal with the coronavirus, the Ministry of All the Talents rolls out more generous policies to ride out the economic fallout from the pandemic and well, the British people are very united behind their 'talented' government.

Politics? Accountability? A genuine opposition beyond the 20 or so PSM people? Why do we need them, when all they have done is just create chaos and discord and elections every other year? All we need is the Ministry of All the Talents.

[updated from 2018 or so]
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Stan T. Dan
Norþanhymbra rice
'Leaders' of the group in control of Monkwearmouth/Uuiremutha
(previous interpretation)

2014-2014: Bob Crow (Trade Unionist and Socialist Coalition)
2014 (Alliance with other No2EU parties) def. David Cameron (Conservative), Ed Miliband (Labour), Nick Clegg (Liberal Democrat)
2014-2014: Disputed
(Following Crow's death from a heart attack on 11 March 2014)
2014-2015: Collective leadership (Neospartacist --- TUSC)
2014 TUSC membership vote def. George Galloway (Respect), Arthur Scargill (Socialist Labour), Dave Nellist (Socialist), John McDonnell (Labour Representation Committee), Robert Griffiths (Communist Party of Britain), collective leadership (Socialist Resistance), Dave Church (Democratic Labour), Bill Hunter (International Socialist League), collective leadership (Communist Party of Great Britain (Provisional Central Committee)), collective leadership (The United Socialist Party), Steve Freeman (Revolutionary Democratic Group), Harpal Brar (Communist Party of Great Britain (Marxist–Leninist)), 103 others
2015-2015: Ed Miliband (Labour --- National Government)
2015 (National Government with Conservatives and Liberal Democrats) def. collective leadership (Trade Unionist and Socialist Coalition), Theresa May (Conservative), Nick Clegg (Liberal Democrat)
(2015 EU referendum cancelled)

2015-2015: Collective leadership (Neospartacist --- TUSC)
(Beginning of dispute over legitimate government)
2015-2016: Jeremy Corbyn (Labour Representation Committee --- TUSC)
2015 TUSC membership vote def. effectively unopposed, minor opposition candidates
2016-2016: Theresa May (Conservative --- National Government)
2016-2016: Jeremy Corbyn (Labour Representation Committee --- TUSC)
2016-2016: Collective leadership (Restore the Heptarchy!)
2016-2017: Jeremy Corbyn (Labour Representation Committee --- TUSC)
2017-2017: Theresa May (Conservative --- National Government)
2017-2017: Jeremy Corbyn (Labour Representation Committee --- TUSC)
2017-2018: Collective leadership (Restore the Heptarchy!)
2018-2018: Jeremy Corbyn (Labour Representation Committee --- TUSC)
2018-2018: Jon Cruddas (Labour --- National Government)
2018-2019: Jeremy Corbyn (Labour Representation Committee --- TUSC)
2019-2020: Jon Cruddas (Labour --- National Government/'Anti-Russian' TUSC)
('Anti-Russian TUSC' invited into government after Russian landings at Ramsgate)
2020-2020: Jon Cruddas (Labour --- National Government)
(Coup attempt by 'Anti-Russian' TUSC defeated)
2020-2020: 'Edgar Ætheling' (de facto collective leadership) (Gemǽnscipe)
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Hello to our posters from NooOOORTH CAR-O-LIN-A
Sandford, Gloucestershire
My list is the same . The Green-Left/Progressive coalition are still in power with 2 years left. This reflects my desire to vote Green or Left but my willingness to vote Lib Dem in Cheltenham.

Maybe a Snap election in winter 2019 and the Green-Left get a majority, or form a Green-left/Syndicalist coalition.

Possibly a PM who isnt a nationalist, assuming Patrick Harvie still is one in this different more liberal Britain. Maybe Lisa Nandy or Dawn Butler. I'm all for Scottish Indy, I'm just terrified of being left alone with the Tories.

Layla Moran can be Progressive leader. Justine Greening is Moderate leader assuming they're still a thing. Adam Price can be head of a Regionalist Party


Always mysterious!
Published by SLP
Municipal Commune of Bourne
[VC28: ACW] Marching On

Presidents of the United States of America

1857-1861: James Buchanan (Democratic)
1856 (with John C. Breckinridge) def. John C. Fremont (Republican), Millard Fillmore (Know Nothing)
1860: John C. Breckinridge ('Southern' Democratic), Salmon P. Chase ('Moderate' Republican), Sam Houston (Constitutional Union), Stephen A. Douglas ('Northern' Democratic), Cassius Clay ('Radical' Republican)

1861-1861: William Pennington (Republican), as Acting President
1861-1861: Galusha A. Grow (Republican)†, as Acting President
1861-0000: War of the American Succession

no doubt @Japhy will tell me ive done this completely and utterly wrong

Time Enough

"Enthusiastic Cis Male Partner"
Well I got @Tom Colton to look at this a bit so...

‘The Singapore Model’; Prime Ministers of Singapore:
1955-1958: Tan Chye Cheng (Progressive Party)

1955 ('Anti-Communist' Coalition) def: David Saul Marshall (Labour Front), Lee Kuan Yew (People’s Action Party), Syed Ali Redha Alsagoff (United Malays National Organisation), Mohamed Sidik bin Haji Abdul Hamid (Malay Union), Tan Cheng Lock (Malayan Chinese Association)
1958-1966: David Saul Marshall (Labour Front)
1958 (Coalition with People's Action Party) def: Tan Chye Cheng (Singapore Democratic Alliance), Lee Kuan Yew (People's Action Party), Syed Ali Redha Alsagoff (UMNO)
(Majority) def: Lee Kuan Yew (PAP), Lim Yew Hock (Singapore Democratic Alliance), Ong Eng Guan (United People's Party), Syed Ali Redha Alsagoff (UMNO)
1966-1970: Lee Kuan Yew (People's Action Party)
1966 (Majority) def: David Saul Marshall (Labour Front), Lim Yew Hock (Singapore Democratic Alliance), Ong Eng Guan (United People's Party)
1970-1978: Mak Pak Shee (Labour Front)
1970 (Coalition with Democratic Progressive Party) def: Lee Kuan Yew (PAP), James Puthucheary (Democratic Progressive Party), Ong Eng Guan (United People's Party)
(Majority) def: Lee Kuan Yew (PAP), James Puthucheary (Democratic Progressive Party), Ong Eng Guan (United People's Party)
1978-1980: Lee Kuan Yew (People's Action Party)†
1978 (Coalition with UPP) def: Mak Pak Shee (Labour Front), James Puthucheary (Democratic Progressive Party), Ong Eng Guan (United People's Party)
1980-1982: Toh Chin Chye (People's Action Party)
1982-1990: Loh Miaw Gong (Labour Front)
1982 (Majority) def: Toh Chin Chye (PAP), James Puthucheary (Democratic Progressive Party), Yong Nyuk Lin (United People's Party)
1986 (Majority) def: Ong Teng Cheong (PAP),Tang Liang Hong (Democratic Progressive Party), Yong Nyuk Lin (United People's Party)

1990-1994: Tony Tan (People's Action Party)
1990 (Majority) def: Loh Miaw Gong (Labour Front), Lim Boon Heng (Democratic Progressive Party), Ong Eng Guan (United People's Party)
1994-:Leaena Tambyah (Labour Front)
1994 (Coalition with DPP) def: Tony Tan (PAP), Lim Boon Heng (Democratic Progressive Party), Chiam See Tong (United People's Party)
(Majority) def: Tony Tan (PAP), Lim Boon Heng-Yu-Foo Yee Shoon (Democratic Progressive Party), Chiam See Tong (United People's Party)
2002 (Coalition with DPP) def: George Yeo (PAP), Lim Boon Heng-Yu-Foo Yee Shoon (Democratic Progressive Party), Chiam See Tong (United People's Party)

1955: The Progressive Party wins two extra seats against the Labour Front and PAP which is enough, to enter into an awkward ‘Anti-Communist’ Coalition against the Labour Front and PAP. Crackdowns against Communists in 1956 and 1957 eventually lead to protests and riots and Tan Chye Cheng is seen as a useless British puppet as other issues like housing, welfare and poverty aren’t dealt with. The British themselves, seeing the chaos occurring in Singapore and fearing that Tan Chye Cheng’s incompetent rule could lead to a Communist uprising occurring decide to push for a proper general election deciding that even an Anti-Colonialist Social Democratic Government is better than a Communist one.

1958: The Labour Front and PAP win big and David Marshall deciding he’ll have a better hand to play if he allies with the PAP. Whilst this does cause a few members of his party to defect to Tan Chye Cheng’s Singapore Democratic Alliance (in particular Lim Yew Hock) it gives Marshall the ability to present a United Front to the British when it comes to talks about Self Government. It also eases on the crackdowns on students, Trade Unions and some of the more Left Wing members of PAP who are viewed by the British as being susceptible to Communist influence but under the promise of Self Government and more power keep quiet for the time being. Of course the Communists are Communists and within a short amount of time all sorts of terrorist incidents occur across Singapore. Marshall crackdowns, with help from Lee Kuan Yew, combined Singapore/Malayan/Commonwealth forces manage to root out the remains of Communism in Singapore by 1961. Meanwhile attempts to strengthen the trade unions are somewhat successful, under the eye of Lim Chin Siong who increasingly gets on better with David Marshall than Lee Kuan Yew does. By 1962 things are looking good for Marshall as he heads into another election.

1962: Marshall heads into the election more popular than ever...but the PAP is incredibly popular too. But events outside of Marshall would knock the PAP of it's pedestal. In 1958, to avoid dealing with the Malayan Communist Party for the Anti-Colonialist vote, Lee Kuan Yew would make a secret deal with them, of course this temporary alliance of convenience wouldn't last once Lee Kuan Yew was in government but enemies of LKY in the PAP would wait for there time to strike. The Left Wing of the Party tell ardent Right Winger Ong Eng Guan about LKY's deal and upon hearing this, he takes a significant portion of the Right Wing PAP vote with him. Cue 1962 and PAP loses a few seats to the UPP and in some case the SDA allowing the Labour Front to storm through to a majority. In 1962-63 the main problem of sorts for Marshall is housing (still...) and the possible unification with Malaya. Marshall tries to sort out a beneficial deal but this goes poorly and after a few race riots and arguments with (now) Malaysian politicians (who don’t like the idea of a large Chinese population breaking the Malayan balance of power) the dream of a Malaysian Federation crashes and burns. But Marshall is able to gain Singapore self government anyway but still, from 1964 onward no matter how much in the way of social democratic reforms he proposes, the failures of his government catch up with him.

1966: Housing, Malaysia and Reform is Lee Kuan Yew's pitch to the people of Singapore in 66' and it allows him to win a majority. Having smashed the Left Wing faction of his party in a series of aggressive power struggles (Lim Chin Siong is kicked out of the PAP in 1964, he would eventually the join the Labour Front and be the lead member of the Party's Democratic Socialist wing and would hold a number of cabinet positions through out his long and storied career). Lee Kuan Yew pursues a Fabian Socialist vision of Singapore at first, Socialism achieved through gradualism and reform, with an emphasis on Keynesian style economics. This goes...poorly.

Whilst attempts at increasing house building a, series of crackdowns on crime and slum clearings lead by S. Rajaratnam cause tensions, this reach there peak when an attempt to clear out some slums escalates to riots. S. Rajaratnam and Lee Kuan Yew decide to impose martial law and impose authoritarian rule, this hits a brick wall though, in the form of James Puthucheary. The leader of the Left Wing of the PAP James Puthucheary decides this is a step too fair for him and quite a few members of the Left Wing who haven't defected to the Labour Front, and as a result he decides to create a new party called the Democratic Progressive Party which he uses to gut the PAP’s majority, and causes any attempts to impose martial law to deal with rioters to sputter out. Within time things like public housing and rehousing efforts ends up succeeding but at the cost of a lot of political capital from Lee Kuan Yew with the remaining years of his government being bolstered by the UPP.

1970: Mak Pak Shee, a mover and shaker in the Labour Front from the beginning (at one point being the leader of the original Labour Party that the Labour Front would be created from) and former Minister for Housing and Development leads his party to victory of sorts in the 1970 election. His main competitor is less the PAP (who whilst a major force have lost a lot of credibility) but the new Democratic Progressive Party instead. In the end a deal is struck and a coalition is formed after Labour Front & DPP candidates stand down in certain places to avoid splitting votes. And so Singapore gained both a Prime Minister and Deputy Prime of Indian descent who were Left Wingers as well (Ong Eng Guan had a normal one upon the announcement of this).

The main aim of this ministry would be expanding the Singapore economy. Deals with countries like Japan, Australia, Hong Kong and New Zealand for goods and services would occur and business were given discount rates to open factories and shops in Singapore. Singapore would even join the IMF. This of course would anger Malaysia to no end and the Shee years would be a low point for Singapore/Malaysian relationship. Additional elements like establishing a robust Welfare state occurred to, including the creation of the Singapore Health Corporation (replacing the awkward insurance system established by Marshall). In 1974 when Mak called an election Singapore was in a boom time and they rewarded the Labour Front with a majority. And with this majority, Mak would do...not a lot.

It turned out rather quickly that whilst Mak had been the face of Singapore’s expansion of its economy and welfare, James Puthucheary the Deputy had been the brains behind this and without him around the wheels rapidly begun to fall off.

The Trade Unions, which the Labour Front has fostered strong connections to had become frustrated about being left of to the side of Mak’s Trade policies and plans. A major problem was a minimum wage policy which unions believed would reduce there bargaining power. Attempts to implement it during Mak’s second term lead to frustrated talks and arguments with the Unions leading to Lim Chin Siong resigning in protest over the Unions treatment.

Whilst the policy would go through, the Unions kept a grudge and waited for there time to strike. Meanwhile without the guiding lights of James Puthucheary and Lim Chin Siong to keep the cabinet in check, corruption and malaise started to occur. Not helping things was Mak’s own lackadaisical attitude to being Prime Minister, often skipping meetings and often leaving jobs to subordinates to do the work. This would reach a crescendo in the mist of the Crisis of 1978.

In 1978 an explosion at a Malaysian oil rig lead to a sharp dip in oil from Malaysia. Singapore despite having a frosty relationship with Malaysia they still relied a lot on Malaysian oil and the sharp crash lead to a recession occurring. Singapore has to awkwardly turn to the IMF for help. The IMF would give a loan in return for the implementation of welfare cuts and austerity measures. As similar events occurred elsewhere from Britain and beyond, cuts would be implemented and trade unions would go on the offensive. A general strike would be organised and Singapore would stand still for a week. Mak found his position untenable and calls for an election would grow louder with every day. The final straw would be Lim Chin Siong threatening to join the DPP with about 20 MPs if Mak didn’t dissolve Parliament. Mak gave in, and an election was called, the Unions stepping down until they found out the winner.

1978: Lee Kuan Yew’s Grand return was a bitter one. Whilst the 1978 election caused the Labour Front to reach it’s lowest amount of seats since 1955 (Mak Pak Shee would lose his seat to DPP candidate Yu-Foo Yee Shoon in a particular upset) it wasn’t a PAP majority. The big winners were the UPP and DPP who were seen as untainted by previous regimes by voters and so LKY was forced to enter into a coalition with the UPP. LKY's first port of call was smashing the power of the Trade Unions, having seen there power in action thanks to the General Strike. A series of high profile arrests of Trade Union officials for corruption and other (often trumped up claims) angered the opposition but was popular with the population due to LKY spinning it as a Anti-Corruption campaign, the same would happen to a few prominent opposition politicians including former Prime Minister Mak Pak Shee. LKY would also begin efforts to liberalise Singapore's economy/implement monetarist ideas, engage in trade deals with Communist nations like PRC and Vietnam alongside increasing cooperation between Singapore and Malaysia. He would also implement the cuts asked for by the IMF, though he would still be dogged by Opposition by politicians like Lim Chin Siong and the new leader of Labour Front Loh Miaw Gong, with Lee Kuan Yew's diary's indicating possible plans to arrest them and destroy Singapore's democracy.

This wouldn't come to pass because in 1980, whilst on a diplomatic trip to the Philippines Lee Kuan Yew would be killed by Filipino Communists who were trying to kill Ferdinand Marcos, Singapore was thrown into chaos as Deputy Prime Minister S. Rajaratnam would be instantly sidelined by the PAP Party preferred Toh Chin Chye (due to Rajaratnam being considered too much of a loose cannon who would try and implement Authoritarian rule). Toh Chin Chye's rule would mainly be dealing with a sharp rise in unemployment and a ballooning economy. It would be no surprise that Toh Chin Chye's government would lose the 1982 as the cards increasingly stacked against him.

1982: Loh Miaw Gong was a member of the Labour Front's Democratic Socialist Left Wing who had been a constant presence since the establishment by David Saul Marshall and had only grown over the years. The leadership of Mak Pak Shee was seen as final straw for the Labour Front's Right Wing as it collapsed against Loh Miaw Gong and the Left Wing in the 1980 Leadership election. Loh Miaw Gong would cut a swath, bringing about a reforming zeal to the party, it's relationship with the Trade Unions would be strengthened and push for Democratic Socialist and Social Liberal reform (something left out by the Marshall and Shee Governments). Campaigning on a manifesto of reducing unemployment, strengthening the Welfare State and Social Liberal reform, Gong would be seen as a fresh untainted face who would bring about change to Singapore. Main things first was to find a way to keep the strong welfare state, trade unions and various other social democratic reforms the Labour Front had implemented whilst also taking part in this new world economy.

To that she turned to Dr Albert Winsemius, who had been Singapore's main economic adviser during the 1960s but left after falling out of favour with Lee Kuan Yew's Government in the late 60s in the aftermath of the public housing debacle. Dr Winsemius would implement a so called '6 Year Plan' to modernise Singapore's economy without destroying it's Social Democratic foundation. Through this plan, Singapore's economy would begin to modernise, industry based around electronics would flourish with Singapore working closely with Phillips electronics, constructions of additional air ports would be done to make Singapore a centre of travel and attempts to make Singapore a finical centre occurred as well. Additionally funding grants and schemes were created to support Singapore's art and cultures sectors, in particular underground comic and Singapore Punk music would gain support and Singapore would be considered a liberal culture hub for many in Asia (and a popular spot for Hong Kong and Japanese filmmakers due to tax rebates). In addition Liberal reforms would be implemented ranging from Anti-Gender discrimination acts to incredibly controversially legalising homosexuality for those over the age of 21 which would lead to a few protests (Singapore to this day hasn't changed much of there LGBT+ laws due to this).

Loh Miaw Gong's Goverment would also have a strong social justice streak which annoyed a number of it's neighbours, ranging from sheltering and supporting democratic activists from Taiwain and South Korea as both nations undergoing Democratisation to condemning China over it's human rights abuses. China's relationship with Singapore soured massively after that, especially after the Tienanmen Square massacre when Gong announced that Singapore was recognising Taiwan due to it's efforts to democratise over China. Angered China switched off any trade taps to Singapore, which would have consequences for the next government. But for now Gong was doing well, but whilst her Government was popular, apathy had grown. People were becoming wealthier and the idea of voting Labour Front yet again didn't seem as inspiring as it was in 1982. The PAP had reorganised and was pitching itself as the part of aspiration compared to the Labour Front which was the party of a decent living. It was unsurprising when they won a majority.

1990: After 8 years of being out in the cold, the PAP were back in Government. The plan was to modernise and liberalise the economy even more than before, to make Singapore the finical heart of Asia. And they would do that...with the least charismatic Prime Minister possible. Tony Tan didn't inspire fear like Lee Kuan Yew or hope like Loh Miaw Gong, instead he inspired mute indifference. The PAP had spent much of the election campaign avoiding show his face, instead using a slick media campaign which abused the rise of Singapore Media during the 80s. Tony Tan’s rule was all in all, pretty dull. The PAP combined a NeoLiberal policy with policies aimed at supporting the Middle Class in a prototype of the Third Way polices pioneered by the eventual Clinton and Brown Governments. Whilst this managed to win over the middle class and opened up the opportunity to expand there businesses and aims, whilst the poor were often targeted by policies that undermined there quality of living. But at first it seemed to be going well particularly with Japan’s increased investment in Singapore as the 90s dawned. This would come crashing down when the Bubble crash in Japan eventually hit Singapore in 1993. Attempts at austerity failed and the Tan’s lack of charisma was effecting the PAP’s chance of winning the next election. This would turn out to be true in 1994.

1994: Leaena Tambyah becoming Prime Minister was a close run thing. A former Social Worker, Leaena had become an MP in 1982 and had risen up the ranks fairly quickly due to her popularity within the Social Care and Health Care community. Eventually ending as Minister for Health in 1987, her three years in the role were about reforming the Health Care system to reduce the cost of health insurance for those not part of the SHC, increase awareness of and help children with disabilities and mental health problems and to increase the standards of health care in the SHC to reduce the creation of a two tier system in Singapore Health Care. Popular, charismatic and dubbed the ‘The Mother of Singapore’s Unfortunates’ by the media it was no surprise when she won the 1992 Labour Front Leadership Election.

In 1994, Leaena would win enough seats to enter into a coalition with the DPP. The main aims of the coalition was continuing the support for the welfare system, reform the Singapore health system towards a Health Service run by the Government and strengthening Trade Union powers (which had been reduced slightly under the Tan premiership). The coalition would work well, with the DPP also promoting the idea of increased funding in Singapore’s culture industries as a way to prepare beyond a manufacturing/economic future. This would lead to the 1997 Singapore Dot Com boom as the Singapore’s nascent Internet companies expanded dramatically due to increased funding. Continued support for Singapore’s culture would lead to an eventual so called S-Wave across Asia during the Mid 00s.

Leaena would win the 1998 decisively and continue the policies she introduced. The Singapore Dot Com boom would peter out by the early 00s but Singapore’s funding towards the Internet and digital technologies would allow it to become a tech centre of Asia (competing with South Korea and Japan). The Leaena Government would also form in 1999 the Pan-Asian Economic Alliance with Taiwan, Malaysia and Brunei as the leading members as a reaction to the Japanese Bubble Crash and the Asian Economic Recession of 1997 (strategic economic planning from the Leaena would allow them to avoid this blip), the PAEA would come to dominate Asian and Oceania Trade and economy as the 00s wore on. It also symbolised Malaysia and Singapore finally having move past the woes of the past 35 years or so. Still this didn’t save the Labour Front from being forced into a coalition with the DPP again who are pursuing policies of ‘Democratic Socialism for the 21st Century’ which aims at modernising Singapore Socialism. The success of this is yet to be seen. But still nearly 50 years since David Marshall won the 1958 election, another election is on the horizon. The Labour Front and DPP coalition will be experiencing competition from a renewed PAP, having languished during the Tan/Yeo years, having finally found a new leader in the form of another Lee...Lee Hsien Loong, who will bring the ideas of the Third Way and spin to Singapore Democracy...for better or worst.


Always mysterious!
Published by SLP
Municipal Commune of Bourne
Just because I want to leap on the bandwagon

1997-2004: Tony Blair (Labour)
1997 (Coalition with LibDems) def. John Major (Conservative), Paddy Ashdown (Liberal Democrat), David Trimble (Ulster Unionist), Alex Salmond (Scottish National)
2001 (Coalition with LibDems) def. William Hague (Conservative), Paddy Ashdown (Liberal Democrat), David Trimble (Ulster Unionist), Ian Paisley (Democratic Unionist), John Swinney (Scottish National)

2004-2005: Robin Cook (Labour leading Anti-War Ministry of All The Talents)
2005-2006: Charles Kennedy (Liberal Democrat leading Anti-War Ministry of All The Talents)
2006-2008: Ken Clarke (Conservative)
2006 (Minority, with LibDem and DUP c&s) def. Peter Hain (Labour), Menzies Campbell (Liberal Democrat), Ian Paisley (Democratic Unionist), Gerry Adams (Sinn Fein)
2008-2008: Alistair Darling (Labour leading Economic Emergency Ministry of All The Talents)
2008-2009: Parliament Suspended, Direct Rule by The Crown
2009-2011: Nick Clegg (Liberal Democrat)
2009 (PEOPLE Coalition with Popular Labour and Greens) def. David Campbell Bannerman (Cavalier Movement), David Miliband (Conventional Labour), Tim Yeo (Independent Tories), Gerry Adams (Sinn Fein)
2011-2012: Hilary Benn (Labour leading War Government)
2012-2015: Ed Miliband (Labour)
2013 (Minority) def. Liam Fox (Cavalier Movement), Nick Clegg (Liberal Democrat), Nick Boles (National Liberal), Gerry Adams (Sinn Fein), Caroline Lucas (Green)
2015-2016: Jeremy Corbyn (Labour minority)
2016-2017: Hilary Benn (Labour leading War Government)
2017-2019: Jeremy Corbyn (Labour)
2017 (Majority) def. Nick Boles (National Liberal), Magid Magid (Green), Jo Swinson (Liberal Democrat), contested (Cavalier Movement), Gerry Adams (Sinn Fein)
2019-2020: Rebecca Long-Bailey (Labour majority)
2020-0000: collective government by the Cooperative Commonwealth Constitutional Commission
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