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Lists of Heads of Government and Heads of State


Well-known member
Rulers of England

1509-1524: Henry VIII (Tudor)
1523-1524: Catherine of Aragon rules as Queen Regent
1524-1536: Mary I (Tudor)
1524-1536: Catherine of Aragon rules as Queen Regent
1536-1558: Mary I (Tudor) and Charles V and I (Habsburg)
1536-1558: As Co-Monarchs, Charles as Holy Roman Emperor, King of Spain, etc.
1558-1558: Mary I (Tudor) and Philip II and I (Habsburg)
1536-1558: As Co-Monarchs, Philip as Holy Roman Emperor, King of Spain, etc.
1558-1581: Philip II and I (Habsburg)
Also Holy Roman Emperor, King of Spain, etc.
1581-1500: Philip II, I, and I (Habsburg)
Also Holy Roman Emperor, King of Spain, King of Portugal etc.
1585 Adopts style 'Rex Mundi' on the centenary of the coronation of Henry VII (Tudor)

Henry is seriously wounded in battle in France in 1523 and is incapacitated for the final year of his life, allowing 13 years of Catherine of Aragon's beneficient rule as Queen Regent of England, drawing the country closer to her family in Spain and the Empire. Her daughter Mary marries Charles V in 1536, and by Act of Parliament the two rule as Co-Monarchs until August 1558 when Charles dies: Mary is then Co-Monarch with her son until her own death in November. The reign of Charles and Mary sees a dramatic European war over the dual issues of the reformation and the Habsburg unification of Spain, Germany, much of Italy, and England, but France's collapse into religious civil war ensure that the Habsburgs win out. Religious civil war continues in England until the early 1550s. When Philip I of England accedes to the throne in 1558, however, he has more or less united Catholic Europe, whilst a precarious France is unable to resist his overwhelming power. After crushing the revolt of the Spanish Netherlands and inheriting the crown of Portugal in 1581, in 1585 in celebration of his Great Grandfather's coronation as King of England Philip adopts the style 'Rex Mundi' and proclaims the unity of Christendom and the beginning of a new crusade against the Ottomans...


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1797-1797: William Pitt the Younger (Tory)

In the wake of the Great Irish Rebellion of 1796, where a French army led by General Lazare Hoche landed on at Bantry Bay to assist allied groups and the revolutionary Society of United Irishmen declared the First Irish Republic and took control of even Dublin itself, Pitt sought to unite the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland to bring the fight against the revolutionaries under firmer British control, while also granting Catholics emancipation to ensure that in the future Ireland would be loyal to the British Crown. However, King George III refused Catholic emancipation and, after the Acts of Union 1797 were signed by both the Irish Parliament (having fled to loyalist Armagh) and the British Parliament, birthing the United Kingdom, Pitt resigned from office.

1797-1811: Henry Addington (Addingtonian Tory)

Serving as the Speaker of the House of Commons, Addington was a natural choice for the next prime minister. His tenure was initially faced with a partial split when Pitt refused his offer to serve within the cabinet and instead served as the leader of a semi-detached Pittite faction. He also importantly faced a massive issue in the form of the continued Great Irish Rebellion, where after an initial string of defeats after public anger against the Acts of Union led to the Society of United Irishmen successfully establishing themselves as the only alternative giving Ireland any form of autonomy, the British Army was able to defeat the United Irishmen by drawing them alone. General Hoche, who successfully crushed the Vendean Rebellion and as such knew many tactics the British Army intended to use, attempted to turn the United Irishmen into a force of petty warfare, but this was only partially successful. In open battle, Britain held a great advantage in any case. Ultimately, even Hoche was defeated and killed in battle in 1799 while United Irishmen leaders like Wolfe Tone and Edward Fitzgerald were executed. The society was reduced to being insurgents. In this regard, they irritated British attempts to regain total control of Ireland until the great surrenders of 1804 finally finished them off. Yet, France wasn't done with supporting would-be revolutionaries in the British isles and in 1799 a fleet of the client Batavian Republic landed in the Scottish city of Dundee to support the Society of United Scotsmen and the Scottish Republic, with Thomas Muir as its president, was proclaimed. Yet, this attempt proved far less successful and militias successfully forced the invaders to retreat. In the wake of these rebellions, a great number of highly punitive trials took place, some of which even targeted people entirely unassociated with the rebellions. This received criticism from Charles James Fox and his Whigs, but nevertheless the government did little to rectify this. Addington's immediate reaction was an aggressive one, attempting an invasion of the Batavian Republic which failed to win popular support and so failed. He also ordered the invasion of numerous French colonies such as the Mascarene Islands. Later, he ordered invasions of Spanish America. Though an invasion of Venezuela failed, an invasion of Buenos Aires succeeded after a promise of independence. Many locals, however, were disappointed after they learned that "independence" came in the form of a kingdom with George III as its king (and an act of succession identical to that of Britain).

Abroad, France saw a major regime change in 1799 when the Directory was overthrown by General Joubert. The new regime was an oligarchical regime with Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyes as its Grand Elector (head of state). While being more conservative than the Directory, Sieyes was just as intent on establishing sister states. He also, however, was intent on establishing a peace. In 1804, he issued a peace with the Holy Roman Empire (and also massively reorganized it), and finally, in 1805, he successfully made peace with Britain. In this peace, Britain returned the French colonies to France the Dutch colonies to the Batavian Republic while also seeing its control of Trinidad, Buenos Aires, and other parts of the Spanish Empire recognized by France. Finally, peace was established with France.

With the war complete, radicalism in Britain saw a revival in the form of the Hampden Clubs spearheaded by Major Cartwright from 1807 onwards, though these were quickly shut down by the government. Addington's position was strengthened after the death of Pitt in the same year, and the union of the Pittites into full government. Radicalism rose more substantially after, in 1809, the Duke of York and commander-in-chief Frederick was accused of bribery. Many compared this corruption to the Bourbons of old France, and radical Francis Burdett's name became famous across Britain for his attacks on it. In 1810, Burdett faced a brief imprisonment for libel, and this made him a living martyr in the eyes of many. All the same, the corruption scandal was ignored by the ruling elite, many of whom called criticism of someone in line to the throne as being potentially subversive.

Addington's tenure came to an end in 1811, when George III's madness led to George IV being proclaimed Prince Regent of Britain. Not a fan of Addington, he swiftly dismissed him. However, Addington remained in government as Lord President of the Privy Council and later Home Secretary.

1811-1824: Charles Philip Yorke (Tory)

Placed in power, Yorke continued most of Addington's repressive policies towards radicals. His early tenure was faced with the rising threat of Spencean extreme radicalism with policies like the abolition of private property, particularly in 1814 when the Spa Field Riots occurred with Spencean radicals flying tricolours and wearing cockades. This even terrified many radicals. In 1816, disaster struck when Spencean leader Thistlewood killed some members of the British cabinet. He was swiftly executed, and Parliament issued draconian laws soon afterwards. As a direct result of this, radicalism fell into a lull, at least until 1819 when radical William Cobbett, having fled to the US to escape the draconian laws, returned with famed republican Thomas Paine's bones dug from his grave. Though Cobbett made it clear that he did not agree with everything Paine believed in, he nevertheless called him a hero who fought for reform. Despite this being much lampooned in British newspapers, it nevertheless revitalized the radical movement. Outside Paine's old hometown of Lewes, on property purchased by Cobbett, Paine was given a grand reburial with thousands of people witnessing the event. The year of 1820, as such, saw the formation of radical organizations across Britain, and Yorke was intent to shut them down. Disaster struck when, in 1823, a peaceful gathering of the Liverpool Reform Union was fired upon by the British army. This massacre received great amounts of criticism in Radical and even Whig circles, who called it the death of British liberties.

In foreign policy, Yorke was faced with the Buenos Aires Rebellion of 1812, where republican Castelli proclaimed a republic. While this was crushed, it nevertheless demonstrated to many locals that British rule was just as bad as Spanish rule. He was also irritated by the formation of a French colony, Nouvelle-Hollande, in western Australia. Ultimately, in 1824, the death of the French-aligned Elector of Bavaria resulted in his anti-French son to take power, and this quickly resulted in war. Also in 1824, after a great campaign of protest, Grand Elector Sieyes was removed from his office by the Conservative Senate, and members of his opposition took control of France. These two events brought France and its sister states to war with the rest of Europe once more.

However, Yorke would not serve as PM during this war, as also in 1824, King George IV died and his brother Frederick became king in a coronation ceremony criticized for its opulence. That he had also not quite shaken off allegations of corruption didn't help things. King Frederick felt no confidence that Yorke would be a good wartime leader and dismissed him.

1824-1829: Lord Londonderry (Tory)

Having long served under many previous governments (albeit as Lord Castlereagh), Lord Londonderry was appointed as PM by King Frederick. Dominated by war with France and its sister states, the British cause soon suffered a disaster when France brought Prussia in as an ally, and the two invaded Hanover and split it between them (for France as a sister republic, and for Prussia directly annexed). However, Prussia proved far weaker than anyone anticipated and in 1826 it faced a string of defeats at the hands of Austria. In 1827, it was forced to sign a highly punitive peace with Austria which ended up with it ceding most of its territorial exclaves. Londonderry also again ordered an invasion French and Batavian colonies, and also of Venezuela in the name of the ideals of Miranda. This proved successful, with the French and Batavian navies being no match for Britain's, and Spain's king Ferdinand having alienated many criollos. Furthermore, France supported another rebellion in Ireland, but this was much smaller than the Great Rebellion and was rapidly crushed.

Yet, these victories did little to solve the problem of radicalism and dissent at home. The Liverpool massacre remained on the minds of many radicals, and they also criticized the idea of fighting a war they believed was illegitimate. In this, they were joined by the Whigs led by Earl Grey, and particularly the more radical Mountain faction led by Samuel Whitbread. Londonderry's reaction was to enact more draconian laws and break up political meetings with some violence. The idea of merging the reform unions together became more and more legitimate in the eyes of radicals, and finally Francis Place created the National Reform Union. Furthermore, with violent suppression of radicals growing more widespread, many reform unions armed themselves, including the National Reform Union and its National Guard. Riots occurred in Bristol, Manchester, Liverpool, and other cities, in some cases taking control of them. They were joined by members of the reform unions. Finally, in 1829, after numerous radical speeches in London, public opinion boiled over in the capital and riots occurred. As they grew larger, it became more and more apparent that the National Reform Union supported this, and indeed rioters moved dangerously close to Buckingham Palace and Westminster. Finally, King Frederick decided to flee to Hanover along with Lord Londonderry and many other members of Parliament, with them establishing a claimant government of Britain there.

With little clarity on what the new post-revolutionary constitution of Britain would be, both Whigs and Radicals agreed that it was time to hold a Convention.


1829-1829: Earl Grey (Whig)

The subsequent election, held under much the same districts as pre-revolutionary Britain but with some reorganization, ended up with Whigs and Radicals holding a large majority. Earl Grey, the longstanding parliamentary leader of the Whigs, was elected as its presiding figure. He sought to establish a slightly reformed House of Commons with the Duke of Cambridge as king, but did not desire to give in to too many Radical demands - he simply sought to compromise to end support of them. This resulted in much opposition, as the Duke of Cambridge had served in the military. To many radicals, a member of the military being head of state of Britain would irreversibly result in a military despotism as with what they perceived as having been established by King Frederick. In particular, the Philosophic Radicals led by Jeremy Bentham were convinced that monarchy itself was an institution which ought to not exist, and instead Bentham's long republican Constitutional Code was held up by them as a good Constitution. Grey achieved little headway in establishing a good compromise.

Grey also sought to negotiate with Ireland and its Reform Association's uncompromising status in favour of a restored Irish Parliament with legislative independence. Here, he proved successful, and engineered a compromise whereby Ireland would have full legislative independence - however, it would share Britain's executive and appeal to Britain's final court would remain.

All the same Grey proved frustrated with Radicals, and decided to resign from the Presidency. He sat as a backbencher for the remainder of the Convention, and retired from politics upon its dissolution.

1829-1830: Samuel Whitbread (Mountain Whig)

Serving as the longstanding leader of the more radical Mountain faction of the Whigs, Whitbread was a natural choice to establish a union between Radicals and Whigs. After member upon member of the royal family was proposed for Britain's new king and rejected by the Convention, Whitbread chose to instead establish an official elected for life by Parliament as Britain's head of state. He believed that the monarchy could be restored later, after the calming of revolutionary tensions when it would be less divisive, and that such a restoration could be engineered simply by electing the would-be monarch as head of state. That this would also give great amounts of power to Parliament was something Whitbread noticed and, true to his Whiggery, viewed this as a positive. Whitbread proposed and got elected Lord Folkestone, a close friend, as Britain's first "Chief Magistrate", believing that he would serve as a good benchwarmer until the time came to elect a king. Britain's parliament would now consist of two houses, one elected by all property owners yearly and the other elected for life by those who held more than 300 pounds worth of property - this in Whitbread's eyes would preserve the function of the House of Lords in a more durable form. It also took elements from Bentham's Constitutional Code including the Greatest Happiness Principle as the function of government, thus partially satisfying the Philosophic Radicals. Finally, this constitution was passed by the Convention, becoming Britain's highest law.


1830-1831: Joseph Parkes (Radical)

The subsequent election brought the Radicals into power with a large landslide, and in power it elected a cabinet headed by the Unitarian Joseph Parkes. It was quick to engage in numerous radical reforms, nationalizing lands attached to vacant Anglican sees and auctioning it off. It also established an system of national education on the monitorial system, decimalizing currency, and also ordered the formation of a multitude of colonial charters which established responsible government for the white colonies. He had India nationalized and established a partially-elective Legislative Council for it, while also granting Buenos Aires as a fully independent republic. When Goa had a revolution, he ordered the British navy to support it. It was primarily the nationalization of Anglican lands which was controversial, and in the subsequent election, to cries of "No Popery", the Radicals were ousted from power.

1831-1832: John Lambton (Whig)

A staunch monarchist and close to and effectively the surrogate son of Earl Grey, Lambton inherited his more conservative tendencies and sought to elect the Duke of Cambridge as Britain's Chief Magistrate. When this received a massive furor from Radicals, combined with Lambton's hotheaded tendencies even alienating members of his cabinet, it resulted in the implosion of his government. He did, however, successfully establish triennial election in Britain, on the belief that annual elections caused unpredictability - that this was his government's only achievement was a disappointment.

1832-1837: Samuel Whitbread (Mountain Whig-Radical coalition/"Radical Party")

Bringing his radical faction of the Whigs to align with the Radicals, Whitbread sought to create a less divisive government than that of Lambton. His government came to be known simply as the Radicals, as Whitbread was already viewed by many as a radical Whig. He ignored the monarchy issue for all of his government, instead putting stability above all else. In office, he had Henry Brougham elected by the House of Deputies as the Legislation Minister, putting him in charge of creating a British Penal Code. In practice, Brougham simply codified Scottish criminal law and adjusted to include the jury system. By 1836, it was complete and passed by Parliament with large numbers, thus reforming British penal law. Most controversially, however, his government passed the Indigence Relief Code, more commonly known as the New Poor Law. This cut poor relief substantially, angering many, and ended all poor relief that was not within a workhouse. It was this Code which caused his government's defeat in 1837 to Francis Burdett and his anti-government Radicals. Soon afterwards, Whitbread died.

1837-1839: John C. Hobhouse ("Reform" coalition)

Offered the Prime Ministership, Burdett refused, and instead his good friend Hobhouse accepted it. Wishing to eliminate the division of faction, Hobhouse offered cabinet seats to many reformers even outside his party, in an effort to create unity among reformers. Most of them accepted. Brougham continued as Legislation Minister, where he and others created a Procedure Code, which was based on Scottish prodecure, and in 1838 it was passed into law. The reform coalition, however, came to an end when a private bill to amend the New Poor Law divided government to weaken its harsh provisions, and though it passed this caused the departure of the former supporters of Samuel Whitbread.

1839-1843: John C. Hobhouse (Country Radical - Russellite Whig coalition/"Country Party")

The reduced government had a very aristocratic and patrician ethos and viewed itself as paternalistic. All the same, it did not desire to reopen the sticky issue of restoration of the monarchy until stability could be achieved. In the following year, there was an election, and the "Country Party", so named for its repeated assertions that it stood for the "country" rather than Westminster, won a majority, if a narrow one. The chaos of party and partisanship continued unabated. In power, Hobhouse sought to make government cheap and efficient, and also sought to localize functions of government to the vestries. He passed a second amendment to the New Poor Law to localize it. However, corruption scandals popped up from within his cabinet, although to many of his party's patrician leadership such "corruption" was their prerogative. All the same, his government was defeated come 1843, with the Radicals insistent that they would not restore the unamended New Poor Law.


Always mysterious!
Published by SLP
Municipal Commune of Bourne
Opened this thread at the beginning by mistake and could not help thinking that we need more lists with Ed Miliband
challenge accepted

Chaos, With.

2016-2019: Theresa May (Conservative)
2017 (Minority, with DUP confidence and supply) def. Jeremy Corbyn (Labour), Nicola Sturgeon (Scottish National), Tim Farron (Liberal Democrat), Arlene Foster (Democratic Unionist), Gerry Adams (Sinn Fein)
2019-2020: Boris Johnson (Conservative)
2019 (Minority, with LibDem confidence and supply) def. Jeremy Corbyn (Labour), Nicola Sturgeon (Scottish National), Jo Swinson (Liberal Democrat), Mary Lou McDonald (Sinn Fein), Arlene Foster (Democratic Unionist), Naomi Long (Alliance)
2020-2025: Ed Miliband (Labour)
2020 (Majority) def. Nigel Farage, 1st Baron Farage (Conservative), David Cameron / Nick Clegg (Independent Group For Britain) [disputed], Nicola Sturgeon (Scottish National), Naomi Long (Alliance), Mary Lou McDonald (Sinn Fein), Natalie Bennett (Remain, Renew, Rejuvenate)

The timeline in my head is that 2019 is kinda a repeat of 2017, with the Tories emerging the largest party but Labour picking up another handful of seats. The Lib Dems decide to help Johnson's deal over the line and successfully burn their bridges with their remaining loyalists. Corbyn stands down, and Ed Miliband emerges from a wide pack of Neo-Blairites and Continuity Corbynistas to lead Labour. With the Lib Dems imploding in the polls, the economy going into freefall, and what remains of the Tory left seceding over the formal absorption of Nigel Farage's stillborn Reform Party, the government collapses and an election is called in the summer of 2020.

The Tories get Farage in as leader in a coronation, while Cameron and Clegg return from exile to try and scrape together the Lib Dems and One Nation Tories into a sort of continuity Coalition mostly predicated on opining on how great 2012 was. The hardline Remainers on the centre-left coalesce behind Natalie Bennett's campaign - which sees the Greens drop a lot of their remaining ecologist rhetoric amidst the hottest summer on record.

In the blazing heat, and England soaring to victory in the Euros, Ed Miliband achieves victory over a bloodily divided opposition, with a manifesto if anything even more radical than even 2017 or 2019.
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Hello Tony, I am 1952
Published by SLP
Spinning The Dreidel

1948-1949: David Ben-Gurion (Mapai)
1949: Meir Ya'ari (Mapam)
1949-1958: Moshe Sharett (Mapai)
1953: Israel Rokach (General Zionists)
1957: Menachem Begin (Herut)

1958-1961: Levi Eshkol (Mapai)
1961-1961: Golda Meir (Mapai)
1961-1969: Menachem Begin (Herut)

1961: Golda Meir (Mapai)
1965: Yigal Allon (Labour)

1969-1974: Yigal Allon (Labour)
1969: Menachem Begin (Herut)
1972: Menachem Begin (Gahal)

1974-1979: Shimon Peres (Labour)
1975: Yitzhak Shamir (Gahal)
1979-1980: Yitzhak Shamir (Gahal)
1979: Shimon Peres (Labour)
1980-1983: Ariel Sharon (Gahal)
1983-1990: Yitzhak Rabin (Labour)

1983: Ariel Sharon (Gahal)
1986: Ariel Sharon (Gahal)

1990-1999: Ehud Olmert (Gahal)
1990: Yitzhak Rabin (Labour)
1993: Amram Mitzna (Labour)
1996: Ehud Barak (Labour)

1999-2000: Benjamin Netanyahu (Gahal)
2000-2008: Ehud Barak (Labour)

2000: Benjamin Netanyahu (Gahal)
2004: Benny Gantz (Gahal)

2008-2016: Benny Gantz (Gahal)
2008: Ehud Barak (Labour)
2012: Amir Peretz (Labour)

2016-: Ehud Barak (Labour)
2016: Benny Gantz (Gahal)

Charles EP M.

Well-known member
Published by SLP
Opened this thread at the beginning by mistake and could not help thinking that we need more lists with Ed Miliband
Only Chaos

2010-2015: David Cameron (Conservative) in coalition with Nick Clegg (Liberal Democrat)

2015-16: Ed Miliband (Labour) in supply-and-confidence deal with Alex Salmond (SNP)

Labour reached minority government promising it would not enter a coalition with the SNP - but with the Liberal Democrats near dead, they had no choice but a supply-and-confidence deal which isn't the same thing honest. Miliband grants Scotland all the extra devolutionary powers that, he notes, the government agreed Scotland should get if it stayed in the union but hasn't got around to, and hopes this keeps the SNP quiet about Trident. If the SNP win the next Scottish election, he promises, there will be a second referendum.

Things turn out difficult as while there's enough votes to get through the reversal of austerity policies, the freezing of energy bills and the like, the SNP do want to argue about Trident. He also agrees to withdraw British support for Saudi Arabia in Yemen, getting him accused by the Sun and Tory leader Boris Johnson as allowing terror to run rampant, but agrees to a 'free vote' on attacking ISIS in Syria, seeing him attacked by the left. Still, the government's holding together...

...except Salmond and the First Minister Nicola Sturgeon are starting to fall out because both have the ear of the Prime Minister, and Salmond still thinks he runs the whole party. The SNP were already disquiet over how Salmond shoved Angus Robertson out of the way to become the Commons leader, and Sturgeon's wishing she hadn't agreed to it. There's also a problem for the SNP as now it unquestioned dominance in both Scotland and the whole of the UK, people are starting to ask questions about its record. Tempers fray.

Then the allegations about Salmond's sexual misconduct come out. And it includes attempted rape. And now the SNP's in civil war about dumping him or not, and DID STURGEON ARRANGE THIS (no), and Labour's being tarred with it. Miliband can't wait until the next Holyrood election and Johnson is dominating him in the polls. So, in Feb:

2016: Ed Miliband (Labour) in supply-and-confidence deal with Tim Farron (Liberal Democrat) and Margaret Ritchie (SDLP)

Now Labour's a handful of seats below majority, reliant on rebels from the SNP or Tories to go their way and utter lockstep in Labour to get anything else done. And anything else has to go through two other parties. Some social liberal reforms can go through, it's assumed, but it turns out trans rights provoke a few hardcore dissidents within Labour and now that's a big national issue, while Boris Johnson bellows at this silly thing Labour's wasting time on. The other big social issue was forcing same-sex marriage on Northern Ireland, which creates a huge and virulent issue there but is popular enough in Westminster and in their parties to mitigate part of the trans rights war.

Then the DUP try to call no confidence in the government. Johnson goes with it - this is his chance. And in the feuding SNP, a number of MPs are angry at being shafted. The pound's value drops as the world expects Miliband to fall.

2016-7: Ed Miliband (Labour) in supply-and-confidence deal with Tim Farron (Liberal Democrat) and Margaret Ritchie (SDLP)

He very narrowly wins as the SNP support is smaller than Johnson needed and Plaid Cymru is quietly bought off with promises of greater Welsh devolution. Miliband triumphantly declares: "Crisis, what crisis?"

Now there's 5th of May and all its many elections to go...

A Lab-Lib coalition has majority in Wales; the SDLP has increased its seats in Stormont and the DUP lost seats to the UUP for failing in Westminster; Labour wins various Mayoral elections... but Labour's council seats are down while the Lib Dems are up...

...and Labour very narrowly lost the Ogmore by-election to UKIP's candidate. So now they're down a seat while UKIP has doubled theirs and boosted their AM seats. Now both Farage and Johnson are riding high.

And in Holyrood, the SNP have lost their majority while Ruth Davidson's Tories have surged to 23. A Lab-Lib-Green coalition of pure chaos is narrowly in charge.

Miliband faces a leadership challenge from Caroline Flint and beats her, but only at 57% majority. Johnson and Farage are discussing a teamup as long as Johnson agrees to an EU membership referendum, which means Tory-UKIP alliances that put the Welsh Assembly under strain and flip several councils. The DUP comes in as well, determined to show it's still the big boy in loyalist politics. Miliband's shaky government looks even shakier now and could fall at any moment, the world thinks, and the economy starts to contract. (Correct) rumours spread that Farron is thinking of yanking support.

Miliband feels there's only one option: he's going to have to call an election. The government will not stand and at least this way, Labour sets the terms. An election is called for early January 2017 (everyone in press and party PR thinks hard about "NEW YEAR" puns and slogans). Miliband shows a hitherto unsuspected strain of irreverant humour and bolshiness because what the hell, he's already the underdog and trying to stay serious hasn't worked. Being silly works for Boris, right?

The right wing, of course, will clearly win a small majority.

2017-18: Ed Miliband (Labour)

Two things help Miliband win: the cash-for-ash scandal growing in Northern Ireland and Donald Trump's victory in America. Both things make a lot of voters wonder about the people Johnson's connecting himself with and worry he might be like the other blond funny-on-TV guy. Certainly, with chaos in America, do people want yet another coalition government but one not yet tested? And the europhile Tory voters don't like the sound of this referendum and a number switch to the Liberal Democrats.

Meanwhile, Labour can reclaim many lost Scottish seats and sees a brief "youthquake" bump due to the 'new Ed'. Add in Ogmore falling back to Labour, and it's a two-seat majority!

Now with a majority, and with more 'Milibandite' MPs on his side with the new lot, Ed Miliband can get more left-wing policies through. The trans rights fight is had again because now, he feels, he can win the damn thing and narrowly does. What can go wrong?

Many of the new 'metro mayors' in 2017 go Tory or Lib Dem, is one thing. People are making note of the rising crime rates and are blaming Labour for it, is another - most of this is inherited issues and Labour is working to fix it, but all people see is stabbed kids. The collapse of the Stormont government as the DUP has their final tantrum is another, now Westminster has to take over many functions but can never take too many for fear of 'direct rule'. Trump's mess across the world forces Britain to make difficult choices and Miliband, both due to politics and personality, is unable to keep Trump on side (and doesn't want to if he's honest). With America cooling on the special relationship, Britain has to look to the EU and now the eurosceptics are unhappy & surging again.

Then Grenfell Tower catches fire. The death toll is obscene - there's flammable cladding all over Britain. The government commits to removing it, which is a huge cost and means when the NHS inevitably has a bad winter, there's no spare money to bung at it. A small tax rise is necessary. That goes down like cold sick.

When a former Russian spy and his daughter are poisoned in a chemical weapon attack in spring of 2018, the blame goes to... Miliband, for look how weak he's left us, eh? Eh?? The government eventually identifies the Russian agents who did it and has friendly nations across Europe kick spies out, but America is "not convinced" by the evidence. Britain takes a harder line now on Russia (they've been suspecting Putin's hand behind the surge of pro-UKIP, anti-Europe internet propaganda for a while) and that's a whole extra thing to juggle.

By autumn of 2018, deaths and resignations have cost Miliband his majority. And with Britain committed to opposing Russia, to fixing the NHS, to climate change action, well, he can't handle this as a minority or in supply-and-confidence:

2018-2019: Ed Miliband (Labour) in coalition with Tim Farron (Liberal Democrat)

The lure of power wins Farron over, believing he can avoid Clegg's mistakes. Labour has to agree to some harder fiscal rules, restraining what it can do, and some business-friendly rules, and generally is shifting back towards Blair's way; they also agree to a referendum on proportional representation. To get twenty-one MPs, Miliband has to go with it. The left matters about betrayal (so, in fact, do some of the centre-right who shifted to Farron...).

In exchange, Miliband gets the Fixed Term Parliament Act removed. He's going to make use of that, if he can.

A huge crisis hits in December 2018, one Miliband hoped never to have to deal with: Trump withdraws uniliaterally from Syria when ISIS is still a threat, and Miliband has to send soldiers in with Macron to replace them. The public mood is mixed, as ISIS need to be stopped but how long will British soldiers be Over There, being shot at? A large swathe of Syria is now Anglo-French responsibility and that means more conflict with Russia & damaged relations with Turkey, who don't like Britain and France keeping the Kurds propped up.

In 2019, Turkey threatens that it will just go in to Kurd-held Syria whether there's European soldiers there or not. A four-day crisis takes place.

The end of December sees both a great success and a great failure for Miliband. The success is when he and other European powers helps Brazilian President Haddad and other Latin American nations put down the various fires across the Amazon, and commit to a multinational agreement to protect and replant the rainforest. Everyone goes into the COP25 meeting optimistic (until Australia catches fire), with big proposals of what to do and new change.

The failure is the NATO summit, where Trump and Erdogan both are Very Unhappy and are making demands for change the other members won't wear. Things deteriorate and Turkey announces if things don't change, it's leaving NATO. Trump starts making threatening noises of his own. Macron has plans for this, and Miliband's dragged along - Christmas dawns with Britain hearing our entire security and defence set-up might be getting changed.

Farron's getting cold feet. He knows - he's too involved - this isn't Eddie's fault, he knows something had to be done, he knows all that but support's starting to go back to the Tories. He can't afford being stuck with this government.

The problem is, not all of his party want to go - certainly not Business Minister Jo Swinson. So 2019 ends with a Liberal Democrat internal conflict and leadership struggle, which means...

2020-20xx: Ed Miliband (Labour) in coalition with Jo Swinson (Liberal Democrat)

His majority has shrunk by two seats as two of the more right-wing Lib Dems defect to the Tories. This is not what he needs as NATO reforms to make up for the loss of Turkey - and, as they expected, for America to start withdrawing. A huge British deployment is made in the Baltics and Syria both, as a "don't you dare" gesture at Russia. How long will they be there? Miliband doesn't know.

Now he just hopes he can make it to COP26 in London.
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Published by SLP
Albany, NY
The Worst Compromise: An Accidental Road to American Fascism

1921-1925: Warren G. Harding / J. Calvin Coolidge (Republican)
1920: James M. Cox / Franklin D. Roosevelt (Democratic), Eugene V. Debs / Seymour Stedman (Socialist)
1925-1929: Thomas J. Walsh / Charles W. Bryan (Democratic)
1924: Charles E. Hughes / Henry C. Wallace, Peter Norbeck (Republican), William E. Borah / Burton K. Wheeler (Progressive-Farmer-Labor), Max S. Hayes / Charlotte Perkins Gilman (Socialist)
1929-1930: Thomas J. Walsh / Alvin M. Owsley (Democratic)
1928: Frank O. Lowden / Walter E. Edge (Republican), Lynn J. Frazier / Benjamin Gitlow (Progressive-Socialist-Farmer-Labor)
1930-1933: Alvin M. Owsley / vacant (Democratic)
1933-1937: Alvin M. Owsley / Hanford MacNider (Democratic)

1932: Herbert C. Hoover / W. Franklin Knox, Smedley D. Butler (Republican, Progressive)
1937-1943: Alvin M. Owsley (National Legionary)
1936: Cancelled 11.9.1936 Ogden L. Mills / Charles L. McNary (National Union / Republican)
1937 National Support Sounding: Approved
1938 National Support Sounding: Approved
1939 National Support Sounding: Approved
1940 National Support Sounding: Approved
1941 National Support Sounding: Approved
1942 National Support Sounding: Approved
1943 National Support Sounding: Cancelled
1943 National War Declaration Sounding: Approved
1943-1947: Alvin M. Owsley / Joseph P. Kennedy (National Legionary)
1943: National Constitutional Adjustment: Approved
1944: National Support and Canadian Annexation Sounding: Approved
1945 National Support Sounding: Cancelled
1946 National Support Sounding: Cancelled
1947 National Support Sounding: Cancelled
4.1947-8.1947: William L. “Billy” Mitchell, Robert E. Wood, Hanford MacNider, Alfred P. Sloan, Jr., William D. Pelley, Robert R. McCormick, James V. Forrestall, Walter W. Waters (National Legionary) [Emergency Council]

13.4.1947-29.4.1947: Msgr. Charles E. Coughlin (National Legionary---Christian Front)

1943-1949: Henry A. Wallace / Thomas E. Dewey (Popular Front)
1944: Independent Committee Electors (Popular Front --- Free State Faction, Social Justice Faction)

1946-1949: Douglas MacArthur (Non-Partisan, Support from Popular Front, Allied Occupation Authority)

1949-1953: Henry A. Wallace / Thomas E. Dewey (Liberal Republican)
1948: Alfred M. Landon / Harry S. Truman (Free State), James P. Cannon / A. Phillip Randolph (Social Justice), John W. Brickner / Rexford G. Tugwell (American)
1953-1961: Alfred M. Landon / Hubert H. Humphrey (Free Liberal)
1952: A. Philip Randolph / Glenn H. Taylor (Social Justice), John W. Brickner / William F. Knowland (American)
1956: Eugene J. McCarthy / I. F. Stone (Social Justice), Ezra T. Benson / Albert A. Gore (American)
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Always mysterious!
Published by SLP
Municipal Commune of Bourne
1943-1949: Henry A. Wallace / Thomas E. Dewey (Popular Front)
1944: Independent Committee Electors (Popular Front --- Free State Faction, Social Justice Faction)

1946-1949: Douglas MacArthur (Non-Partisan, Support from Popular Front, Allied Occupation Authority)

1949-1953: Henry A. Wallace / Thomas E. Dewey (Liberal Republican)
1948: Alfred M. Landon / Harry S. Truman (Free State), James P. Cannon / A. Phillip Randolph (Social Justice), John W. Brickner / Rexford G. Tugwell (American)
1953-1961: Alfred M. Landon / Hubert H. Humphrey (Free Liberal)
1952: A. Philip Randolph / Glenn H. Taylor (Social Justice), John W. Brickner / William F. Knowland (American)
1956: Eugene J. McCarthy / I. F. Stone (Social Justice), Ezra T. Benson / Albert A. Gore (American)
I'm getting Big American Gaullism Energy from this.

Charles EP M.

Well-known member
Published by SLP
The thing I love about that @Charles EP M. is that it's just as chaotic as what we had, but in a completely different way that arguably may be better but potentially may not be.
The real fun for me was lumbering Miliband with some things that were exactly the same, "look at what Miliband did! David Was Right"

(And there are probably David Was Right T-shirts on sale at Tory conferences)


Always mysterious!
Published by SLP
Municipal Commune of Bourne

1913-1924: Woodrow Wilson (Democratic)
1912 (with Thomas R. Marshall) def. Theodore Roosevelt (Progressive), William Howard Taft (Republican)
1916 (with Thomas R. Marshall) def. Charles E. Hughes (Republican)
1920 (with A. Mitchell Palmer) def. Theodore Roosevelt (Republican)

1924-1929: A. Mitchell Palmer (Democratic)
1924 (with William G. McAdoo) def. Irvine Lenroot (Republican)
1929-1933: William G. McAdoo (Democratic)
1928 (with Cordell Hull) def. Charles Curtis (Republican)
1933-1940: William Borah (Republican)
1932 (with Herbert Hoover) def. William G. McAdoo (Democratic)
1936 (with Smedley Butler) def. Al Smith (Democratic), Huey Long (Union)

1940-1940: Smedley Butler (Republican)
1940-1945: Burton K. Wheeler (Republican)
1940 (with Charles Lindbergh) def. Huey Long (Democratic), Thomas E. Dewey (Liberal)
1945-1949: Douglas MacArthur (National Union)
1944 (with Huey Long) def. Charles Lindbergh / Gerald L.K. Smith (America First)
1949-1953: George S. Patton (Democratic)
1948 (with Earl Long) def. Thomas E. Dewey (Republican), Claude Pepper ('Eisencrat')
1953-1955: Joe McCarthy (Democratic)
1952 (with Estes Kefauver) def. Earl Warren (Republican)
1955-1957: Estes Kefauver (Democratic)
1957-1965: Richard Nixon (Republican)
1956 (with John W. Bricker) def. Estes Kefauver (Democratic), Averell Harriman (Liberal)
1960 (with Hubert Humphrey) def. George Smathers (Democratic)

1965-1970: Joe Kennedy (Democratic)
1964 (with George Wallace) def. Hubert Humphrey (Republican)
1968 (with George Wallace) def. Nelson Rockefeller (Republican)

1970-1973: George Wallace (Democratic)
1973-1981: Michael Harrington (Republican)
1972 (with George Romney) def. George Wallace (Unity), Ronald Reagan (Democratic)
1976 (with Aaron Henry) def. Ronald Reagan (Democratic)

An old tired, worn out idea - Liberal Republicans vs Conservative Democrats yadda yadda. Though I like to think I've put a slightly different spin on things here - featuring Richard Nixon's Northern Strategy to detach Northern liberal Democrats from their party and reduce the Democrats to a reactionary Southern rump. Also features, the still beating heart of Tammany Hall!