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ES1702 Graphics & Test Thread

British Republic (4)

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Buckingham House
is a public institution in Westminster, London dedicated to the history of the monarchy of the United Kingdom which existed until 1820. Its permanent collection of over one million works is among the largest and most comprehensive in Britain on the subject, having been collected from former royal households and other institutions in the years following the British Revolution.

The museum at Buckingham House was established on 30 January 1824, exactly 175 years since the execution of King Charles I and was housed in what had been a private retreat for Queen Charlotte until her death in 1818. Large renovations of the House had continued after the accession of King George IV to the throne in January 1820, and after his execution in April 1820 at the end of the Revolution, the Provisional Government under Arthur Thistlewood determined that the work should continue and the site converted from royal palace to a second national museum, alongside the British Museum established in 1753. Architect John Nash was commissioned to work on the building, including the addition of the famous Marble Arch entrance, to demonstrate the new British Republic's commitment to the preservation and display of the nation's history.

The museum sourced its collection from the former royal households, including Carlton House, St James's Palace, Kensington Palace and Windsor Castle, which remain on display despite repeated legal challenges from members of the House of Hanover to recover items such as papers and jewellery belonging to their ancestors. The British Crown Jewels were displayed at Buckingham House between 1824 and 1961 when they were returned to the Tower of London to be displayed in the renovated Jewel House.

Like other publicly funded national museums in Britain, Buckingham House does not charge an admission fee. Visitors have access to Buckingham House itself, the Buckingham House Gallery, dedicated to displaying portraits of monarchs and royalty, the Buckingham House Gardens and the Royal Mews at Buckingham House, where the carriages used during the monarchy such as the Gold State Coach and carriages still in use today, such as the Lord Mayor of London's State Coach, can be viewed. The Buckingham House estate was made a Grade I Listed Building in March 1970 ahead of the 150th anniversary of the founding of the Republic in April 1970.

In 2020, the year of the 200th anniversary of the Republic, the museum recorded over 10.2 million visitors, breaking the previous record of 9.6 million set in 2010 when multiple special exhibitions were held to mark the 350th anniversary of the restoration to the throne of Charles II in 1660 after the Interregnum.

Buckingham House can be accessed via public transport through the London Underground stations at Green Park, Hyde Park Corner and Grosvenor Gardens. Constitution Hill remains a public access road to private vehicles, private hire vehicles, pedestrians and cyclists. Buses are not permitted to run routes down Constitution Hill or The Mall.
 
British Republic (6)

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1614678745241.pngUniversal Basics (UB) is the programme of four universal basic services that forms the core of the welfare state in Britain. It was introduced in 2000 to replace and upgrade the various number of benefits for working-age adults, their dependents and retired adults and sought to return to the welfare state in Britain to the basic ideas set out by Thomas Spence, Arthur Thistlewood and William Davidson in the 19th Century. All residents in Britain are eligible for all the services provided through the programme.

Universal Basics is comprised of four basic services, created by the Universal Basics Act 1996 and defined as:

1) Universal Basics: Guaranteed Income
2) Universal Basics: Housing Service
3) Universal Basics: Information Service
4) Universal Basics: Transport for Britain



The National Health and Care Service (NHCS), which uses UB-style branding, state-provided education, free school lunches and legal services are not considered part of the Universal Basics programme.

History
The radical overhaul of Britain's welfare state was first proposed in 1990 at the annual conference of the National Spencean Alliance by Leader, and former Chief Commissioner, Eric Varley as part of the party's "bold offer" to the electorate after unexpectedly losing the 1988 election. The party won a significant majority in the 1991 election which saw the formal consultations and preparations for implementation legislation begin. When Varley resigned in 1993 due to a health scare, the Social Security Commissioner, who had overseen the first two years of work on the policy, Ann Taylor was elected to succeed him and declared the welfare reforms a "Millennium challenge" for Britain and promised to have the reforms in place by 2000. A white paper on the proposals was published in January 1994 and draft legislation published in February 1995. The Speceans made the draft legislation and the policy the key focus of their campaign in the 1995 election in which they were re-elected with another significant majority. Universals Basics, and the wider reforms of social security, were legislated for in the Universal Basics Act 1996 and the Welfare Reform Act 1997. A third successive Spencean victory in the 1999 election ensured that the reforms took effect, as planned, on 1st January 2000.

Services
All four services are operated under the umbrella of Universal Basics, but are largely administered in separate government departments while using a single database to ensure consistency in the data used by each department. 'Guaranteed Income' and the 'Housing Service' are managed by the Department for Employment and Social Security, the 'Information Service' is managed by the Department for Culture and National Heritage and 'Transport for Britain' is an executive agency within the Department for Infrastructure and Enterprise. Accounting for both capital and current expenditure, spending on Universal Basics in 2020 was £914.8 billion - equivalent to 34% of GDP.

Guaranteed Income
Guaranteed Income, otherwise known as basic income or universal basic income, is the the cornerstone of the Universal Basics programme. It was designed to replace almost all of the individual benefit payments that existed prior to 2000, while eradicating poverty and returning the welfare state, on the whole, to its origins when surplus revenue achieved by government was redistributed in equal sized payments to all residents. This system existed between 1820 and 1883 when it was replaced by William Gladstone and the Whigs by an early version of the welfare state that existed between 1883 and 2000.

Guaranteed Income is, by far, the single largest expenditure in the government's budget, with £850.1 billion being spent on the programme in 2020 - the equivalent of 31.65% of GDP, and 93% of the total capital and current expenditure of Universal Basics. Every adult (those aged 18 and over) resident receives a £1,000 payment on the first working day of each month of the year, totalling to £12,000 across one calendar year, direct to the bank account they have registered with for the purposes of Universal Basics. The payment is tax-free and makes up the vast majority of the £15,000 'personal allowance', which is the income one can accrue before they begin to pay income tax. Every resident aged 0 to 17 receives a £3,000 payment into a dedicated personal Guaranteed Income Fund. Parents of children aged 0 to 15 are able to access up to 50% of the payments each month to help pay towards costs relating to their child. At ages 16 and 17 responsibility for the fund is transferred directly to the child, who access up to 75% of the payments monthly. These rules were designed to ensure that each child would have a minimum amount of £24,000 in their funds upon their 18th birthday, allowing them to fund the tuition for an undergraduate university degree (which is capped at £4,000 a year) if they wish to attend university while still retaining a significant amount to expend as they wish.

Housing Service
Through the Housing Service, the government spends £19.1 billion each year in capital expenditure to build 225,000 prefab homes which are built in factories across Britain. All the homes are social housing for at least the first 5 years. Tenants who remain in a property for 5 years or more can then opt-in to the Share to Buy scheme which allows them to purchase a share in the property of up to 50% initially, and 'staircase' up to 100% ownership over a period of 25 years. In the first year of the scheme, in 2000, all the homeless and rough sleepers in Britain were given a newbuild through the Housing Service with the first year rent and utility free applied to all homes in the first year of the scheme. This allowed homelessness and rough sleeping in Britain to be completely eradicated, which remains the case as of 2020. The rent exemption applied only for the first year of the scheme. The utility exemption, applied to gas, water and electricity, remains in place for the first year of the tenancy through a £3,250 Utility Allowance paid directly to suppliers by the government, at a total cost to the government of £731.3 million a year.

Information Service
The Information Service is the second largest service provided through Universal Basics in terms of total expenditure, costing £34 billion in 2020. For all households, the Television Licence Fee, which allows live television to be watched in a household and which is set independently by the BBC each year as their funding source, is financed directly through the service. Every household also has a basic broadband package financed through the service, providing at least 50Mb broadband at a cost of £25 per month per household. Households may opt for a faster speed or package extension, such as including a landline telephone, with a private company. In this case, the government will continue to finance the first £25 of the monthly bill, with the remainder financed by the household themselves. Finally, the Information Service provides a basic mobile phone package to all adults at the value of £18 a month, which provides 75GB of data and unlimited calls and texts. As with broadband, adults can opt for package extensions with private providers and the government will finance the first £18 of their monthly bill with the remainder financed by the individual. Mobile phones for those under the age of 18 are not financed through the scheme, however the government launched a consultation in 2019 on extending the policy to 16 and 17-year-olds.

Transport for Britain
Through Transport for Britain, which is responsible for most of the transport network in Britain, all residents are given free bus travel regardless of age at a cost of £10.1 billion in 2020. As with all other Transport for Britain services on rail, rapid transit, trams, tolls and bicycle and scooter hire, travellers must tap in and out for their journeys on buses with their TfB Travelcards or contactless payment device. Despite no charge being made, tapping in and out is still required in order to allow records to be kept of how many journeys are made on the bus network and where additional services may be needed in future to deal with overcrowding. Non-residents, such as tourists and those on temporary visas, are charged £1 for each journey they make on the bus network, with travel remaining free for non-resident children aged 10 and below.
 

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Major Political Parties of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (as of 2021)
- English National Party (ENP)
- Leader: Simon Hughes
- Freedom Party (FRP)
- Leader: John Redwood
- Fianna Fail (FFL)
- Leader: Michael McGrath
- National Party (NAT)
- Leader: Theresa May
- National Patriotic Union (NPU)
- Leader: Patricia Mountain
- Plaid Cymru (PLC)
- Leader: Rhun ap Iorwerth
- People's Solidarity Party (PSP)
- Leader: John McDonnell
- Progressive Alliance (PGA)
- Leader: Tony Blair
- Scottish National Party (SNP)
- Leader: Alex Salmond
- Sinn Fein (SFN)
- Leader: Gerry Adams
- Social Liberal Party (SLP)
- Leader: Gordon Brown
- Ulster's Voice (ULV)
- Leader: Nigel Dodds
 

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The Blair Years
Sir Anthony Charles Lynton Blair may not have had the most typical of elevations to the top level of British politics, but it is indisputable that he has been the most successful political leader in the United Kingdom, and indeed the Western world, since at least the end of the Second World War. After Margaret Thatcher left office in 1990 few believed it was possible for one figure to be such a dominant force in their own party and the national political arena ever again. Indeed, it is not only in terms of influence that Blair resembled Thatcher, the Iron Lady herself declared Blair as her natural heir some way into his time as Prime Minister - continuing the work she had begun in 1979 to break the post-war consensus and provide new emphasis on free market policies.

Tony Blair's almost complete domination of British politics traced its roots to 1992 and Black Wednesday. When Britain crashed out of the European Exchange Rate Mechanism, the Conservative Party's reputation for economic competency and management was destroyed. That propelled Labour to extraordinary leads in opinion polls, but the sudden death of John Smith in 1994 saw the still relatively little-known Tony Blair elected as his successor. His new brand of centrism, combined with fiscal responsibility and constitutional reform, while embracing popular market economics and social justice over equality saw his personal popularity soar (to become the most popular Leader of the Opposition since records began) and Labour skyrocket to unimaginable heights in the opinion polls.

The 1997 general election result, to this day, remains almost beyond belief. Never before has one political party alone so dominated the House of Commons - and rarely has it ever occurred in another mature and free democracy like the United Kingdom. For the first time in 66 years, an absolute majority of votes cast was won by one party, and the record for the number of votes cast for a party in a general election was broken by a huge amount.

Labour's enormous victory with 58.3% of the vote and 604 seats was so large and the opposition so crushed (the Conservatives were almost extinguished, reduced to a rump of just 21 seats but still enough to become the Official Opposition) that Blair himself felt the need to reassure the nation that he would use his power responsibly. After all, he was placed in a position where he could do anything he wanted and implement any policy he desired for the next five years at least. Many believed, and were proven right, that the scale of Labour's victory would keep them in power for well beyond five years.

That victory in 1997 and the incredible endorsement that came from it gave Tony Blair the mandate to mould 21st Century Britain in his image, and the image of New Labour. For many millions of young people in Britain today, there has never been anyone other than Tony Blair as Prime Minister. Despite scandals and controversies, his constant graft and dogged determination to reform society and the economy has made him one of the most respected men not just in these islands but across the whole world. The story of the Blair Years is one of triumph and tragedy, longevity and lives cut too short, of success and failure, of praise and controversy. The whole story hasn't been told, until now.


97MassiveLandslide.png
 

ES1702

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The Blair Years
The ashen-faced look on Sir Edward Heath's face as his near-16,000 vote majority was overturned to become a near-6,000 vote Labour majority in Old Bexley and Sidcup, bringing an end to the former Prime Minister's 47-year long tenure as an MP and 5-year period as Father of the House, just about summed up the mood of the Conservative Party on election night in 1997. Hundreds of Tories, whether they were relative newbies or respected former Prime Ministers, could not hold back the Labour tidal wave that swept across the electoral map of Great Britain on 1st May and the party was crippled to unimaginably low numbers. Apart from the seats of William Hague, Norman Fowler and John Major, the Conservatives were now a party of the South East of England. The 11 Liberal Democrats, 3 Scottish Nationalists and 2 Welsh nationalists were the only others to hold out against Labour's sweep. Northern Ireland's unique party system boosted the opposition's numbers to 55 in the new Parliament.


Tony Blair's jubilant arrival in Downing Street on 2nd May was immediately followed by the first significant task of governing - forming a Cabinet. The Shadow Cabinet was transferred almost exactly into the Cabinet, with key appointments being made such as John Prescott as Deputy Prime Minister, Gordon Brown as Chancellor of the Exchequer, Robin Cook as Foreign Secretary and Jack Straw as Home Secretary. The new government set to work with a swift pace, Gordon Brown unexpectedly announcing on 6th May that the Bank of England would be given operational independence over monetary policy and Blair himself introducing the Bill to hold the referenda on devolution in Scotland and Wales in September 1997. Just over a month after entering office, the Labour government had the United Kingdom sign up to the Social Chapter of the Maastricht Treaty that had contributed to the previous Tory government enduring almighty internal rows that helped seal its destruction in the election.

While the Blair government set to work, what remained of the Conservative Party set about electing a successor to John Major to take on the unenviable task of Leader of the Opposition to a totally dominant government. With Major out of the running for obvious reasons, there just 20 possible contenders and only two stepped forward. With the State Opening of Parliament out of the way on 14th May, William Hague (the Wales Secretary in Major's government) and Virginia Bottomley (the National Heritage Secretary in Major's government) announced their candidacies for the leadership. The rump of 21 MPs voted on 22nd May for their new leader and, in a result that was both a surprise and unsurprising, Virginia Bottomley won out to become the second female leader of her party thanks to John Major's casting vote. Major, as the former leader, had sought to keep his vote private, but the public declarations of his 20 colleagues - splitting evenly between the two candidates - unmasked Major as the man who had made Bottomley his successor.



Bottomley had only 20 other MPs from, and was determined to leave at least a small number of MPs on the backbenches out of the Shadow Cabinet to ensure her leadership could be held to account. Bringing in a handful of Peers and a giving a couple of members multiple portfolios, Bottomley unveiled her Shadow Cabinet on 24th May...

Leader of the Opposition
Leader of the Conservative Party
Virginia Bottomley MP
Shadow Deputy Prime Minister
Shadow Secretary of State for the Environment, Transport and the Regions
Shadow Minister for the Cabinet Office
Shadow Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
Norman Fowler MP
Shadow Chancellor of the ExchequerNicholas Soames MP
Shadow Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain
Shadow Attorney General of England and Wales
Nick Hawkins MP
Shadow Leader of the House of CommonsJulian Lewis MP
Shadow Leader of the House of Lords
Chairman of the Conservative Party
The Lord Baker of Dorking
Shadow Chief Secretary to the TreasuryPhilip Hammond MP
Shadow Secretary of State for Foreign & Commonwealth AffairsJohn Major MP
Shadow Secretary of State for the Home DepartmentWilliam Hague MP
Shadow Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and FoodRichard Ottaway MP
Shadow Secretary of State for HealthFrancis Maude MP
Shadow Secretary of State for DefenceRichard Benyon MP
Shadow Secretary of State for Social SecurityPeter Ainsworth MP
Shadow Secretary of State for Education and EmploymentCheryl Gillan MP
Shadow Secretary of State for Trade and IndustryIan Taylor MP
Shadow Secretary of State for Culture, Media and SportThe Lord Ryder of Wensum
Shadow Secretary of State for International DevelopmentDominic Grieve MP
Shadow Secretary of State for Northern Ireland
Shadow Secretary of State for Scotland
Shadow Secretary of State for Wales
Michael Mates MP
Opposition Chief WhipPaul Beresford MP
Opposition Chief Whip in the House of Lords The Lord Strathclyde

The four MPs that Bottomley had left on the backbenches were balanced 50-50 between those who had supported her in the leadership election and those who had supported William Hague. The 'loyalist' backbenchers were Geoffrey Johnson Smith and Charles Wardle, and the others were Desmond Swayne and Christopher Chope.
 

cikka

i am the friends we made along the way
Location
Ireland
Pronouns
he/him, she/her
The Blair Years
The ashen-faced look on Sir Edward Heath's face as his near-16,000 vote majority was overturned to become a near-6,000 vote Labour majority in Old Bexley and Sidcup, bringing an end to the former Prime Minister's 47-year long tenure as an MP and 5-year period as Father of the House, just about summed up the mood of the Conservative Party on election night in 1997. Hundreds of Tories, whether they were relative newbies or respected former Prime Ministers, could not hold back the Labour tidal wave that swept across the electoral map of Great Britain on 1st May and the party was crippled to unimaginably low numbers. Apart from the seats of William Hague, Norman Fowler and John Major, the Conservatives were now a party of the South East of England. The 11 Liberal Democrats, 3 Scottish Nationalists and 2 Welsh nationalists were the only others to hold out against Labour's sweep. Northern Ireland's unique party system boosted the opposition's numbers to 55 in the new Parliament.


Tony Blair's jubilant arrival in Downing Street on 2nd May was immediately followed by the first significant task of governing - forming a Cabinet. The Shadow Cabinet was transferred almost exactly into the Cabinet, with key appointments being made such as John Prescott as Deputy Prime Minister, Gordon Brown as Chancellor of the Exchequer, Robin Cook as Foreign Secretary and Jack Straw as Home Secretary. The new government set to work with a swift pace, Gordon Brown unexpectedly announcing on 6th May that the Bank of England would be given operational independence over monetary policy and Blair himself introducing the Bill to hold the referenda on devolution in Scotland and Wales in September 1997. Just over a month after entering office, the Labour government had the United Kingdom sign up to the Social Chapter of the Maastricht Treaty that had contributed to the previous Tory government enduring almighty internal rows that helped seal its destruction in the election.

While the Blair government set to work, what remained of the Conservative Party set about electing a successor to John Major to take on the unenviable task of Leader of the Opposition to a totally dominant government. With Major out of the running for obvious reasons, there just 20 possible contenders and only two stepped forward. With the State Opening of Parliament out of the way on 14th May, William Hague (the Wales Secretary in Major's government) and Virginia Bottomley (the National Heritage Secretary in Major's government) announced their candidacies for the leadership. The rump of 21 MPs voted on 22nd May for their new leader and, in a result that was both a surprise and unsurprising, Virginia Bottomley won out to become the second female leader of her party thanks to John Major's casting vote. Major, as the former leader, had sought to keep his vote private, but the public declarations of his 20 colleagues - splitting evenly between the two candidates - unmasked Major as the man who had made Bottomley his successor.



Bottomley had only 20 other MPs from, and was determined to leave at least a small number of MPs on the backbenches out of the Shadow Cabinet to ensure her leadership could be held to account. Bringing in a handful of Peers and a giving a couple of members multiple portfolios, Bottomley unveiled her Shadow Cabinet on 24th May...

Leader of the Opposition
Leader of the Conservative Party
Virginia Bottomley MP
Shadow Deputy Prime Minister
Shadow Secretary of State for the Environment, Transport and the Regions
Shadow Minister for the Cabinet Office
Shadow Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
Norman Fowler MP
Shadow Chancellor of the ExchequerNicholas Soames MP
Shadow Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain
Shadow Attorney General of England and Wales
Nick Hawkins MP
Shadow Leader of the House of CommonsJulian Lewis MP
Shadow Leader of the House of Lords
Chairman of the Conservative Party
The Lord Baker of Dorking
Shadow Chief Secretary to the TreasuryPhilip Hammond MP
Shadow Secretary of State for Foreign & Commonwealth AffairsJohn Major MP
Shadow Secretary of State for the Home DepartmentWilliam Hague MP
Shadow Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and FoodRichard Ottaway MP
Shadow Secretary of State for HealthFrancis Maude MP
Shadow Secretary of State for DefenceRichard Benyon MP
Shadow Secretary of State for Social SecurityPeter Ainsworth MP
Shadow Secretary of State for Education and EmploymentCheryl Gillan MP
Shadow Secretary of State for Trade and IndustryIan Taylor MP
Shadow Secretary of State for Culture, Media and SportThe Lord Ryder of Wensum
Shadow Secretary of State for International DevelopmentDominic Grieve MP
Shadow Secretary of State for Northern Ireland
Shadow Secretary of State for Scotland
Shadow Secretary of State for Wales
Michael Mates MP
Opposition Chief WhipPaul Beresford MP
Opposition Chief Whip in the House of Lords The Lord Strathclyde

The four MPs that Bottomley had left on the backbenches were balanced 50-50 between those who had supported her in the leadership election and those who had supported William Hague. The 'loyalist' backbenchers were Geoffrey Johnson Smith and Charles Wardle, and the others were Desmond Swayne and Christopher Chope.
fucking sutton coldfield
 

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Member
Major Political Parties of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (as of 2021)
...
2018 Wales.png
The 2018 Welsh presidential election was the eleventh presidential election to be held in Wales and was contested by seven candidates. It was held on Thursday, 21 June 2018. President Eluned Morgan was seeking re-election for a second term in office, after serving her first five-year term since 2013.

The seven candidates were Stephen Kinnock of the Social Liberal Party, Eluned Morgan of the Progressive Alliance, Robin Millar of the National Party, Lesley Griffiths of the People's Solidarity Party, Caroline Jones of the Freedom Party, Rhun ap Iorwerth of Plaid Cymru and David Rowlands of the National Patriotic Union. Candidates had to receive the nominations of no fewer than 150 elected councillors or Members of the Senedd or 5,000 registered eligible voters and pay a deposit of £25,000 - returnable if a candidate wins 7.5% or more of the first preference votes in the election.

Eluned Morgan won a plurality of first preference votes with 19.2%, though was ultimately defeated by Stephen Kinnock on the sixth and final count of the votes by a margin of 26,000 votes. Kinnock was inaugurated as President of Wales on 1st July 2018, swearing allegiance to Her Majesty The Queen and the Constitution, in accordance with the Constitution of Wales.


First Count
  • Eluned Morgan: 389,111 (19.2%)
  • Stephen Kinnock: 374,925 (18.5%)
  • Robin Millar: 318,179 (15.7%)
  • Lesley Griffiths: 310,073 (15.3%)
  • Rhun ap Iorweth: 251,301 (12.4%)
  • Caroline Jones: 218,875 (10.8%)
  • David Rowlands: 164,156 (8.1%)
Second Count
  • Eluned Morgan: 430,324 (21.5%)
  • Stephen Kinnock: 383,869 (19.2%)
  • Robin Millar: 370,523 (18.5%)
  • Lesley Griffiths: 310,073 (15.5%)
  • Caroline Jones: 258,386 (12.9%)
  • Rhun ap Iorweth: 251,301 (12.4%)
Third Count
  • Eluned Morgan: 487,196 (24.7%)
  • Stephen Kinnock: 435,118 (22.1%)
  • Robin Millar: 404,734 (20.6%)
  • Lesley Griffiths: 376,061 (19.1%)
  • Caroline Jones: 265,707 (13.5%)
Fourth Count
  • Eluned Morgan: 554,520 (28.8%)
  • Robin Millar: 547,465 (28.4%)
  • Stephen Kinnock: 444,862 (23.1%)
  • Lesley Griffiths: 379,605 (19.7%)
Fifth Count
  • Eluned Morgan: 666,276 (35.8%)
  • Stephen Kinnock: 646,304 (34.7%)
  • Robin Millar: 550,453 (29.5%)
Sixth Count
  • Stephen Kinnock: 899,726 (50.7%)
  • Eluned Morgan: 873,531 (49.3%)
 
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