The 1998 United States presidential election was the 53rd quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 3, 1998. Republican candidate Gordon R. Green of Arizona defeated Democratic nominee Hugh Bennett of New York.
Green, a charismatic moderate with significant support amongst the party establishment, successfully outmaneuvered more conservative opponents in the Republican primary, including his future running mate Scott Rodney of South Carolina, to capture the nomination in May 1998. The Democratic primary was far more competitive, despite expectations that Al Gore would capture the nomination without too much of a challenge. Instead, progressive social democrat Hugh Bennett suddenly emerged as the frontrunner after a series of wins in the early primaries and more conservative moderate Democrats failed to coalesce around a suitable candidate to challenge him. Bennett's election stunned the party establishment and led to many Democrats to flip and publicly support Green's candidacy instead. Notably, outgoing President Bill Clinton refused to openly campaign for or with Bennett, although this was also due to the President's falling popularity as well as the dislike shared between the two men. Bennett selected former Speaker of the House Norman Madders of Michigan as his running mate in an olive branch to the Democratic establishment.
The election was fought predominantly on domestic issues, with the Republican platform built around the slogan "Back to Basics". Green's campaign emphasised their plans for federal tax cuts, economic growth and support for traditional family values, with many in the party proclaiming Green as a modern Ronald Reagan. Although not endorsed or authorised by the official Green campaign, Republicans also tried to hit the Democrats hard on morality and take advantage of the outgoing President's sex scandal. Polls were generally stable, with Green ahead of Bennett throughout the campaign.
Despite hopes amongst Democrats that better-than-expected performances from Bennett in the debates could help change the race, Green won a comfortable 366–172 victory on election day. Green swept almost all states in middle America, with Bennett only winning coastal states and Illinois, losing key swing states won by Clinton in 1990 and 1994 and falling behind heavily in the South. Green also won the popular vote by over six points, an increase of over 11 percentage points from the Republican performance in 1994.
The 2002 United States presidential election was the 54th quadrennial, held on Tuesday, November 5, 2002. The incumbent Republican President Gordon R. Green of Arizona and his running mate Vice President Scott Rodney of South Carolina were elected to a second term, defeating the Democratic ticket of Leonard Hayes of Maryland and his running mate Ron Harnwood of Minnesota.
The election was held amidst Green's soaring popularity after the New York terrorist attacks in April 2002, which saw him far ahead of any hypothetical Democrat in polls from April right the way through to election day. Green and Rodney were renominated by their party with no difficulty, whilst the Democratic primary was generally dominated by Hayes, despite a slow start only rectified thanks to big wins on Super Tuesday in March. Hayes selected the youthful and popular Governor of Minnesota Ron Harnwood to be his running mate: Harnwood had mulled a presidential bid of his own, but instead opted to back Hayes.
Foreign policy was the dominant theme of the campaign, with Green's leadership on the terrorist attacks and consequent decision to break the United States's traditional alliance with Saudi Arabia and trigger the Arabian War allowing the Republicans to present him as the decisive leader America needed, whilst Hayes was attacked as a "weak flip-flopper" who opposed military action. The election was strange in modern times in that domestic issues rarely reared their head, although Green pointed to a growing economy and low levels of unemployment as signs that his "Plan for Jobs" was working.
Green won a landslide re-election victory and the largest victory in modern times, carrying forty-three states. Hayes only won his home state, DC and six other states, failing to win any states west of Illinois. In addition to taking 447 electoral votes to 91, Green also won the popular vote strongly, winning 64.7 million votes to Hayes's 42.6 million - the largest popular vote margin in history.
1997–2008: Tony Blair (Labour) 1997 (Coalition with Liberal Democrat) def. John Major (Conservative), Paddy Ashdown (Liberal Democrat)
1999 STV referendum: yes (55.6%) def. no (44.4%) 1999 House of Lords reform referendum: yes (58.2%) def. no (41.8%) 2002 (Coalition with Liberal Democrat) def. Michael Portillo (Conservative), Charles Kennedy (Liberal Democrat), Jeffrey Titford (UK Independence), John Swinney (Scottish National) 2007 (Coalition with Liberal Democrat) def. Iain Duncan Smith (Conservative), Charles Kennedy (Liberal Democrat), Nigel Farage (UK Independence), Alex Salmond (Scottish National), Caroline Lucas & Keith Taylor (Green), John Stevens (Liberal–Conservative) 2008–2012: Gordon Brown (Labour)
2012–2015: David Davis (Conservative) 2012 (Coalition with Liberal Democrat) def. Gordon Brown (Labour), Nick Clegg (Liberal Democrat), Nigel Farage (UK Independence), Caroline Lucas (Green), Alex Salmond (Scottish National), Bill Newton-Dunn (Liberal–Conservative) 2014 EU membership referendum: yes/remain (51.3%) def. no/leave (48.7%) 2015–2021: Ed Miliband (Labour) 2015 (Coalition with Green, Liberal Democrat confidence and supply) def. David Davis (Conservative), Nigel Farage (UK Independence), Natalie Bennett (Green), Tim Farron (Liberal Democrat), Alex Salmond (Scottish National) 2020: Election postponed due to the coronavirus pandemic 2021–: Mark Harper (Conservative) 2021 (Minority with UK Independence, DUP and UUP confidence and supply) def. Ed Miliband (Labour), Nigel Farage (UK Independence), Ed Davey (Liberal Democrat), Angus Robertson (Scottish National), Natalie Bennett (Green), Dan Carden (Socialist)
1999–2000: Donald Dewar (Labour) 1999 (Coalition with Liberal Democrat) def. Alex Salmond (Scottish National), David McLetchie (Conservative), Jim Wallace (Liberal Democrat), Robin Harper (Green), Tommy Sheridan (Scottish Socialist) 2000–2001: Henry McLeish (Labour) 2001 Holyrood STV referendum: yes (59.4%) def. no (40.6%) 2001–2009: Jack McConnell (Labour) 2003 (Coalition with Liberal Democrat) def. John Swinney (Scottish National), David McLetchie (Conservative), Jim Wallace (Liberal Democrat), Robin Harper (Green), Tommy Sheridan (Scottish Socialist), John Swinburne (SSCP) 2007 (Coalition with Liberal Democrat and Green) def. Alex Salmond (Scottish National), Annabel Goldie (Conservative), Nicol Stephen (Liberal Democrat), Robin Harper (Green), John Swinburne (SSCP), George Hargreaves (Scottish Christian), Colin Fox (Scottish Socialist) 2009–2011: Iain Gray (Labour)
2011–: Alex Salmond (Scottish National) 2011 (Minority with Green and limited Labour and Liberal Democrat confidence and supply) def. Iain Gray (Labour), Annabel Goldie (Conservative), Tavish Scott (Liberal Democrat), Patrick Harvie (Green), John Swinburne (SSCP), (UK Independence)
2019–2025: Boris Johnson (Conservative) 2023 (Majority) def. Keir Starmer (Labour), Nicola Sturgeon (SNP), Ed Davey (Liberal Democrat) 2025 Scottish independence referendum: yes (54.6%)def. no (45.4%) 2025–0000: Rishi Sunak (Conservative) 2027 (Majority) def. Emily Thornberry (Labour), Daisy Cooper (Liberal Democrat), Rhun ap Iorwerth (Plaid Cymru) 2031 (Majority) def. Wes Streeting (Labour), Andy Burnham (NIP), Rhun ap Iorwerth (Plaid Cymru), Daisy Cooper (Liberal Democrat)
Few could have imagined the impact the Northern Independence Party (NIP) would have had on British politics when it was first founded by a Brighton-based socialist in 2020. Initially a democratic socialist party generally occupied by opponents of Labour leader Keir Starmer, the party soon grew and developed over the course of the next ten years to become the third biggest party in the House of Commons.
It wasn't a surprise when the Tories emerged victorious at the 2023 election with a very slightly reduced majority, with Sir Keir Starmer failing to make any significant in-roads in a parliamentary term dominated by the coronavirus pandemic and culture wars. Boris was free to shape Britain in his image - that was until the 2025 Scottish independence referendum, which was scheduled after the SNP won a majority at the 2021 Scottish election and then won all but one of the 59 Scottish seats at the general election. The referendum reversed the decision made in 2014, ending the 318-year union between Scotland and England and taking Scotland out of the United Kingdom. Johnson was forced by his backbenchers to stand down and, unsurprisingly, he was replaced by his ever popular chancellor Rishi Sunak. Sunak led negotiations with the Scottish Government over the country's departure from the UK and after the country left in January 2027, he called an election where he won the Tories' third majority in a row.
Labour was in turmoil, split between those who believed that the party needed to return to its roots to try and win back its working class seats in the North and Midlands and those who wanted it to keep charting a progressive course that was winning it seats in London and the South, whilst losing it seats further north. Emily Thornberry resigned after the 2027 defeat and, in a bitter contest, Wes Streeting defeated Stephen Kinnock thanks to his stronger support amongst MPs, who had been given a larger say in determining the party's leader in the Starmer reforms at the start of the decade. But the choice between two uninspiring moderates summed up to many Labour members that the party had lost its way and membership dwindled, falling below 175,000 by the start of 2028.
At the same time, those disenchanted with the Conservatives - now in power for over eighteen years - began to look for a new outlook. Whilst those in urban centres in southern England mostly stayed with Labour or the Liberal Democrats (with some pockets of support for the Greens), in northern England and in Wales voters turned to separatism. Plaid Cymru had steadily grown in Welsh elections, taking power in Cardiff as a minority administration at the 2026 election, but had struggled at Westminster level, with their support mostly confined to the rural west. That soon began to change after the 2027 election (where they won 8 seats), with the party taking more and more seats off of Labour in South Wales, Cardiff and Swansea at a local level. In northern England, an even more radical change was happening. Progressive voters, or just those tired of being governed from Westminster, began to flock to the Northern Independence Party, which began to move towards the centre to try and capture voters from across the political spectrum. The party began to surge locally, winning a number of council seats and taking control, or the balance of power, on several local councils. Wins in the Liverpool and West Yorkshire mayoral contests in 2029 further enhanced the party's profile.
What it needed was a figurehead who could take the party further. This came in the form of Andy Burnham, the longstanding Mayor of Greater Manchester who was himself becoming disillusioned with Labour. Burnham would leave the party shortly after being re-elected in 2029 and joined the NIP in 2030, quickly becoming the party's leader. Ahead of the 2031 election, polls suggested that the Conservatives would be once again re-elected, perhaps again with a larger majority. But due to the lack of regional polling, nobody could really see the NIP surge coming, outside of the party likely gaining a handful of urban seats with a vote share of about 5 or 6 percent. Ultimately, the election began the real downward spiral of Labour - Plaid Cymru ate into Labour's heartlands in Wales and the NIP did the same in what was left in northern England. Labour ended up with just 91 seats, their worst tally for over a century, whilst the NIP won 71 seats, having not even managed to win a single one four years earlier. Plaid won 16 seats, becoming the joint largest Welsh party at Westminster and winning a majority in the Senedd elections on the same day. The victory in the latter led to the party calling for a referendum on Welsh independence, whilst Burnham and the NIP declared that it was time for full devolution for the North.
The Conservatives celebrated the doom of the Labour Party, but in its place two growing political movements were born, threatening to rip apart political unions that had existed for over a millennium.
The 2019 United States presidential election was held on Tuesday November 5, 2019. Incumbent president and United America candidate Richard Cheney successfully won re-election to his second consecutive - and fourth overall - term in office with 78% of the popular vote. His closest competitor, in the widest field of candidates since the US was re-established, was Joe Biden, the Socialist Party candidate, who won 15.6% of the vote. Notably, pro-democracy activist Ro Khanna intended on running for the presidency on an independent ticket, but was barred to do so by the U.S. Supreme Court in a move that was seen as politically motivated. Khanna subsequently called for a boycott of the election, although an increased turnout was reported by the federal government after the election.
The incumbent president Richard Cheney was eligible to run for a second consecutive term under the U.S. Constitution and was widely expected to run; he declared his intention to do so in the summer of 2018. Opinion polls both before and throughout the campaign suggested that Cheney would win by a landslide. Cheney would go on to win with a larger margin than his previous victories in results that were disputed by opposition candidates. Internationally the results were given a mixed reaction, with traditional US allies congratulating Cheney on his re-election, whilst geopolitical opponents such as Russia and the European Union criticised supposed examples of ballot stuffing and intimidation by supporters of the President.
After the election the US Congress and state legislatures approved an amendment to the Constitution, approving the extension of the presidential term from five years to six years and a removal of the term limits, which would have previously made Cheney ineligible to seek a third consecutive term at the 2025 election.