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AH Cooperative Lists Thread

Skaven

Everything is going according to the plan
Class Schedule, Student #1125531 [Kendra McCormick], University of California at Los Angeles Department of History [PhD Program in History, concentration in the Modern World], Fall 2020

Monday 11:45-12:45:
Prof. Andrea Bondarenko / Colloquium
Students will attend lectures on various topics in history every other week and write short papers on the topics discussed; periods with no lectures will be used for individual instruction on student skills like writing and research. Mandatory for first-semester graduate students.

Monday 17:30-19:30:
Prof. Wilf Strauss / The Anarcho-Syndicalist revolt in Italy and it's legacy.

Students will study the factors leading to the Syndicalist revolt following the Italian defeats in the African wars of expansion, the weeks of 'Red Rome' and the eventual intervention of the French and Austrian empires to suppress the revolt. Students will also study the legacy of the Anarcho-Syndicalist revolt and it's impact on Socialist and Fascist movements in the modern era. Short papers will be issued throughout the semester with one final longform paper and exam at year end.

Tuesday 13:00-15:00:
Prof. Clarence Teller / Dreadnoughts and Sea Power: in Theory and Practice

Students shall assess the changes in geopolitics caused by the advent of Dreadnought battleships between 1910 and 1940. How caused the three naval rivalries changed and bled into other affairs of the Great Powers, namely the Anglo-American naval race, the balance of power between Austria and France in the Mediterranean and Russo-Japanese dreadnought race. Finally, whether or not the leadership in the Great Atlantic War could or should have known before hand, whether the Dreadnought had by the outbreak of war in 1940 been superseded by the Aircraft Carrier and the Submarine. There will be one long paper issued halfway through the semester and an exam at the end of the year.

Wednesday 9:30-11:30:
Prof. Haile Kidane / 'Black Rome': Examining the height of Ethiopian power

Students will study Ethiopia's rise to influential regional power in the mid-20th century, as well as the after-effects of the failed occupation of Uganda. Students will be asked to examine and question to which extent this was due to the aftermath of the Great Atlantic War versus specific attributes for Ethiopia, and how Ethiopia managed to cause a 'brain drain' from the newly independent African nations.

Wednesday 15:15-17:15:
Prof. Philip Wall / Hebraic Plots in Modern Society

Students will investigate the pre-Sanitation record of infiltration into European and African society by Hebrews, their efforts to incite wars between nations, with a particular focus on Great Power Wars, and their attempts to maintain colonial structures. The course will end with a look at the rise of Sanitation policies throughout the world, with the students encouraged to think critically about and reassess the legacy of the national heroes who carried out this mission. The course is Pass/Fail, and Mandatory to be taken at some point in the semester.
 

TheHatMan98

Well-known member
10 Most Powerful countries in the World in 2020 (in no particular order)

1) The Kingdom of Jerusalem and Antioch [1]

2)

3)

4)

5)

6)

7)

8)

9)

10)


[1] The former Crusader states have come along way in their 900 years. Where as they once were dependant on the good will of the Pope, whichever European monarch fancied death or glory against the heathen, or pinning the Byzantine Empire and rival Islamic Kingdoms against one another: now, exactly 700 years since the union of Jerusalem and Antioch, almost the entire world economy is dependant of the good will of the King in Jerusalem. Since the start of the last century, the vast majority of oil and gas in the Levant has been exploited state owned companies, and those further south and east by its private ones, added with its seizure of the Suez Canal in 1980s, King John X can bring the world's economy to a stand still with it closure. However, he might have trouble with following it through. In recent years the political situation has become increasingly wishy-washy, while the army has always been relied upon to keep order, it has long lost its talent for fighting against the odds, merely kept busy by Islamic separatists in Sinai and East of the River Jordan, but it consoles itself with a powerful airforce, and the biggest navy its side of Malta. Politically, John X is one of the few remaining absolute monarchs left in the world, however reforms over the past century has given smaller amounts of local democracy and government to his people, and a level of social security that many Socialist states envy which hasn't helped abate the tide of separatist and strikers that provide the occasional headache to the King.
 
Last edited:

neonduke

Inspector Paolo Germi
10 Most Powerful countries in the World in 2020 (in no particular order)

1) The Kingdom of Jerusalem and Antioch [1]

2) Serene Adriatic Republic [2]

3)

4)

5)

6)

7)

8)

9)

10)


[1] The former Crusader states have come along way in their 900 years. Where as they once were dependant on the good will of the Pope, whichever European monarch fancied death or glory against the heathen, or pinning the Byzantine Empire and rival Islamic Kingdoms against one another: now, exactly 700 years since the union of Jerusalem and Antioch, almost the entire world economy is dependant of the good will of the King in Jerusalem. Since the start of the last century, the vast majority of oil and gas in the Levant has been exploited state owned companies, and those further south and east by its private ones, added with its seizure of the Suez Canal in 1980s, King John X can bring the world's economy to a stand still with it closure. However, he might have trouble with following it through. In recent years the political situation has become increasingly wishy-washy, while the army has always been relied upon to keep order, it has long lost its talent for fighting against the odds, merely kept busy by Islamic separatists in Sinai and East of the River Jordan, but it consoles itself with a powerful airforce, and the biggest navy its side of Malta. Politically, John X is one of the few remaining absolute monarchs left in the world, however reforms over the past century has given smaller amounts of local democracy and government to his people, and a level of social security that many Socialist states envy which hasn't helped abate the tide of separatist and strikers that provide the occasional headache to the King.

[2] Stretching from Trentino in the North and down the whole Adriatic coast to Morea the Grand Adriatic Republic is a Federal Republic and continuation of the Most Serene Republic Of Venice following it's reorganization in the mid 19th Century. The Republic is comprised of 6 States, Greater Veneto (compromising the Modena/Trentino/Veneto region), Istria, Dalmatia, Ragusa, Albania and Morea. The latter two have a history of separatist movements and consequently also have devolved administrations though the 2015 Independence referendum in Morea was defeated 65/35% indicating separatist feeling is not widespread.

Having gradually lost its traditional trading dominance to Jerusalem the Republic has diversified into banking, financial and IT services and high tech innovation and R&D. indeed the greater Bologna metropolitan area is one of the principal cyber security R&D hubs in Europe, with the Greater Veneto area having the highest GDP per capita rates in the world. However the Southern states, principally Albania remain primarily agricultural and traditional manufacturing hubs and therefore poorer which does help fuel resentment towards the richer North.

Militarily the Republic maintains a medium sized but high tech Navy, a strong Air arm and a small but well equipped Army. It's primary means of defence, ever since it's development in the 1910s, has been it's large stockpile of Atomics. The Republic has a first strike policy upon the invasion of an part of its territory and as the Republic is the only nation to have ever used an Atomic in anger this is seen as a very credible threat.
 

Alex Richards

She needs an artificial Mountain, not AV
Patreon supporter
Published by SLP
Location
Derbyshire
10 Most Powerful countries in the World in 2020 (in no particular order)

1) The Kingdom of Jerusalem and Antioch [1]

2) Serene Adriatic Republic [2]

3) State of Wu [3]

4)

5)

6)

7)

8)

9)

10)


[1] The former Crusader states have come along way in their 900 years. Where as they once were dependant on the good will of the Pope, whichever European monarch fancied death or glory against the heathen, or pinning the Byzantine Empire and rival Islamic Kingdoms against one another: now, exactly 700 years since the union of Jerusalem and Antioch, almost the entire world economy is dependant of the good will of the King in Jerusalem. Since the start of the last century, the vast majority of oil and gas in the Levant has been exploited state owned companies, and those further south and east by its private ones, added with its seizure of the Suez Canal in 1980s, King John X can bring the world's economy to a stand still with it closure. However, he might have trouble with following it through. In recent years the political situation has become increasingly wishy-washy, while the army has always been relied upon to keep order, it has long lost its talent for fighting against the odds, merely kept busy by Islamic separatists in Sinai and East of the River Jordan, but it consoles itself with a powerful airforce, and the biggest navy its side of Malta. Politically, John X is one of the few remaining absolute monarchs left in the world, however reforms over the past century has given smaller amounts of local democracy and government to his people, and a level of social security that many Socialist states envy which hasn't helped abate the tide of separatist and strikers that provide the occasional headache to the King.

[2] Stretching from Trentino in the North and down the whole Adriatic coast to Morea the Grand Adriatic Republic is a Federal Republic and continuation of the Most Serene Republic Of Venice following it's reorganization in the mid 19th Century. The Republic is comprised of 6 States, Greater Veneto (compromising the Modena/Trentino/Veneto region), Istria, Dalmatia, Ragusa, Albania and Morea. The latter two have a history of separatist movements and consequently also have devolved administrations though the 2015 Independence referendum in Morea was defeated 65/35% indicating separatist feeling is not widespread.

Having gradually lost its traditional trading dominance to Jerusalem the Republic has diversified into banking, financial and IT services and high tech innovation and R&D. indeed the greater Bologna metropolitan area is one of the principal cyber security R&D hubs in Europe, with the Greater Veneto area having the highest GDP per capita rates in the world. However the Southern states, principally Albania remain primarily agricultural and traditional manufacturing hubs and therefore poorer which does help fuel resentment towards the richer North.

Militarily the Republic maintains a medium sized but high tech Navy, a strong Air arm and a small but well equipped Army. It's primary means of defence, ever since it's development in the 1910s, has been it's large stockpile of Atomics. The Republic has a first strike policy upon the invasion of an part of its territory and as the Republic is the only nation to have ever used an Atomic in anger this is seen as a very credible threat.

[3] While the Chinese states have been divided since the collapse of the later Liao dynasty in 1805, it appears that the ancient aphorism of a State long divided uniting may finally be coming to pass. The State of Wu, controlling much of the lower Yangtze, the former Min Kingdom and the island of Formosa, has emerged over the last 20 years as the economic powerhouse of East Asia, surpassing both Joseon and the combined economies of the Nippons. While domestically the emphasis on education and industrialisation have been touted as the chief reasons for this, economists in both Europe and Cabotia claim that the true reason for this is the resumption of free trade across China as a result of the creation of the League for the Prosperity of All-Under-Heaven in 1986. Now leveraging her economic growth into increasing levels of political dominance over the smaller members of the League, many both within and without China are treating Jiangning as the de facto capital for the whole of the organisation.
 

Charles EP M.

Well-known member
Published by SLP
10 Most Powerful countries in the World in 2020 (in no particular order)

1) The Kingdom of Jerusalem and Antioch [1]

2) Serene Adriatic Republic [2]

3) State of Wu [3]

4) Grand Eire [4]

5)

6)

7)

8)

9)

10)


[1] The former Crusader states have come along way in their 900 years. Where as they once were dependant on the good will of the Pope, whichever European monarch fancied death or glory against the heathen, or pinning the Byzantine Empire and rival Islamic Kingdoms against one another: now, exactly 700 years since the union of Jerusalem and Antioch, almost the entire world economy is dependant of the good will of the King in Jerusalem. Since the start of the last century, the vast majority of oil and gas in the Levant has been exploited state owned companies, and those further south and east by its private ones, added with its seizure of the Suez Canal in 1980s, King John X can bring the world's economy to a stand still with it closure. However, he might have trouble with following it through. In recent years the political situation has become increasingly wishy-washy, while the army has always been relied upon to keep order, it has long lost its talent for fighting against the odds, merely kept busy by Islamic separatists in Sinai and East of the River Jordan, but it consoles itself with a powerful airforce, and the biggest navy its side of Malta. Politically, John X is one of the few remaining absolute monarchs left in the world, however reforms over the past century has given smaller amounts of local democracy and government to his people, and a level of social security that many Socialist states envy which hasn't helped abate the tide of separatist and strikers that provide the occasional headache to the King.

[2] Stretching from Trentino in the North and down the whole Adriatic coast to Morea the Grand Adriatic Republic is a Federal Republic and continuation of the Most Serene Republic Of Venice following it's reorganization in the mid 19th Century. The Republic is comprised of 6 States, Greater Veneto (compromising the Modena/Trentino/Veneto region), Istria, Dalmatia, Ragusa, Albania and Morea. The latter two have a history of separatist movements and consequently also have devolved administrations though the 2015 Independence referendum in Morea was defeated 65/35% indicating separatist feeling is not widespread.

Having gradually lost its traditional trading dominance to Jerusalem the Republic has diversified into banking, financial and IT services and high tech innovation and R&D. indeed the greater Bologna metropolitan area is one of the principal cyber security R&D hubs in Europe, with the Greater Veneto area having the highest GDP per capita rates in the world. However the Southern states, principally Albania remain primarily agricultural and traditional manufacturing hubs and therefore poorer which does help fuel resentment towards the richer North.

Militarily the Republic maintains a medium sized but high tech Navy, a strong Air arm and a small but well equipped Army. It's primary means of defence, ever since it's development in the 1910s, has been it's large stockpile of Atomics. The Republic has a first strike policy upon the invasion of an part of its territory and as the Republic is the only nation to have ever used an Atomic in anger this is seen as a very credible threat.

[3] While the Chinese states have been divided since the collapse of the later Liao dynasty in 1805, it appears that the ancient aphorism of a State long divided uniting may finally be coming to pass. The State of Wu, controlling much of the lower Yangtze, the former Min Kingdom and the island of Formosa, has emerged over the last 20 years as the economic powerhouse of East Asia, surpassing both Joseon and the combined economies of the Nippons. While domestically the emphasis on education and industrialisation have been touted as the chief reasons for this, economists in both Europe and Cabotia claim that the true reason for this is the resumption of free trade across China as a result of the creation of the League for the Prosperity of All-Under-Heaven in 1986. Now leveraging her economic growth into increasing levels of political dominance over the smaller members of the League, many both within and without China are treating Jiangning as the de facto capital for the whole of the organisation.


[4] Once a declining power, Grand Eire's investment in cyberwarfare and reforms to the Gael Submarine Force have increased the autocracy's military might. While the economy and living standards remain middle-nation compared to its 19th-to-20th century heyday, and the low-level ethnic insurgencies by Anglo, French, and Welsh rebels continue to kill hundreds a year, High Chancellor Fitzgerald has made the country one that larger, wealthier states have to pay attention to.

This was shown in the One-Hour War between Grand Eire and Iceland when the latter would not extradite 'suspected terrorists'. The complete collapse of the country's power infrastructure, the strikes against Rekyvik port and the raid by special forces brought international condemnation - and failed to capture most of the 'suspects' anyway - but was, as was intended, a clear display of Grand Eire's military doctrine and willingness to use force.
 
10 Most Powerful countries in the World in 2020 (in no particular order)

1) The Kingdom of Jerusalem and Antioch [1]

2) Serene Adriatic Republic [2]

3) State of Wu [3]

4) Grand Eire [4]

5) Confederation of Blumenland [5]

6)

7)

8)

9)

10)


[1] The former Crusader states have come along way in their 900 years. Where as they once were dependant on the good will of the Pope, whichever European monarch fancied death or glory against the heathen, or pinning the Byzantine Empire and rival Islamic Kingdoms against one another: now, exactly 700 years since the union of Jerusalem and Antioch, almost the entire world economy is dependant of the good will of the King in Jerusalem. Since the start of the last century, the vast majority of oil and gas in the Levant has been exploited state owned companies, and those further south and east by its private ones, added with its seizure of the Suez Canal in 1980s, King John X can bring the world's economy to a stand still with it closure. However, he might have trouble with following it through. In recent years the political situation has become increasingly wishy-washy, while the army has always been relied upon to keep order, it has long lost its talent for fighting against the odds, merely kept busy by Islamic separatists in Sinai and East of the River Jordan, but it consoles itself with a powerful airforce, and the biggest navy its side of Malta. Politically, John X is one of the few remaining absolute monarchs left in the world, however reforms over the past century has given smaller amounts of local democracy and government to his people, and a level of social security that many Socialist states envy which hasn't helped abate the tide of separatist and strikers that provide the occasional headache to the King.

[2] Stretching from Trentino in the North and down the whole Adriatic coast to Morea the Grand Adriatic Republic is a Federal Republic and continuation of the Most Serene Republic Of Venice following it's reorganization in the mid 19th Century. The Republic is comprised of 6 States, Greater Veneto (compromising the Modena/Trentino/Veneto region), Istria, Dalmatia, Ragusa, Albania and Morea. The latter two have a history of separatist movements and consequently also have devolved administrations though the 2015 Independence referendum in Morea was defeated 65/35% indicating separatist feeling is not widespread.

Having gradually lost its traditional trading dominance to Jerusalem the Republic has diversified into banking, financial and IT services and high tech innovation and R&D. indeed the greater Bologna metropolitan area is one of the principal cyber security R&D hubs in Europe, with the Greater Veneto area having the highest GDP per capita rates in the world. However the Southern states, principally Albania remain primarily agricultural and traditional manufacturing hubs and therefore poorer which does help fuel resentment towards the richer North.

Militarily the Republic maintains a medium sized but high tech Navy, a strong Air arm and a small but well equipped Army. It's primary means of defence, ever since it's development in the 1910s, has been it's large stockpile of Atomics. The Republic has a first strike policy upon the invasion of an part of its territory and as the Republic is the only nation to have ever used an Atomic in anger this is seen as a very credible threat.

[3] While the Chinese states have been divided since the collapse of the later Liao dynasty in 1805, it appears that the ancient aphorism of a State long divided uniting may finally be coming to pass. The State of Wu, controlling much of the lower Yangtze, the former Min Kingdom and the island of Formosa, has emerged over the last 20 years as the economic powerhouse of East Asia, surpassing both Joseon and the combined economies of the Nippons. While domestically the emphasis on education and industrialisation have been touted as the chief reasons for this, economists in both Europe and Cabotia claim that the true reason for this is the resumption of free trade across China as a result of the creation of the League for the Prosperity of All-Under-Heaven in 1986. Now leveraging her economic growth into increasing levels of political dominance over the smaller members of the League, many both within and without China are treating Jiangning as the de facto capital for the whole of the organisation.

[4] Once a declining power, Grand Eire's investment in cyberwarfare and reforms to the Gael Submarine Force have increased the autocracy's military might. While the economy and living standards remain middle-nation compared to its 19th-to-20th century heyday, and the low-level ethnic insurgencies by Anglo, French, and Welsh rebels continue to kill hundreds a year, High Chancellor Fitzgerald has made the country one that larger, wealthier states have to pay attention to.

This was shown in the One-Hour War between Grand Eire and Iceland when the latter would not extradite 'suspected terrorists'. The complete collapse of the country's power infrastructure, the strikes against Rekyvik port and the raid by special forces brought international condemnation - and failed to capture most of the 'suspects' anyway - but was, as was intended, a clear display of Grand Eire's military doctrine and willingness to use force.

[5] Despite its colourful name, Blumenland has a tarnished reputation. With modern borders stretching from Kuba in the Carib Sea, to the Blumen Peninsula from which the country takes its name, to the Großer Fluss in the west and Scharapek Bay to the north, the Confederation beats Rhineland to have the world’s largest German-speaking population.

One of the oldest continuing democracies in the world – formed when the privately-financed colonies of the north German cities refused to take orders from Vienna following Holy Roman consolidation – Blumenland has historically been associated with racial oppression. While pressure from the emancipatory movement led to the official end of slavery in 1887, racial separation and white rule continued to be enforced by the Black Laws.

A century after emancipation it seemed as though full-scale civil war would break out with aid from socialist nations to dissident groups, but the government of Isai Helms reluctantly began the transition to equality under international pressure. In 2002 former activist Isai Jacobson was elected as the first black Bundespräsident of the Confederation. The new Blumenland has not been as pro-socialist as the Antioch Pact had feared, and the size of its population, economy, and nuclear arsenal still give it an important global role even as its industry has declined.
 

TheHatMan98

Well-known member
10 Most Powerful countries in the World in 2020 (in no particular order)

1) The Kingdom of Jerusalem and Antioch [1]

2) Serene Adriatic Republic [2]

3) State of Wu [3]

4) Grand Eire [4]

5) Confederation of Blumenland [5]

6) Angevin Empire [6]

7)

8)

9)

10)

[1] The former Crusader states have come along way in their 900 years. Where as they once were dependant on the good will of the Pope, whichever European monarch fancied death or glory against the heathen, or pinning the Byzantine Empire and rival Islamic Kingdoms against one another: now, exactly 700 years since the union of Jerusalem and Antioch, almost the entire world economy is dependant of the good will of the King in Jerusalem. Since the start of the last century, the vast majority of oil and gas in the Levant has been exploited state owned companies, and those further south and east by its private ones, added with its seizure of the Suez Canal in 1980s, King John X can bring the world's economy to a stand still with it closure. However, he might have trouble with following it through. In recent years the political situation has become increasingly wishy-washy, while the army has always been relied upon to keep order, it has long lost its talent for fighting against the odds, merely kept busy by Islamic separatists in Sinai and East of the River Jordan, but it consoles itself with a powerful airforce, and the biggest navy its side of Malta. Politically, John X is one of the few remaining absolute monarchs left in the world, however reforms over the past century has given smaller amounts of local democracy and government to his people, and a level of social security that many Socialist states envy which hasn't helped abate the tide of separatist and strikers that provide the occasional headache to the King.

[2] Stretching from Trentino in the North and down the whole Adriatic coast to Morea the Grand Adriatic Republic is a Federal Republic and continuation of the Most Serene Republic Of Venice following it's reorganization in the mid 19th Century. The Republic is comprised of 6 States, Greater Veneto (compromising the Modena/Trentino/Veneto region), Istria, Dalmatia, Ragusa, Albania and Morea. The latter two have a history of separatist movements and consequently also have devolved administrations though the 2015 Independence referendum in Morea was defeated 65/35% indicating separatist feeling is not widespread.

Having gradually lost its traditional trading dominance to Jerusalem the Republic has diversified into banking, financial and IT services and high tech innovation and R&D. indeed the greater Bologna metropolitan area is one of the principal cyber security R&D hubs in Europe, with the Greater Veneto area having the highest GDP per capita rates in the world. However the Southern states, principally Albania remain primarily agricultural and traditional manufacturing hubs and therefore poorer which does help fuel resentment towards the richer North.

Militarily the Republic maintains a medium sized but high tech Navy, a strong Air arm and a small but well equipped Army. It's primary means of defence, ever since it's development in the 1910s, has been it's large stockpile of Atomics. The Republic has a first strike policy upon the invasion of an part of its territory and as the Republic is the only nation to have ever used an Atomic in anger this is seen as a very credible threat.

[3] While the Chinese states have been divided since the collapse of the later Liao dynasty in 1805, it appears that the ancient aphorism of a State long divided uniting may finally be coming to pass. The State of Wu, controlling much of the lower Yangtze, the former Min Kingdom and the island of Formosa, has emerged over the last 20 years as the economic powerhouse of East Asia, surpassing both Joseon and the combined economies of the Nippons. While domestically the emphasis on education and industrialisation have been touted as the chief reasons for this, economists in both Europe and Cabotia claim that the true reason for this is the resumption of free trade across China as a result of the creation of the League for the Prosperity of All-Under-Heaven in 1986. Now leveraging her economic growth into increasing levels of political dominance over the smaller members of the League, many both within and without China are treating Jiangning as the de facto capital for the whole of the organisation.
[4] Once a declining power, Grand Eire's investment in cyberwarfare and reforms to the Gael Submarine Force have increased the autocracy's military might. While the economy and living standards remain middle-nation compared to its 19th-to-20th century heyday, and the low-level ethnic insurgencies by Anglo, French, and Welsh rebels continue to kill hundreds a year, High Chancellor Fitzgerald has made the country one that larger, wealthier states have to pay attention to.

This was shown in the One-Hour War between Grand Eire and Iceland when the latter would not extradite 'suspected terrorists'. The complete collapse of the country's power infrastructure, the strikes against Rekyvik port and the raid by special forces brought international condemnation - and failed to capture most of the 'suspects' anyway - but was, as was intended, a clear display of Grand Eire's military doctrine and willingness to use force.

[5] Despite its colourful name, Blumenland has a tarnished reputation. With modern borders stretching from Kuba in the Carib Sea, to the Blumen Peninsula from which the country takes its name, to the Großer Fluss in the west and Scharapek Bay to the north, the Confederation beats Rhineland to have the world’s largest German-speaking population.

One of the oldest continuing democracies in the world – formed when the privately-financed colonies of the north German cities refused to take orders from Vienna following Holy Roman consolidation – Blumenland has historically been associated with racial oppression. While pressure from the emancipatory movement led to the official end of slavery in 1887, racial separation and white rule continued to be enforced by the Black Laws.

A century after emancipation it seemed as though full-scale civil war would break out with aid from socialist nations to dissident groups, but the government of Isai Helms reluctantly began the transition to equality under international pressure. In 2002 former activist Isai Jacobson was elected as the first black Bundespräsident of the Confederation. The new Blumenland has not been as pro-socialist as the Antioch Pact had feared, and the size of its population, economy, and nuclear arsenal still give it an important global role even as its industry has declined.

[6] Better known as the Dual Monarchy, Angevin is the dominant power in mainland West Europe, stretching from the South of the Pyrenees to Flanders, and dividing the island of Britain and the coast of Brittany with Grand Eire: it's biggest rival. Despite its position in Europe, Angevin interest in Europe traditionally ends at the rivers Rhine and Severn, instead it concentrates on its dominant business interests in Cabotia, Africa and Asia. Uniquely, it is the only Western nation that has retained its original colony in America and Africa, though neither are technically part of either kingdom, with the island of Avalon having its own English derived Parliament and Alger coast a French-Arab États-Généraux.

Economically it has retained a traditional manufacturing and factory based economy, however as competition from Wu and elsewhere has intensified and the issue of Global Heating, the Dual Monarchy has become the leading experimenter with nuclear energy in everyday life and Green industry/renewable resources making it one of the global leaders in fighting climate change, though only so long as it remain profitable on the Parisian Stock Exchange.

The Angevin reliance on profit, money and acquisition also extends to their attitude to the military, as despite the long History of Warrior Kings like Henri II and V, Francois II and Georges I, its military remains comparatively small in every regard - preferring to solve its troubles through subsiding the right rebel group, rival nation or regional power... not it isn't afraid to resort to a little gunboat diplomacy to safeguard its investments, or that its nuclear arsenal is an option it won't resort too.
 

Time Enough

European Pollution Police Force
Pronouns
He/Him
10 Most Powerful countries in the World in 2020 (in no particular order)

1) The Kingdom of Jerusalem and Antioch [1]

2) Serene Adriatic Republic [2]

3) State of Wu [3]

4) Grand Eire [4]

5) Confederation of Blumenland [5]

6) Angevin Empire [6]

7) Aotearoa Cooperative Commonwealth [7]

8)

9)

10)


[1] The former Crusader states have come along way in their 900 years. Where as they once were dependant on the good will of the Pope, whichever European monarch fancied death or glory against the heathen, or pinning the Byzantine Empire and rival Islamic Kingdoms against one another: now, exactly 700 years since the union of Jerusalem and Antioch, almost the entire world economy is dependant of the good will of the King in Jerusalem. Since the start of the last century, the vast majority of oil and gas in the Levant has been exploited state owned companies, and those further south and east by its private ones, added with its seizure of the Suez Canal in 1980s, King John X can bring the world's economy to a stand still with it closure. However, he might have trouble with following it through. In recent years the political situation has become increasingly wishy-washy, while the army has always been relied upon to keep order, it has long lost its talent for fighting against the odds, merely kept busy by Islamic separatists in Sinai and East of the River Jordan, but it consoles itself with a powerful airforce, and the biggest navy its side of Malta. Politically, John X is one of the few remaining absolute monarchs left in the world, however reforms over the past century has given smaller amounts of local democracy and government to his people, and a level of social security that many Socialist states envy which hasn't helped abate the tide of separatist and strikers that provide the occasional headache to the King.

[2] Stretching from Trentino in the North and down the whole Adriatic coast to Morea the Grand Adriatic Republic is a Federal Republic and continuation of the Most Serene Republic Of Venice following it's reorganization in the mid 19th Century. The Republic is comprised of 6 States, Greater Veneto (compromising the Modena/Trentino/Veneto region), Istria, Dalmatia, Ragusa, Albania and Morea. The latter two have a history of separatist movements and consequently also have devolved administrations though the 2015 Independence referendum in Morea was defeated 65/35% indicating separatist feeling is not widespread.

Having gradually lost its traditional trading dominance to Jerusalem the Republic has diversified into banking, financial and IT services and high tech innovation and R&D. indeed the greater Bologna metropolitan area is one of the principal cyber security R&D hubs in Europe, with the Greater Veneto area having the highest GDP per capita rates in the world. However the Southern states, principally Albania remain primarily agricultural and traditional manufacturing hubs and therefore poorer which does help fuel resentment towards the richer North.

Militarily the Republic maintains a medium sized but high tech Navy, a strong Air arm and a small but well equipped Army. It's primary means of defence, ever since it's development in the 1910s, has been it's large stockpile of Atomics. The Republic has a first strike policy upon the invasion of an part of its territory and as the Republic is the only nation to have ever used an Atomic in anger this is seen as a very credible threat.

[3] While the Chinese states have been divided since the collapse of the later Liao dynasty in 1805, it appears that the ancient aphorism of a State long divided uniting may finally be coming to pass. The State of Wu, controlling much of the lower Yangtze, the former Min Kingdom and the island of Formosa, has emerged over the last 20 years as the economic powerhouse of East Asia, surpassing both Joseon and the combined economies of the Nippons. While domestically the emphasis on education and industrialisation have been touted as the chief reasons for this, economists in both Europe and Cabotia claim that the true reason for this is the resumption of free trade across China as a result of the creation of the League for the Prosperity of All-Under-Heaven in 1986. Now leveraging her economic growth into increasing levels of political dominance over the smaller members of the League, many both within and without China are treating Jiangning as the de facto capital for the whole of the organisation.
[4] Once a declining power, Grand Eire's investment in cyberwarfare and reforms to the Gael Submarine Force have increased the autocracy's military might. While the economy and living standards remain middle-nation compared to its 19th-to-20th century heyday, and the low-level ethnic insurgencies by Anglo, French, and Welsh rebels continue to kill hundreds a year, High Chancellor Fitzgerald has made the country one that larger, wealthier states have to pay attention to.

This was shown in the One-Hour War between Grand Eire and Iceland when the latter would not extradite 'suspected terrorists'. The complete collapse of the country's power infrastructure, the strikes against Rekyvik port and the raid by special forces brought international condemnation - and failed to capture most of the 'suspects' anyway - but was, as was intended, a clear display of Grand Eire's military doctrine and willingness to use force.

[5] Despite its colourful name, Blumenland has a tarnished reputation. With modern borders stretching from Kuba in the Carib Sea, to the Blumen Peninsula from which the country takes its name, to the Großer Fluss in the west and Scharapek Bay to the north, the Confederation beats Rhineland to have the world’s largest German-speaking population.

One of the oldest continuing democracies in the world – formed when the privately-financed colonies of the north German cities refused to take orders from Vienna following Holy Roman consolidation – Blumenland has historically been associated with racial oppression. While pressure from the emancipatory movement led to the official end of slavery in 1887, racial separation and white rule continued to be enforced by the Black Laws.

A century after emancipation it seemed as though full-scale civil war would break out with aid from socialist nations to dissident groups, but the government of Isai Helms reluctantly began the transition to equality under international pressure. In 2002 former activist Isai Jacobson was elected as the first black Bundespräsident of the Confederation. The new Blumenland has not been as pro-socialist as the Antioch Pact had feared, and the size of its population, economy, and nuclear arsenal still give it an important global role even as its industry has declined.

[6] Better known as the Dual Monarchy, Angevin is the dominant power in mainland West Europe, stretching from the South of the Pyrenees to Flanders, and dividing the island of Britain and the coast of Brittany with Grand Eire: it's biggest rival. Despite its position in Europe, Angevin interest in Europe traditionally ends at the rivers Rhine and Severn, instead it concentrates on its dominant business interests in Cabotia, Africa and Asia. Uniquely, it is the only Western nation that has retained its original colony in America and Africa, though neither are technically part of either kingdom, with the island of Avalon having its own English derived Parliament and Alger coast a French-Arab États-Généraux.

Economically it has retained a traditional manufacturing and factory based economy, however as competition from Wu and elsewhere has intensified and the issue of Global Heating, the Dual Monarchy has become the leading experimenter with nuclear energy in everyday life and Green industry/renewable resources making it one of the global leaders in fighting climate change, though only so long as it remain profitable on the Parisian Stock Exchange.

The Angevin reliance on profit, money and acquisition also extends to their attitude to the military, as despite the long History of Warrior Kings like Henri II and V, Francois II and Georges I, its military remains comparatively small in every regard - preferring to solve its troubles through subsiding the right rebel group, rival nation or regional power... not it isn't afraid to resort to a little gunboat diplomacy to safeguard its investments, or that its nuclear arsenal is an option it won't resort too.

[7] Originally the Aotearoa Confederation, the collapse of the Maori tribe system and the General Strike of 1920 would radically alter the Aotearoa state. Inspired by a variety of Syndicalist and Socialist nations the Aotearoa Cooperative Commonwealth would expand quickly, coming to dominate the Oceania area through it’s mixture of competitive Market Socialism and Naval power.

The nation would invest in a variety of industries from wind power, mutton, coal and nuclear power and would use that to as a bargaining powers against the European Powers. Alongside this and a large army would allow it to beat the Nipponese forces in the 1950s, leading to Nippon’s near collapse.

In the aftermath the Aotearoa would continue to not only claim more land in Oceania and Asia but also would establish a variety of trade links with the European powers and with fledgling Socialist nations (many inspired by the Commonwealth itself) and allow the nation to become a power in its own right.
 

Walpurgisnacht

Build a glass asylum
Location
Banned from the forum
Pronouns
He/Him
10 Most Powerful countries in the World in 2020 (in no particular order)

1) The Kingdom of Jerusalem and Antioch [1]

2) Serene Adriatic Republic [2]

3) State of Wu [3]

4) Grand Eire [4]

5) Confederation of Blumenland [5]

6) Angevin Empire [6]

7) Aotearoa Cooperative Commonwealth [7]

8) United Association of Antipodial Phalanxes [8]

9)

10)

[1] The former Crusader states have come along way in their 900 years. Where as they once were dependant on the good will of the Pope, whichever European monarch fancied death or glory against the heathen, or pinning the Byzantine Empire and rival Islamic Kingdoms against one another: now, exactly 700 years since the union of Jerusalem and Antioch, almost the entire world economy is dependant of the good will of the King in Jerusalem. Since the start of the last century, the vast majority of oil and gas in the Levant has been exploited state owned companies, and those further south and east by its private ones, added with its seizure of the Suez Canal in 1980s, King John X can bring the world's economy to a stand still with it closure. However, he might have trouble with following it through. In recent years the political situation has become increasingly wishy-washy, while the army has always been relied upon to keep order, it has long lost its talent for fighting against the odds, merely kept busy by Islamic separatists in Sinai and East of the River Jordan, but it consoles itself with a powerful airforce, and the biggest navy its side of Malta. Politically, John X is one of the few remaining absolute monarchs left in the world, however reforms over the past century has given smaller amounts of local democracy and government to his people, and a level of social security that many Socialist states envy which hasn't helped abate the tide of separatist and strikers that provide the occasional headache to the King.

[2] Stretching from Trentino in the North and down the whole Adriatic coast to Morea the Grand Adriatic Republic is a Federal Republic and continuation of the Most Serene Republic Of Venice following it's reorganization in the mid 19th Century. The Republic is comprised of 6 States, Greater Veneto (compromising the Modena/Trentino/Veneto region), Istria, Dalmatia, Ragusa, Albania and Morea. The latter two have a history of separatist movements and consequently also have devolved administrations though the 2015 Independence referendum in Morea was defeated 65/35% indicating separatist feeling is not widespread.

Having gradually lost its traditional trading dominance to Jerusalem the Republic has diversified into banking, financial and IT services and high tech innovation and R&D. indeed the greater Bologna metropolitan area is one of the principal cyber security R&D hubs in Europe, with the Greater Veneto area having the highest GDP per capita rates in the world. However the Southern states, principally Albania remain primarily agricultural and traditional manufacturing hubs and therefore poorer which does help fuel resentment towards the richer North.

Militarily the Republic maintains a medium sized but high tech Navy, a strong Air arm and a small but well equipped Army. It's primary means of defence, ever since it's development in the 1910s, has been it's large stockpile of Atomics. The Republic has a first strike policy upon the invasion of an part of its territory and as the Republic is the only nation to have ever used an Atomic in anger this is seen as a very credible threat.

[3] While the Chinese states have been divided since the collapse of the later Liao dynasty in 1805, it appears that the ancient aphorism of a State long divided uniting may finally be coming to pass. The State of Wu, controlling much of the lower Yangtze, the former Min Kingdom and the island of Formosa, has emerged over the last 20 years as the economic powerhouse of East Asia, surpassing both Joseon and the combined economies of the Nippons. While domestically the emphasis on education and industrialisation have been touted as the chief reasons for this, economists in both Europe and Cabotia claim that the true reason for this is the resumption of free trade across China as a result of the creation of the League for the Prosperity of All-Under-Heaven in 1986. Now leveraging her economic growth into increasing levels of political dominance over the smaller members of the League, many both within and without China are treating Jiangning as the de facto capital for the whole of the organisation.

[4] Once a declining power, Grand Eire's investment in cyberwarfare and reforms to the Gael Submarine Force have increased the autocracy's military might. While the economy and living standards remain middle-nation compared to its 19th-to-20th century heyday, and the low-level ethnic insurgencies by Anglo, French, and Welsh rebels continue to kill hundreds a year, High Chancellor Fitzgerald has made the country one that larger, wealthier states have to pay attention to.

This was shown in the One-Hour War between Grand Eire and Iceland when the latter would not extradite 'suspected terrorists'. The complete collapse of the country's power infrastructure, the strikes against Rekyvik port and the raid by special forces brought international condemnation - and failed to capture most of the 'suspects' anyway - but was, as was intended, a clear display of Grand Eire's military doctrine and willingness to use force.

[5] Despite its colourful name, Blumenland has a tarnished reputation. With modern borders stretching from Kuba in the Carib Sea, to the Blumen Peninsula from which the country takes its name, to the Großer Fluss in the west and Scharapek Bay to the north, the Confederation beats Rhineland to have the world’s largest German-speaking population.

One of the oldest continuing democracies in the world – formed when the privately-financed colonies of the north German cities refused to take orders from Vienna following Holy Roman consolidation – Blumenland has historically been associated with racial oppression. While pressure from the emancipatory movement led to the official end of slavery in 1887, racial separation and white rule continued to be enforced by the Black Laws.

A century after emancipation it seemed as though full-scale civil war would break out with aid from socialist nations to dissident groups, but the government of Isai Helms reluctantly began the transition to equality under international pressure. In 2002 former activist Isai Jacobson was elected as the first black Bundespräsident of the Confederation. The new Blumenland has not been as pro-socialist as the Antioch Pact had feared, and the size of its population, economy, and nuclear arsenal still give it an important global role even as its industry has declined.

[6] Better known as the Dual Monarchy, Angevin is the dominant power in mainland West Europe, stretching from the south of the Pyrenees to Flanders, and dividing the island of Britain and the coast of Brittany with Grand Eire: it's biggest rival. Despite its position in Europe, Angevin interest in Europe traditionally ends at the rivers Rhine and Severn, instead it concentrates on its dominant business interests in Cabotia, Africa and Asia. Uniquely, it is the only Western nation that has retained its original colonies in Cabotia and Africa, though neither are technically part of either kingdom, with the island of Avalon having its own English derived Parliament and Alger coast a French-Arab États-Généraux.

Economically it has retained a traditional manufacturing and factory based economy, however as competition from Wu and elsewhere has intensified and the issue of Global Heating, the Dual Monarchy has become the leading experimenter with nuclear energy in everyday life and green industry/renewable resources making it one of the global leaders in fighting climate change, though only so long as it remain profitable on the Parisian Stock Exchange.

The Angevin reliance on profit, money and acquisition also extends to their attitude to the military, as despite the long History of Warrior Kings like Henri II and V, Francois II and Georges I, its military remains comparatively small in every regard - preferring to solve its troubles through subsiding the right rebel group, rival nation or regional power... not it isn't afraid to resort to a little gunboat diplomacy to safeguard its investments, or that its nuclear arsenal is an option it won't resort too.

[7] Originally the Aotearoa Confederation, the collapse of the Maori tribe system and the General Strike of 1920 would radically alter the Aotearoa state. Inspired by a variety of syndicalist and socialist nations the Aotearoa Cooperative Commonwealth would expand quickly, coming to dominate the Oceania area through it’s mixture of competitive market socialism and naval power.

The nation would invest in a variety of industries from wind power, mutton, coal and nuclear power and would use that to as a bargaining powers against the European Powers. Alongside this and a large army would allow it to beat the Nipponese forces in the 1950s, leading to Nippon’s near collapse.

In the aftermath the Aotearoa would continue to not only claim more land in Oceania and Asia but also would establish a variety of trade links with the European powers and allow the nation to become a power in its own right.

[8] The sleeping tiger of the world stage, Antipodia has remained largely closed to outside influences since the settlers' Fourierian revolution against Grand Eire's colonial government. Since then, much is speculation. Official propaganda paints the phalanstery system of worker collectives as having revolutionised industrial labour, abolished social malaise, and enabled individual desires and creativity to flourish. The accounts of desperate refugees and satellite luxigraphs paint a different story--prisoners and natives are worked until they drop, elite phalanstery overseers maintain harems of their choice using the Fairy Corps while living like kings, and spreading "disharmonic" media is punishable by death.

Bellicose to all its neighbours, Antipodia remains a great power thanks to ruthless suppression of opposition by the Council of Overseers, and peddling the riches of their mines around the world to less-discerning states and corporations. That, and nuclear weaponry discouraging attack. Unfortunately for the regime, they may soon be heading towards a problem they cannot solve. While the state claims that the melting of the poles due to Global Heating is just another demonstration of Fourier's genius, brushfires and the destruction of habitable land is putting an already-overworked police state under severe strain. The regime is moving towards an even harder line as a result, with Overseer Chair Isherwood recently declaring "years of fire ahead for the so-called socialists of the Western Isles" in a public RV address. This line of action will probably lead to a severe national collapse in a little under a decade.
 

Charles EP M.

Well-known member
Published by SLP
10 Most Powerful countries in the World in 2020 (in no particular order)

1) The Kingdom of Jerusalem and Antioch [1]

2) Serene Adriatic Republic [2]

3) State of Wu [3]

4) Grand Eire [4]

5) Confederation of Blumenland [5]

6) Angevin Empire [6]

7) Aotearoa Cooperative Commonwealth [7]

8) United Association of Antipodial Phalanxes [8]

9) Congo Confederacy [9]

10)

[1] The former Crusader states have come along way in their 900 years. Where as they once were dependant on the good will of the Pope, whichever European monarch fancied death or glory against the heathen, or pinning the Byzantine Empire and rival Islamic Kingdoms against one another: now, exactly 700 years since the union of Jerusalem and Antioch, almost the entire world economy is dependant of the good will of the King in Jerusalem. Since the start of the last century, the vast majority of oil and gas in the Levant has been exploited state owned companies, and those further south and east by its private ones, added with its seizure of the Suez Canal in 1980s, King John X can bring the world's economy to a stand still with it closure. However, he might have trouble with following it through. In recent years the political situation has become increasingly wishy-washy, while the army has always been relied upon to keep order, it has long lost its talent for fighting against the odds, merely kept busy by Islamic separatists in Sinai and East of the River Jordan, but it consoles itself with a powerful airforce, and the biggest navy its side of Malta. Politically, John X is one of the few remaining absolute monarchs left in the world, however reforms over the past century has given smaller amounts of local democracy and government to his people, and a level of social security that many Socialist states envy which hasn't helped abate the tide of separatist and strikers that provide the occasional headache to the King.

[2] Stretching from Trentino in the North and down the whole Adriatic coast to Morea the Grand Adriatic Republic is a Federal Republic and continuation of the Most Serene Republic Of Venice following it's reorganization in the mid 19th Century. The Republic is comprised of 6 States, Greater Veneto (compromising the Modena/Trentino/Veneto region), Istria, Dalmatia, Ragusa, Albania and Morea. The latter two have a history of separatist movements and consequently also have devolved administrations though the 2015 Independence referendum in Morea was defeated 65/35% indicating separatist feeling is not widespread.

Having gradually lost its traditional trading dominance to Jerusalem the Republic has diversified into banking, financial and IT services and high tech innovation and R&D. indeed the greater Bologna metropolitan area is one of the principal cyber security R&D hubs in Europe, with the Greater Veneto area having the highest GDP per capita rates in the world. However the Southern states, principally Albania remain primarily agricultural and traditional manufacturing hubs and therefore poorer which does help fuel resentment towards the richer North.

Militarily the Republic maintains a medium sized but high tech Navy, a strong Air arm and a small but well equipped Army. It's primary means of defence, ever since it's development in the 1910s, has been it's large stockpile of Atomics. The Republic has a first strike policy upon the invasion of an part of its territory and as the Republic is the only nation to have ever used an Atomic in anger this is seen as a very credible threat.

[3] While the Chinese states have been divided since the collapse of the later Liao dynasty in 1805, it appears that the ancient aphorism of a State long divided uniting may finally be coming to pass. The State of Wu, controlling much of the lower Yangtze, the former Min Kingdom and the island of Formosa, has emerged over the last 20 years as the economic powerhouse of East Asia, surpassing both Joseon and the combined economies of the Nippons. While domestically the emphasis on education and industrialisation have been touted as the chief reasons for this, economists in both Europe and Cabotia claim that the true reason for this is the resumption of free trade across China as a result of the creation of the League for the Prosperity of All-Under-Heaven in 1986. Now leveraging her economic growth into increasing levels of political dominance over the smaller members of the League, many both within and without China are treating Jiangning as the de facto capital for the whole of the organisation.

[4] Once a declining power, Grand Eire's investment in cyberwarfare and reforms to the Gael Submarine Force have increased the autocracy's military might. While the economy and living standards remain middle-nation compared to its 19th-to-20th century heyday, and the low-level ethnic insurgencies by Anglo, French, and Welsh rebels continue to kill hundreds a year, High Chancellor Fitzgerald has made the country one that larger, wealthier states have to pay attention to.

This was shown in the One-Hour War between Grand Eire and Iceland when the latter would not extradite 'suspected terrorists'. The complete collapse of the country's power infrastructure, the strikes against Rekyvik port and the raid by special forces brought international condemnation - and failed to capture most of the 'suspects' anyway - but was, as was intended, a clear display of Grand Eire's military doctrine and willingness to use force.

[5] Despite its colourful name, Blumenland has a tarnished reputation. With modern borders stretching from Kuba in the Carib Sea, to the Blumen Peninsula from which the country takes its name, to the Großer Fluss in the west and Scharapek Bay to the north, the Confederation beats Rhineland to have the world’s largest German-speaking population.

One of the oldest continuing democracies in the world – formed when the privately-financed colonies of the north German cities refused to take orders from Vienna following Holy Roman consolidation – Blumenland has historically been associated with racial oppression. While pressure from the emancipatory movement led to the official end of slavery in 1887, racial separation and white rule continued to be enforced by the Black Laws.

A century after emancipation it seemed as though full-scale civil war would break out with aid from socialist nations to dissident groups, but the government of Isai Helms reluctantly began the transition to equality under international pressure. In 2002 former activist Isai Jacobson was elected as the first black Bundespräsident of the Confederation. The new Blumenland has not been as pro-socialist as the Antioch Pact had feared, and the size of its population, economy, and nuclear arsenal still give it an important global role even as its industry has declined.

[6] Better known as the Dual Monarchy, Angevin is the dominant power in mainland West Europe, stretching from the south of the Pyrenees to Flanders, and dividing the island of Britain and the coast of Brittany with Grand Eire: it's biggest rival. Despite its position in Europe, Angevin interest in Europe traditionally ends at the rivers Rhine and Severn, instead it concentrates on its dominant business interests in Cabotia, Africa and Asia. Uniquely, it is the only Western nation that has retained its original colonies in Cabotia and Africa, though neither are technically part of either kingdom, with the island of Avalon having its own English derived Parliament and Alger coast a French-Arab États-Généraux.

Economically it has retained a traditional manufacturing and factory based economy, however as competition from Wu and elsewhere has intensified and the issue of Global Heating, the Dual Monarchy has become the leading experimenter with nuclear energy in everyday life and green industry/renewable resources making it one of the global leaders in fighting climate change, though only so long as it remain profitable on the Parisian Stock Exchange.

The Angevin reliance on profit, money and acquisition also extends to their attitude to the military, as despite the long History of Warrior Kings like Henri II and V, Francois II and Georges I, its military remains comparatively small in every regard - preferring to solve its troubles through subsiding the right rebel group, rival nation or regional power... not it isn't afraid to resort to a little gunboat diplomacy to safeguard its investments, or that its nuclear arsenal is an option it won't resort too.

[7] Originally the Aotearoa Confederation, the collapse of the Maori tribe system and the General Strike of 1920 would radically alter the Aotearoa state. Inspired by a variety of syndicalist and socialist nations the Aotearoa Cooperative Commonwealth would expand quickly, coming to dominate the Oceania area through it’s mixture of competitive market socialism and naval power.

The nation would invest in a variety of industries from wind power, mutton, coal and nuclear power and would use that to as a bargaining powers against the European Powers. Alongside this and a large army would allow it to beat the Nipponese forces in the 1950s, leading to Nippon’s near collapse.

In the aftermath the Aotearoa would continue to not only claim more land in Oceania and Asia but also would establish a variety of trade links with the European powers and allow the nation to become a power in its own right.

[8] The sleeping tiger of the world stage, Antipodia has remained largely closed to outside influences since the settlers' Fourierian revolution against Grand Eire's colonial government. Since then, much is speculation. Official propaganda paints the phalanstery system of worker collectives as having revolutionised industrial labour, abolished social malaise, and enabled individual desires and creativity to flourish. The accounts of desperate refugees and satellite luxigraphs paint a different story--prisoners and natives are worked until they drop, elite phalanstery overseers maintain harems of their choice using the Fairy Corps while living like kings, and spreading "disharmonic" media is punishable by death.

Bellicose to all its neighbours, Antipodia remains a great power thanks to ruthless suppression of opposition by the Council of Overseers, and peddling the riches of their mines around the world to less-discerning states and corporations. That, and nuclear weaponry discouraging attack. Unfortunately for the regime, they may soon be heading towards a problem they cannot solve. While the state claims that the melting of the poles due to Global Heating is just another demonstration of Fourier's genius, brushfires and the destruction of habitable land is putting an already-overworked police state under severe strain. The regime is moving towards an even harder line as a result, with Overseer Chair Isherwood recently declaring "years of fire ahead for the so-called socialists of the Western Isles" in a public RV address. This line of action will probably lead to a severe national collapse in a little under a decade.

[9] Actually a federal state due to a hundred years of change, the most powerful kingdoms in the Congo region united to hold off colonial forces but otherwise remained neutral - making themselves a necessary transit point and trader. Being a power in first rubber, then minerals for computing equipment, and developing a strong, respected banking sector has made them one of the great powers and the financial juggernaut of Africa. As one of the five largest economies for the last forty years and still neutral, "where Congo goes, the economy goes" as the saying also goes.

It's unclear how the CC would do if it came to a war, having not fought one in over seventy years outside of a few peacekeeping contributions. Every eighteen-year-old does national service, there's an expensive air force, and the Rangers have proven to be elite forces in peacekeeping, but they could mostly be a paper tiger - not that anyone seems eager to test that.
 

TheHatMan98

Well-known member
10 Most Powerful countries in the World in 2020 (in no particular order)

1) The Kingdom of Jerusalem and Antioch [1]

2) Serene Adriatic Republic [2]

3) State of Wu [3]

4) Grand Eire [4]

5) Confederation of Blumenland [5]

6) Angevin Empire [6]

7) Aotearoa Cooperative Commonwealth [7]

8) United Association of Antipodial Phalanxes [8]

9) Congo Confederacy [9]

10) New Byzantine Republic [10]

[1] The former Crusader states have come along way in their 900 years. Where as they once were dependant on the good will of the Pope, whichever European monarch fancied death or glory against the heathen, or pinning the Byzantine Empire and rival Islamic Kingdoms against one another: now, exactly 700 years since the union of Jerusalem and Antioch, almost the entire world economy is dependant of the good will of the King in Jerusalem. Since the start of the last century, the vast majority of oil and gas in the Levant has been exploited state owned companies, and those further south and east by its private ones, added with its seizure of the Suez Canal in 1980s, King John X can bring the world's economy to a stand still with it closure. However, he might have trouble with following it through. In recent years the political situation has become increasingly wishy-washy, while the army has always been relied upon to keep order, it has long lost its talent for fighting against the odds, merely kept busy by Islamic separatists in Sinai and East of the River Jordan, but it consoles itself with a powerful airforce, and the biggest navy its side of Malta. Politically, John X is one of the few remaining absolute monarchs left in the world, however reforms over the past century has given smaller amounts of local democracy and government to his people, and a level of social security that many Socialist states envy which hasn't helped abate the tide of separatist and strikers that provide the occasional headache to the King.

[2] Stretching from Trentino in the North and down the whole Adriatic coast to Morea the Grand Adriatic Republic is a Federal Republic and continuation of the Most Serene Republic Of Venice following it's reorganization in the mid 19th Century. The Republic is comprised of 6 States, Greater Veneto (compromising the Modena/Trentino/Veneto region), Istria, Dalmatia, Ragusa, Albania and Morea. The latter two have a history of separatist movements and consequently also have devolved administrations though the 2015 Independence referendum in Morea was defeated 65/35% indicating separatist feeling is not widespread.

Having gradually lost its traditional trading dominance to Jerusalem the Republic has diversified into banking, financial and IT services and high tech innovation and R&D. indeed the greater Bologna metropolitan area is one of the principal cyber security R&D hubs in Europe, with the Greater Veneto area having the highest GDP per capita rates in the world. However the Southern states, principally Albania remain primarily agricultural and traditional manufacturing hubs and therefore poorer which does help fuel resentment towards the richer North.

Militarily the Republic maintains a medium sized but high tech Navy, a strong Air arm and a small but well equipped Army. It's primary means of defence, ever since it's development in the 1910s, has been it's large stockpile of Atomics. The Republic has a first strike policy upon the invasion of an part of its territory and as the Republic is the only nation to have ever used an Atomic in anger this is seen as a very credible threat.

[3] While the Chinese states have been divided since the collapse of the later Liao dynasty in 1805, it appears that the ancient aphorism of a State long divided uniting may finally be coming to pass. The State of Wu, controlling much of the lower Yangtze, the former Min Kingdom and the island of Formosa, has emerged over the last 20 years as the economic powerhouse of East Asia, surpassing both Joseon and the combined economies of the Nippons. While domestically the emphasis on education and industrialisation have been touted as the chief reasons for this, economists in both Europe and Cabotia claim that the true reason for this is the resumption of free trade across China as a result of the creation of the League for the Prosperity of All-Under-Heaven in 1986. Now leveraging her economic growth into increasing levels of political dominance over the smaller members of the League, many both within and without China are treating Jiangning as the de facto capital for the whole of the organisation.

[4] Once a declining power, Grand Eire's investment in cyberwarfare and reforms to the Gael Submarine Force have increased the autocracy's military might. While the economy and living standards remain middle-nation compared to its 19th-to-20th century heyday, and the low-level ethnic insurgencies by Anglo, French, and Welsh rebels continue to kill hundreds a year, High Chancellor Fitzgerald has made the country one that larger, wealthier states have to pay attention to.

This was shown in the One-Hour War between Grand Eire and Iceland when the latter would not extradite 'suspected terrorists'. The complete collapse of the country's power infrastructure, the strikes against Rekyvik port and the raid by special forces brought international condemnation - and failed to capture most of the 'suspects' anyway - but was, as was intended, a clear display of Grand Eire's military doctrine and willingness to use force.

[5] Despite its colourful name, Blumenland has a tarnished reputation. With modern borders stretching from Kuba in the Carib Sea, to the Blumen Peninsula from which the country takes its name, to the Großer Fluss in the west and Scharapek Bay to the north, the Confederation beats Rhineland to have the world’s largest German-speaking population.

One of the oldest continuing democracies in the world – formed when the privately-financed colonies of the north German cities refused to take orders from Vienna following Holy Roman consolidation – Blumenland has historically been associated with racial oppression. While pressure from the emancipatory movement led to the official end of slavery in 1887, racial separation and white rule continued to be enforced by the Black Laws.

A century after emancipation it seemed as though full-scale civil war would break out with aid from socialist nations to dissident groups, but the government of Isai Helms reluctantly began the transition to equality under international pressure. In 2002 former activist Isai Jacobson was elected as the first black Bundespräsident of the Confederation. The new Blumenland has not been as pro-socialist as the Antioch Pact had feared, and the size of its population, economy, and nuclear arsenal still give it an important global role even as its industry has declined.

[6] Better known as the Dual Monarchy, Angevin is the dominant power in mainland West Europe, stretching from the south of the Pyrenees to Flanders, and dividing the island of Britain and the coast of Brittany with Grand Eire: it's biggest rival. Despite its position in Europe, Angevin interest in Europe traditionally ends at the rivers Rhine and Severn, instead it concentrates on its dominant business interests in Cabotia, Africa and Asia. Uniquely, it is the only Western nation that has retained its original colonies in Cabotia and Africa, though neither are technically part of either kingdom, with the island of Avalon having its own English derived Parliament and Alger coast a French-Arab États-Généraux.

Economically it has retained a traditional manufacturing and factory based economy, however as competition from Wu and elsewhere has intensified and the issue of Global Heating, the Dual Monarchy has become the leading experimenter with nuclear energy in everyday life and green industry/renewable resources making it one of the global leaders in fighting climate change, though only so long as it remain profitable on the Parisian Stock Exchange.

The Angevin reliance on profit, money and acquisition also extends to their attitude to the military, as despite the long History of Warrior Kings like Henri II and V, Francois II and Georges I, its military remains comparatively small in every regard - preferring to solve its troubles through subsiding the right rebel group, rival nation or regional power... not it isn't afraid to resort to a little gunboat diplomacy to safeguard its investments, or that its nuclear arsenal is an option it won't resort too.

[7] Originally the Aotearoa Confederation, the collapse of the Maori tribe system and the General Strike of 1920 would radically alter the Aotearoa state. Inspired by a variety of syndicalist and socialist nations the Aotearoa Cooperative Commonwealth would expand quickly, coming to dominate the Oceania area through it’s mixture of competitive market socialism and naval power.

The nation would invest in a variety of industries from wind power, mutton, coal and nuclear power and would use that to as a bargaining powers against the European Powers. Alongside this and a large army would allow it to beat the Nipponese forces in the 1950s, leading to Nippon’s near collapse.

In the aftermath the Aotearoa would continue to not only claim more land in Oceania and Asia but also would establish a variety of trade links with the European powers and allow the nation to become a power in its own right.

[8] The sleeping tiger of the world stage, Antipodia has remained largely closed to outside influences since the settlers' Fourierian revolution against Grand Eire's colonial government. Since then, much is speculation. Official propaganda paints the phalanstery system of worker collectives as having revolutionised industrial labour, abolished social malaise, and enabled individual desires and creativity to flourish. The accounts of desperate refugees and satellite luxigraphs paint a different story--prisoners and natives are worked until they drop, elite phalanstery overseers maintain harems of their choice using the Fairy Corps while living like kings, and spreading "disharmonic" media is punishable by death.

Bellicose to all its neighbours, Antipodia remains a great power thanks to ruthless suppression of opposition by the Council of Overseers, and peddling the riches of their mines around the world to less-discerning states and corporations. That, and nuclear weaponry discouraging attack. Unfortunately for the regime, they may soon be heading towards a problem they cannot solve. While the state claims that the melting of the poles due to Global Heating is just another demonstration of Fourier's genius, brushfires and the destruction of habitable land is putting an already-overworked police state under severe strain. The regime is moving towards an even harder line as a result, with Overseer Chair Isherwood recently declaring "years of fire ahead for the so-called socialists of the Western Isles" in a public RV address. This line of action will probably lead to a severe national collapse in a little under a decade.

[9] Actually a federal state due to a hundred years of change, the most powerful kingdoms in the Congo region united to hold off colonial forces but otherwise remained neutral - making themselves a necessary transit point and trader. Being a power in first rubber, then minerals for computing equipment, and developing a strong, respected banking sector has made them one of the great powers and the financial juggernaut of Africa. As one of the five largest economies for the last forty years and still neutral, "where Congo goes, the economy goes" as the saying also goes.

It's unclear how the CC would do if it came to a war, having not fought one in over seventy years outside of a few peacekeeping contributions. Every eighteen-year-old does national service, there's an expensive air force, and the Rangers have proven to be elite forces in peacekeeping, but they could mostly be a paper tiger - not that anyone seems eager to test that.

[10] After the final fall of the Old Byzantine Empire in the 1700s, the princes and nobility in exile naturally fled across the Atlantic to the fledgling colonies the empire had founded on the River Plate founding New Byzantium, however this was no less troublesome an existence than what had been left behind in the Old World. As rival princes turned into warlords trying to claim the right to the throne, a hundred years of chaos ensued as the prince pursued foreign powers, local tribes and the abundant resources on offer between Cape Horn and the Central Andes in hopes of advancing their cause, before the assimilating population of Byzantine refugees and tribal leaders tired of being manipulated took inspiration from Blumenland and overthrew the princes in a Revolution and the Abolition of Nobility formed a Republic.

Heavily inspired by the Byzantine's roots in Hellenic democracy and Roman republicanism, the vast majority of legislative power has traditionally rested with the Senate, who's Chief Consul (appointed by the Senate) works in tandem with the Archon (elected Head of State) to lead the nation. However, in recent years, with emergent technology, caveats within the Constitution that provide citizens access with direct democracy and participation through referendums and discussions that get priority over the will of the Senate. This has meant that the direction of policy in the New Republic is increasingly populist. Ironically, this has meant a scaling back in the presence of the Byzantine's abroad: where it has traditionally acted as the policeman of the Southern hemisphere, containing Antipodia and Aotearoa, but this has begun to lapse amid socialist populism and conservative isolationism from the direct democracy.

But this stepping back from its more hands on Foreign Policy has not meant that the Republic's formidable military has been reduced, in fact recent treaties with the Congo, Adriatic Republic and Angevin has led many to conclude that the Byzantines are hoping to expand their arsenal into nuclear weaponry. Ordinarily this would not be cause for concern, however if the populist streak continues then the world may begin to look away from Byzantium as it spirals back into another era of chaos and civil war with atomic consequences...
 

neonduke

Inspector Paolo Germi
Mayors of New York City

1933 - 1941: Joseph V. McKee (Recovery Party)[1]
1941 - 1957:
1957 - 1960:
1960 - 1968:
1968 - 1980:
1980 - 1984:
1984 - 1992:
1992 - 1994:
1994 - 1998:
1998 - 2010:
2010 - 2018:
2018 - XXXX:

[1] Following Jimmy Walker's scandal induced resignation and exile to Europe Joseph McKee had actually been acting Mayor for 4 months, before a special election had resulted in the Tammany Hall backed Joseph O'Brien taking over to complete the remaining year left of Walkers original term. McKee had been content to sit out the 1933 contest, which was to pit O'Brien against the Republican nominee Fiorello La Guardia. However cajoling from Bronx Democrat boss Ed Flynn and some secret encouragement from FDR, who wanted to break the back of Tammany in New York, convinced McKee to run as a 3rd Party candidate for the Recovery Party. No-one expected him to win, he was simply a spoiler to draw votes off O'Brien and let the liberal La Guardia win. However a combination of Republican infighting and indecision on supporting an Italian-American and middle class resentment of Tammany Hall influence ended up with McKee winning a squeaker.

McKee proved an able administrator, having been in the halls of power in NYC for sometime. Working closely with advisers such as Robert Moses and with close contact with the Democratic leadership, up to and including the President McKee was able to successfully bid for a large amount of the Civil Works Administration budget, some 25% of the national total in fact. Billions were poured into New York and massive public works programs were undertaken. NYC became a shining example of the new America being shaped by the New Deal and McKee was able to tie his coattails to those of the President.

However McKee was less successful in combating the graft that was a hold over from Walkers time. While he was never personally linked to corruption a number of his aides were caught up in a bribery scandal halfway through his second term and further investigation would expose a culture of kickbacks and patronage within the middle management of Civic Authority. McKee tried to avoid responsibility but his claims of having no knowledge of these crimes lacked credibility. While he was publicly claiming he would fight for a third term in private he was instructed by FDR's advisors to step down at the end of his second term to avoid further embarrassment to the White House. McKee eventually gave in and announced his 2nd term would be his last, leaving the Big Apple to his successor gleaming but with still a rotten core.
 
1933 - 1941: Joseph V. McKee (Recovery Party)[1]
1941 - 1957: Thomas E. Dewey (Republican-Liberal) [2]
1957 - 1960:
1960 - 1968:
1968 - 1980:
1980 - 1984:
1984 - 1992:
1992 - 1994:
1994 - 1998:
1998 - 2010:
2010 - 2018:
2018 - XXXX:

[1] Following Jimmy Walker's scandal induced resignation and exile to Europe Joseph McKee had actually been acting Mayor for 4 months, before a special election had resulted in the Tammany Hall backed Joseph O'Brien taking over to complete the remaining year left of Walkers original term. McKee had been content to sit out the 1933 contest, which was to pit O'Brien against the Republican nominee Fiorello La Guardia. However cajoling from Bronx Democrat boss Ed Flynn and some secret encouragement from FDR, who wanted to break the back of Tammany in New York, convinced McKee to run as a 3rd Party candidate for the Recovery Party. No-one expected him to win, he was simply a spoiler to draw votes off O'Brien and let the liberal La Guardia win. However a combination of Republican infighting and indecision on supporting an Italian-American and middle class resentment of Tammany Hall influence ended up with McKee winning a squeaker.

McKee proved an able administrator, having been in the halls of power in NYC for sometime. Working closely with advisers such as Robert Moses and with close contact with the Democratic leadership, up to and including the President McKee was able to successfully bid for a large amount of the Civil Works Administration budget, some 25% of the national total in fact. Billions were poured into New York and massive public works programs were undertaken. NYC became a shining example of the new America being shaped by the New Deal and McKee was able to tie his coattails to those of the President.

However McKee was less successful in combating the graft that was a hold over from Walkers time. While he was never personally linked to corruption a number of his aides were caught up in a bribery scandal halfway through his second term and further investigation would expose a culture of kickbacks and patronage within the middle management of Civic Authority. McKee tried to avoid responsibility but his claims of having no knowledge of these crimes lacked credibility. While he was publicly claiming he would fight for a third term in private he was instructed by FDR's advisors to step down at the end of his second term to avoid further embarrassment to the White House. McKee eventually gave in and announced his 2nd term would be his last, leaving the Big Apple to his successor gleaming but with still a rotten core.

[2] For better or worse, few men have done more for New York City than Tom Dewey. The wunderkind mobbuster turned presidential hopefull had been beaten bloody by the Roosevelt machine the year before, but when it came to take on organized crime and corruption the New York Republican Party could not have asked for a better man. Waltzing through the 1941 election easily swating aside Tammany Democrats and starry-eyed American Labor types (the Recovery Party failing to field a candidate) left and right he carried all five borroughs and won over 60% of the vote.

The early Dewey years were in many ways a continuation of his DA days. Corrupt officials were cleaned out, the payrolls empitied of patronage jobs and the old boys network of fat, mob-connected irishmen given the boot. While the 1947 Academy Awards favorite The Mayor (starring Humphrey Bogart in his second role portraying a Dewey stand-in) took some liberites in its portrayal of a crusading young mayor who survives assassins and personally oversees the arrest of mafia-owned civil servants you wouldn't know it by asking New Yorkers who remember the early 40's. For a certain kind of New Yorker Thomas Dewey symbolises everything a politician is supposed to be. Had he died around 1947 he would likely have been remembered like that by all.

A WASP Republican who never really left his small-c conservative midwesterness behind in a city that was none of those of things, it should come as no suprise that conflicts arose between the Mayor and his constituencies. In many respects Dewey continued of the liberal policies of his predecessors, which in combination of his work cleaning out city government and his statues as a national hero earned him reelection not only in 1945 but two more times after that. But as the years worse on the city began to chafe under his rule. Patronage might breed corrutpion and graft, but it also gave individual communities a say and stake in goverment. Tammany had based its rule as much on responsivness to local needs as on crime, and under Mayor Dewey city governance became an increasingly top-down affair, where experts and up-state apparatchiks held sway. Irish and Italian community leaders found themselves shut out, and as the years passed they were joined by their Jewish and Black counterparts. Tom Dewey might have been a friend of Harlem and New York Jewery, but there existed a strong cultural divide between the Mayor and his working-class constituents, Dewey's genuine good intentions notwithstanding. On the surface the city bloomed, with ultra-modern infrastructure projects and nation-leading social programs, but below discontent grew. Jokes that the only difference between Dewey's people and the goons they had replaced was that none of the new men came from NYC were not strictly speaking accurate, but they spoke of the sentiment that delivered the shock results of 1957. On the morning of November 6 Frances Dewey delivered a terse concession speech. Her husband, All America's Mayor, had locked himself into his private office and wouldn't be presentable to the world for another few days.
 

TheHatMan98

Well-known member
1933 - 1941: Joseph V. McKee (Recovery Party)[1]
1941 - 1957: Thomas E. Dewey (Republican-Liberal) [2]
1957 - 1960: Franklin Delano Roosevelt Jr. (Liberal Party) [3]
1960 - 1968:
1968 - 1980:
1980 - 1984:
1984 - 1992:
1992 - 1994:
1994 - 1998:
1998 - 2010:
2010 - 2018:
2018 - XXXX:

[1] Following Jimmy Walker's scandal induced resignation and exile to Europe Joseph McKee had actually been acting Mayor for 4 months, before a special election had resulted in the Tammany Hall backed Joseph O'Brien taking over to complete the remaining year left of Walkers original term. McKee had been content to sit out the 1933 contest, which was to pit O'Brien against the Republican nominee Fiorello La Guardia. However cajoling from Bronx Democrat boss Ed Flynn and some secret encouragement from FDR, who wanted to break the back of Tammany in New York, convinced McKee to run as a 3rd Party candidate for the Recovery Party. No-one expected him to win, he was simply a spoiler to draw votes off O'Brien and let the liberal La Guardia win. However a combination of Republican infighting and indecision on supporting an Italian-American and middle class resentment of Tammany Hall influence ended up with McKee winning a squeaker.

McKee proved an able administrator, having been in the halls of power in NYC for sometime. Working closely with advisers such as Robert Moses and with close contact with the Democratic leadership, up to and including the President McKee was able to successfully bid for a large amount of the Civil Works Administration budget, some 25% of the national total in fact. Billions were poured into New York and massive public works programs were undertaken. NYC became a shining example of the new America being shaped by the New Deal and McKee was able to tie his coattails to those of the President.

However McKee was less successful in combating the graft that was a hold over from Walkers time. While he was never personally linked to corruption a number of his aides were caught up in a bribery scandal halfway through his second term and further investigation would expose a culture of kickbacks and patronage within the middle management of Civic Authority. McKee tried to avoid responsibility but his claims of having no knowledge of these crimes lacked credibility. While he was publicly claiming he would fight for a third term in private he was instructed by FDR's advisors to step down at the end of his second term to avoid further embarrassment to the White House. McKee eventually gave in and announced his 2nd term would be his last, leaving the Big Apple to his successor gleaming but with still a rotten core.

[2] For better or worse, few men have done more for New York City than Tom Dewey. The wunderkind mobbuster turned presidential hopefull had been beaten bloody by the Roosevelt machine the year before, but when it came to take on organized crime and corruption the New York Republican Party could not have asked for a better man. Waltzing through the 1941 election easily swating aside Tammany Democrats and starry-eyed American Labor types (the Recovery Party failing to field a candidate) left and right he carried all five borroughs and won over 60% of the vote.

The early Dewey years were in many ways a continuation of his DA days. Corrupt officials were cleaned out, the payrolls empitied of patronage jobs and the old boys network of fat, mob-connected irishmen given the boot. While the 1947 Academy Awards favorite The Mayor (starring Humphrey Bogart in his second role portraying a Dewey stand-in) took some liberites in its portrayal of a crusading young mayor who survives assassins and personally oversees the arrest of mafia-owned civil servants you wouldn't know it by asking New Yorkers who remember the early 40's. For a certain kind of New Yorker Thomas Dewey symbolises everything a politician is supposed to be. Had he died around 1947 he would likely have been remembered like that by all.

A WASP Republican who never really left his small-c conservative midwesterness behind in a city that was none of those of things, it should come as no suprise that conflicts arose between the Mayor and his constituencies. In many respects Dewey continued of the liberal policies of his predecessors, which in combination of his work cleaning out city government and his statues as a national hero earned him reelection not only in 1945 but two more times after that. But as the years worse on the city began to chafe under his rule. Patronage might breed corrutpion and graft, but it also gave individual communities a say and stake in goverment. Tammany had based its rule as much on responsivness to local needs as on crime, and under Mayor Dewey city governance became an increasingly top-down affair, where experts and up-state apparatchiks held sway. Irish and Italian community leaders found themselves shut out, and as the years passed they were joined by their Jewish and Black counterparts. Tom Dewey might have been a friend of Harlem and New York Jewery, but there existed a strong cultural divide between the Mayor and his working-class constituents, Dewey's genuine good intentions notwithstanding. On the surface the city bloomed, with ultra-modern infrastructure projects and nation-leading social programs, but below discontent grew. Jokes that the only difference between Dewey's people and the goons they had replaced was that none of the new men came from NYC were not strictly speaking accurate, but they spoke of the sentiment that delivered the shock results of 1957. On the morning of November 6 Frances Dewey delivered a terse concession speech. Her husband, All America's Mayor, had locked himself into his private office and wouldn't be presentable to the world for another few days.

[3] The election of Roosevelt the younger surprised many, not only for the defeat it inflicted on Thomas Dewey, but also that it dealt the final blow for Tammany Hall that led to its dissolving in 1959. But the common theory remains that this would have happened to whoever managed to coalesce the factions that formed around the Liberal Party of NY in 1957, and the party itself might have been better off for it. FDR jr had sought the nomination as a vehicle to get his political career back on track, which had somewhat staggered after his Father's death and his failure in 1949 to win a seat in the House of Reps. And the Democrats outside the Tammany machine were by then desperate to break its back for good and all: they had seen its incompetence and lethargy to act during McKee's tenure and saw first hand the weight of corruption embedded in it as Dewey sent more than a few of its mobbed up members to the Big House. So the remaining Recovery Party, every Democrat that wasn't Irish or on the Mafia payroll, and even the American Labor Party each put their two dollars worth behind Roosevelt to see what would happen.

Through a combination of the family name, a hard fought grass roots level campaign and an electorate tired of its incumbent the Liberal Party won, or Roosevelt had won - which quickly became the problem of the day. Despite attempts to paint itself a NYC's New Deal Coalition, the Roosevelt jr Mayoral ticket was nothing so stable, and cracks quickly began to appear. Part of the problem was that the candidate himself did not see his new office as a permanent one, merely a stepping stone for higher office, and he had failed to provide clear direction for what his plans for the city were to be, which consequently meant that as policy slowly trickled out of the Mayor's office it almost always failed to please.

When "business as usual" was planned for the economy, the union support and ALP flipped its collective lid: the top down nature of Dewey's tenure had created an increasing wage gap, especially in Construction workers, which the Unions demanded needing addressing. Eventually, Mayor Roosevelt promised to do something (what was never established) the Democrat fellow travellers in his camp forced him to put the breaks on it. The late 50s were boom time for America and everyone knew, who really cared if Unions were moaning a small wage? It would probably fix itself in a few months. Even on FDR jr's specialist area of civil rights, his Office bungled it again as the racial and ethnic issues of America effectively became a pressure cooker in New York: his continuation of Dewey's crime policies meant that Italian 'Community Leaders' could not be persuaded to sit down and ease off their antagonism of African-Americans; who, with the South and MLK in superdrive by now, were tired of being talked down to by rich white men, no matter who his daddy was; the Irish remained in the pocket of the individuals that had been the Tammany machine, who promptly defended the Italian's right to demonstrate against 'black infringement'.

By 1960, Roosevelt jr could see the cracks had started leaking, as crime rose for the first time in years and a new President who ready to do something on civil rights - no matter the cost - and a local economy showing the signs that it might be overheating. So he took the first out he could find, eventually his brothers James and John worked to get him a nomination for a seat in the House. Uprooting to the other side of the country was not Junior's preferred option, but he felt it better to go sooner than later knowing that he hadn't exactly improved the city that he had been custodian of for three years. Announcing his resignation, an emergency election was called, and the only thing immediately clear is that Liberal Party was going to suffer the most, as the ALP cut all ties and (with Tammany Hall officially dead and buried) the Democrats tried to get their house back in order and decide what their post-Tammany future meant.
 

Charles EP M.

Well-known member
Published by SLP
1933 - 1941: Joseph V. McKee (Recovery Party)[1]
1941 - 1957: Thomas E. Dewey (Republican-Liberal) [2]
1957 - 1960: Franklin Delano Roosevelt Jr. (Liberal Party) [3]
1960 - 1968: John Lindsay (Republican Party) [4]
1968 - 1980:
1980 - 1984:
1984 - 1992:
1992 - 1994:
1994 - 1998:
1998 - 2010:
2010 - 2018:
2018 - XXXX:

[1] Following Jimmy Walker's scandal induced resignation and exile to Europe Joseph McKee had actually been acting Mayor for 4 months, before a special election had resulted in the Tammany Hall backed Joseph O'Brien taking over to complete the remaining year left of Walkers original term. McKee had been content to sit out the 1933 contest, which was to pit O'Brien against the Republican nominee Fiorello La Guardia. However cajoling from Bronx Democrat boss Ed Flynn and some secret encouragement from FDR, who wanted to break the back of Tammany in New York, convinced McKee to run as a 3rd Party candidate for the Recovery Party. No-one expected him to win, he was simply a spoiler to draw votes off O'Brien and let the liberal La Guardia win. However a combination of Republican infighting and indecision on supporting an Italian-American and middle class resentment of Tammany Hall influence ended up with McKee winning a squeaker.

McKee proved an able administrator, having been in the halls of power in NYC for sometime. Working closely with advisers such as Robert Moses and with close contact with the Democratic leadership, up to and including the President McKee was able to successfully bid for a large amount of the Civil Works Administration budget, some 25% of the national total in fact. Billions were poured into New York and massive public works programs were undertaken. NYC became a shining example of the new America being shaped by the New Deal and McKee was able to tie his coattails to those of the President.

However McKee was less successful in combating the graft that was a hold over from Walkers time. While he was never personally linked to corruption a number of his aides were caught up in a bribery scandal halfway through his second term and further investigation would expose a culture of kickbacks and patronage within the middle management of Civic Authority. McKee tried to avoid responsibility but his claims of having no knowledge of these crimes lacked credibility. While he was publicly claiming he would fight for a third term in private he was instructed by FDR's advisors to step down at the end of his second term to avoid further embarrassment to the White House. McKee eventually gave in and announced his 2nd term would be his last, leaving the Big Apple to his successor gleaming but with still a rotten core.

[2] For better or worse, few men have done more for New York City than Tom Dewey. The wunderkind mobbuster turned presidential hopefull had been beaten bloody by the Roosevelt machine the year before, but when it came to take on organized crime and corruption the New York Republican Party could not have asked for a better man. Waltzing through the 1941 election easily swating aside Tammany Democrats and starry-eyed American Labor types (the Recovery Party failing to field a candidate) left and right he carried all five borroughs and won over 60% of the vote.

The early Dewey years were in many ways a continuation of his DA days. Corrupt officials were cleaned out, the payrolls empitied of patronage jobs and the old boys network of fat, mob-connected irishmen given the boot. While the 1947 Academy Awards favorite The Mayor (starring Humphrey Bogart in his second role portraying a Dewey stand-in) took some liberites in its portrayal of a crusading young mayor who survives assassins and personally oversees the arrest of mafia-owned civil servants you wouldn't know it by asking New Yorkers who remember the early 40's. For a certain kind of New Yorker Thomas Dewey symbolises everything a politician is supposed to be. Had he died around 1947 he would likely have been remembered like that by all.

A WASP Republican who never really left his small-c conservative midwesterness behind in a city that was none of those of things, it should come as no suprise that conflicts arose between the Mayor and his constituencies. In many respects Dewey continued of the liberal policies of his predecessors, which in combination of his work cleaning out city government and his statues as a national hero earned him reelection not only in 1945 but two more times after that. But as the years worse on the city began to chafe under his rule. Patronage might breed corrutpion and graft, but it also gave individual communities a say and stake in goverment. Tammany had based its rule as much on responsivness to local needs as on crime, and under Mayor Dewey city governance became an increasingly top-down affair, where experts and up-state apparatchiks held sway. Irish and Italian community leaders found themselves shut out, and as the years passed they were joined by their Jewish and Black counterparts. Tom Dewey might have been a friend of Harlem and New York Jewery, but there existed a strong cultural divide between the Mayor and his working-class constituents, Dewey's genuine good intentions notwithstanding. On the surface the city bloomed, with ultra-modern infrastructure projects and nation-leading social programs, but below discontent grew. Jokes that the only difference between Dewey's people and the goons they had replaced was that none of the new men came from NYC were not strictly speaking accurate, but they spoke of the sentiment that delivered the shock results of 1957. On the morning of November 6 Frances Dewey delivered a terse concession speech. Her husband, All America's Mayor, had locked himself into his private office and wouldn't be presentable to the world for another few days.

[3] The election of Roosevelt the younger surprised many, not only for the defeat it inflicted on Thomas Dewey, but also that it dealt the final blow for Tammany Hall that led to its dissolving in 1959. But the common theory remains that this would have happened to whoever managed to coalesce the factions that formed around the Liberal Party of NY in 1957, and the party itself might have been better off for it. FDR jr had sought the nomination as a vehicle to get his political career back on track, which had somewhat staggered after his Father's death and his failure in 1949 to win a seat in the House of Reps. And the Democrats outside the Tammany machine were by then desperate to break its back for good and all: they had seen its incompetence and lethargy to act during McKee's tenure and saw first hand the weight of corruption embedded in it as Dewey sent more than a few of its mobbed up members to the Big House. So the remaining Recovery Party, every Democrat that wasn't Irish or on the Mafia payroll, and even the American Labor Party each put their two dollars worth behind Roosevelt to see what would happen.

Through a combination of the family name, a hard fought grass roots level campaign and an electorate tired of its incumbent the Liberal Party won, or Roosevelt had won - which quickly became the problem of the day. Despite attempts to paint itself a NYC's New Deal Coalition, the Roosevelt jr Mayoral ticket was nothing so stable, and cracks quickly began to appear. Part of the problem was that the candidate himself did not see his new office as a permanent one, merely a stepping stone for higher office, and he had failed to provide clear direction for what his plans for the city were to be, which consequently meant that as policy slowly trickled out of the Mayor's office it almost always failed to please.

When "business as usual" was planned for the economy, the union support and ALP flipped its collective lid: the top down nature of Dewey's tenure had created an increasing wage gap, especially in Construction workers, which the Unions demanded needing addressing. Eventually, Mayor Roosevelt promised to do something (what was never established) the Democrat fellow travellers in his camp forced him to put the breaks on it. The late 50s were boom time for America and everyone knew, who really cared if Unions were moaning a small wage? It would probably fix itself in a few months. Even on FDR jr's specialist area of civil rights, his Office bungled it again as the racial and ethnic issues of America effectively became a pressure cooker in New York: his continuation of Dewey's crime policies meant that Italian 'Community Leaders' could not be persuaded to sit down and ease off their antagonism of African-Americans; who, with the South and MLK in superdrive by now, were tired of being talked down to by rich white men, no matter who his daddy was; the Irish remained in the pocket of the individuals that had been the Tammany machine, who promptly defended the Italian's right to demonstrate against 'black infringement'.

By 1960, Roosevelt jr could see the cracks had started leaking, as crime rose for the first time in years and a new President who ready to do something on civil rights - no matter the cost - and a local economy showing the signs that it might be overheating. So he took the first out he could find, eventually his brothers James and John worked to get him a nomination for a seat in the House. Uprooting to the other side of the country was not Junior's preferred option, but he felt it better to go sooner than later knowing that he hadn't exactly improved the city that he had been custodian of for three years. Announcing his resignation, an emergency election was called, and the only thing immediately clear is that Liberal Party was going to suffer the most, as the ALP cut all ties and (with Tammany Hall officially dead and buried) the Democrats tried to get their house back in order and decide what their post-Tammany future meant.


[4] The Republicans wanted to head the Democrats off at the pass and sent in Lindsay, a man making a name for himself in the Department of Justice with civil rights, as someone who might filch part of that constituency. He turned out to be far more liberal than they'd expected - and having got straight to such a powerful position, quite starry-eyed about that power and uninclined to play internal politics. Lindsay pushed hard on civil rights, pleasing the president; gave school boards more power so the communities could have more say; and pushed to raise tax for both civil rights reforms and to boost the police against crime.

All three things at once was a tall order. Teacher's unions, his own party people, the Italian communities, black activist groups, and the police - all needed reassuring. They couldn't all have it. Lindsay talked to the teachers and the Italians, assuming the other three would be fine. The result was that for the rest of his term, much of the New York Republicans were bitterly at odds with Lindsay, forcing him to work with the Liberals (and have secret backdoor deals with some Democrats without being seen to deal with the party, which crossed the line into bribes). The rise in crime was suppressed, civil rights and community relations improved for black New Yorkers... and after that, he struggled to get anything else done. This didn't harm him in the 1964 election, as he was able to promote himself more than his party, but his second would be dogged with inability to get to grips with poverty and a slow rise in crime once more.

If he'd fixed relations with his own party, he would later admit, things could have been fixed, or if he'd defected to the Liberals and openly worked with Democrats. But things were too far gone for his pride to take the former - HE'D been elected becasue of what HE did, not the party! - and he was too stubborn for the latter. New Yorkers assumed he was doing his best and he was seen as keeping riots from hitting the city after Doctor King's murder, but they wanted a mayor who had the power to get more done.
 

neonduke

Inspector Paolo Germi
1933 - 1941: Joseph V. McKee (Recovery Party)[1]
1941 - 1957: Thomas E. Dewey (Republican-Liberal) [2]
1957 - 1960: Franklin Delano Roosevelt Jr. (Liberal Party) [3]
1960 - 1968: John Lindsay (Republican Party) [4]
1968 - 1980: Mario Procaccino (Democrat Party) [5]
1980 - 1984:
1984 - 1992:
1992 - 1994:
1994 - 1998:
1998 - 2010:
2010 - 2018:
2018 - XXXX:

[1] Following Jimmy Walker's scandal induced resignation and exile to Europe Joseph McKee had actually been acting Mayor for 4 months, before a special election had resulted in the Tammany Hall backed Joseph O'Brien taking over to complete the remaining year left of Walkers original term. McKee had been content to sit out the 1933 contest, which was to pit O'Brien against the Republican nominee Fiorello La Guardia. However cajoling from Bronx Democrat boss Ed Flynn and some secret encouragement from FDR, who wanted to break the back of Tammany in New York, convinced McKee to run as a 3rd Party candidate for the Recovery Party. No-one expected him to win, he was simply a spoiler to draw votes off O'Brien and let the liberal La Guardia win. However a combination of Republican infighting and indecision on supporting an Italian-American and middle class resentment of Tammany Hall influence ended up with McKee winning a squeaker.

McKee proved an able administrator, having been in the halls of power in NYC for sometime. Working closely with advisers such as Robert Moses and with close contact with the Democratic leadership, up to and including the President McKee was able to successfully bid for a large amount of the Civil Works Administration budget, some 25% of the national total in fact. Billions were poured into New York and massive public works programs were undertaken. NYC became a shining example of the new America being shaped by the New Deal and McKee was able to tie his coattails to those of the President.

However McKee was less successful in combating the graft that was a hold over from Walkers time. While he was never personally linked to corruption a number of his aides were caught up in a bribery scandal halfway through his second term and further investigation would expose a culture of kickbacks and patronage within the middle management of Civic Authority. McKee tried to avoid responsibility but his claims of having no knowledge of these crimes lacked credibility. While he was publicly claiming he would fight for a third term in private he was instructed by FDR's advisors to step down at the end of his second term to avoid further embarrassment to the White House. McKee eventually gave in and announced his 2nd term would be his last, leaving the Big Apple to his successor gleaming but with still a rotten core.

[2] For better or worse, few men have done more for New York City than Tom Dewey. The wunderkind mobbuster turned presidential hopefull had been beaten bloody by the Roosevelt machine the year before, but when it came to take on organized crime and corruption the New York Republican Party could not have asked for a better man. Waltzing through the 1941 election easily swating aside Tammany Democrats and starry-eyed American Labor types (the Recovery Party failing to field a candidate) left and right he carried all five borroughs and won over 60% of the vote.

The early Dewey years were in many ways a continuation of his DA days. Corrupt officials were cleaned out, the payrolls empitied of patronage jobs and the old boys network of fat, mob-connected irishmen given the boot. While the 1947 Academy Awards favorite The Mayor (starring Humphrey Bogart in his second role portraying a Dewey stand-in) took some liberites in its portrayal of a crusading young mayor who survives assassins and personally oversees the arrest of mafia-owned civil servants you wouldn't know it by asking New Yorkers who remember the early 40's. For a certain kind of New Yorker Thomas Dewey symbolises everything a politician is supposed to be. Had he died around 1947 he would likely have been remembered like that by all.

A WASP Republican who never really left his small-c conservative midwesterness behind in a city that was none of those of things, it should come as no suprise that conflicts arose between the Mayor and his constituencies. In many respects Dewey continued of the liberal policies of his predecessors, which in combination of his work cleaning out city government and his statues as a national hero earned him reelection not only in 1945 but two more times after that. But as the years worse on the city began to chafe under his rule. Patronage might breed corrutpion and graft, but it also gave individual communities a say and stake in goverment. Tammany had based its rule as much on responsivness to local needs as on crime, and under Mayor Dewey city governance became an increasingly top-down affair, where experts and up-state apparatchiks held sway. Irish and Italian community leaders found themselves shut out, and as the years passed they were joined by their Jewish and Black counterparts. Tom Dewey might have been a friend of Harlem and New York Jewery, but there existed a strong cultural divide between the Mayor and his working-class constituents, Dewey's genuine good intentions notwithstanding. On the surface the city bloomed, with ultra-modern infrastructure projects and nation-leading social programs, but below discontent grew. Jokes that the only difference between Dewey's people and the goons they had replaced was that none of the new men came from NYC were not strictly speaking accurate, but they spoke of the sentiment that delivered the shock results of 1957. On the morning of November 6 Frances Dewey delivered a terse concession speech. Her husband, All America's Mayor, had locked himself into his private office and wouldn't be presentable to the world for another few days.

[3] The election of Roosevelt the younger surprised many, not only for the defeat it inflicted on Thomas Dewey, but also that it dealt the final blow for Tammany Hall that led to its dissolving in 1959. But the common theory remains that this would have happened to whoever managed to coalesce the factions that formed around the Liberal Party of NY in 1957, and the party itself might have been better off for it. FDR jr had sought the nomination as a vehicle to get his political career back on track, which had somewhat staggered after his Father's death and his failure in 1949 to win a seat in the House of Reps. And the Democrats outside the Tammany machine were by then desperate to break its back for good and all: they had seen its incompetence and lethargy to act during McKee's tenure and saw first hand the weight of corruption embedded in it as Dewey sent more than a few of its mobbed up members to the Big House. So the remaining Recovery Party, every Democrat that wasn't Irish or on the Mafia payroll, and even the American Labor Party each put their two dollars worth behind Roosevelt to see what would happen.

Through a combination of the family name, a hard fought grass roots level campaign and an electorate tired of its incumbent the Liberal Party won, or Roosevelt had won - which quickly became the problem of the day. Despite attempts to paint itself a NYC's New Deal Coalition, the Roosevelt jr Mayoral ticket was nothing so stable, and cracks quickly began to appear. Part of the problem was that the candidate himself did not see his new office as a permanent one, merely a stepping stone for higher office, and he had failed to provide clear direction for what his plans for the city were to be, which consequently meant that as policy slowly trickled out of the Mayor's office it almost always failed to please.

When "business as usual" was planned for the economy, the union support and ALP flipped its collective lid: the top down nature of Dewey's tenure had created an increasing wage gap, especially in Construction workers, which the Unions demanded needing addressing. Eventually, Mayor Roosevelt promised to do something (what was never established) the Democrat fellow travellers in his camp forced him to put the breaks on it. The late 50s were boom time for America and everyone knew, who really cared if Unions were moaning a small wage? It would probably fix itself in a few months. Even on FDR jr's specialist area of civil rights, his Office bungled it again as the racial and ethnic issues of America effectively became a pressure cooker in New York: his continuation of Dewey's crime policies meant that Italian 'Community Leaders' could not be persuaded to sit down and ease off their antagonism of African-Americans; who, with the South and MLK in superdrive by now, were tired of being talked down to by rich white men, no matter who his daddy was; the Irish remained in the pocket of the individuals that had been the Tammany machine, who promptly defended the Italian's right to demonstrate against 'black infringement'.

By 1960, Roosevelt jr could see the cracks had started leaking, as crime rose for the first time in years and a new President who ready to do something on civil rights - no matter the cost - and a local economy showing the signs that it might be overheating. So he took the first out he could find, eventually his brothers James and John worked to get him a nomination for a seat in the House. Uprooting to the other side of the country was not Junior's preferred option, but he felt it better to go sooner than later knowing that he hadn't exactly improved the city that he had been custodian of for three years. Announcing his resignation, an emergency election was called, and the only thing immediately clear is that Liberal Party was going to suffer the most, as the ALP cut all ties and (with Tammany Hall officially dead and buried) the Democrats tried to get their house back in order and decide what their post-Tammany future meant.


[4] The Republicans wanted to head the Democrats off at the pass and sent in Lindsay, a man making a name for himself in the Department of Justice with civil rights, as someone who might filch part of that constituency. He turned out to be far more liberal than they'd expected - and having got straight to such a powerful position, quite starry-eyed about that power and uninclined to play internal politics. Lindsay pushed hard on civil rights, pleasing the president; gave school boards more power so the communities could have more say; and pushed to raise tax for both civil rights reforms and to boost the police against crime.

All three things at once was a tall order. Teacher's unions, his own party people, the Italian communities, black activist groups, and the police - all needed reassuring. They couldn't all have it. Lindsay talked to the teachers and the Italians, assuming the other three would be fine. The result was that for the rest of his term, much of the New York Republicans were bitterly at odds with Lindsay, forcing him to work with the Liberals (and have secret backdoor deals with some Democrats without being seen to deal with the party, which crossed the line into bribes). The rise in crime was suppressed, civil rights and community relations improved for black New Yorkers... and after that, he struggled to get anything else done. This didn't harm him in the 1964 election, as he was able to promote himself more than his party, but his second would be dogged with inability to get to grips with poverty and a slow rise in crime once more.

If he'd fixed relations with his own party, he would later admit, things could have been fixed, or if he'd defected to the Liberals and openly worked with Democrats. But things were too far gone for his pride to take the former - HE'D been elected becasue of what HE did, not the party! - and he was too stubborn for the latter. New Yorkers assumed he was doing his best and he was seen as keeping riots from hitting the city after Doctor King's murder, but they wanted a mayor who had the power to get more done.

[5] For the first time in over 30 years the Democrats were back, led back to the promised land by the popular city comptroller Mario Procaccino. The Democrats had run a targeted campaign at the urban working class promising an increased standard of living, improved law and order to deal and a move back towards, as Procaccino called them, traditional values. What this actually meant was nebulous but it was enough to win over wavering Democrat voters outside Procaccino's core vote in Brooklyn and the Bronx, though it was another tight race, with the Dems only winning by 1,543 votes.

Procaccino barely had time to make himself comfortable in City Hall before he was hit with his first crisis, the 1969 Nor'easter storm. NYC took the brunt of the winter blast and for two days the city was in a state of paralysis. Realizing this first test would set the tone for his mayoral-ship Procaccino was dynamic and forceful in his response, demanding round the clock work by municipal employees to help get the city up and running. Mario himself was no slouch, visiting each Borough frequently and never afraid to be seen to pick up a shovel and mucking in with the residents. His quick response and that of the city infrastructure as a whole was seen as exemplary and Procaccino's warm and folksy manner won him a great deal of affection, quickly becoming known as "Our Mario".

However it wasn't all plain sailing for Mario, his condoning of the "Hard Hat" riot and apparent dismissal of suspected police brutality in Black neighborhoods contrasted poorly with Mayor Lindsay's more deft handling of the citys racial issues. It didn't seem to hurt with his base however and he was able to turn the tables on what he called his "Limousine Liberal" critics, painting them as an out of touch elite, blind to the concerns of the common man. In fact he was re-elected with a much increased majority in 1972, the future looking rosy.

However it was in his second term that chickens came home to roost. The price for the rapid response to the Winter of 68/69 had been achieved by agreements with the unions for large pay increases and improved terms and conditions, this in conjunction with increased funding for the police and local communities (the ones who supported the Democrats anyway) put a massive strain on an already loaded budget. The New York deficit began to spiral out of control and happening snap bang in the middle of the growing energy crisis threw the city into a full scale emergency. City Hall responded with panic and began a general reduction of funding to all services, Procaccino gambled he could sell it as everyone taking a hit for the good of the city, he was wrong.

The already frayed social bonds between the various communities finally began to break down in earnest, crime shot up and strikes erupted. New York had been unknowingly sitting on a powder keg for at least a decade, with the lid kept on by unsustainable social spending. As the money ran out old grievances spilled out into the open, few will forget Walter Cronkite's famous line "ladies and gentlemen, the Bronx is burning" while footage showed striking cops aimlessly watching widespread looting and wanton violence. In a notorious case the transport polices inept bungling of a bizarre subway hijack led to the massacre of 20 people and the escape of the hostage takers with the one million dollar ransom. All this played out on TV screens across America, leading New York to be dubbed "America's shame".

Procaccino should have been a goner in '76 election, his attempts to tie his election campaign to the national bicentennial seen a cynical attempt to deny any attachment to NYC. Two things went in his favour however. One was the quixotic independent campaign of John Lindsay, looking to come back and, as he put it, "save my city", this led to a split in the Republican-Liberal vote. The other would not be known about until long after Procaccino's death, his quid pro quo with organised crime to push out the Irish and Italians vote in exchange for a hands off policy on their interests, especially around the seedy 42nd Street and Times Square grindhouse district. This was capped off by a now known to be staged assassination attempt during a Brooklyn street festival by an apparent "Black Nationalist" (in reality a paid ex-con) to garner sympathy. The unfortunate side effect being a revenge mass shooting in Harlem leaving 12 dead and racial tension once again pushed to breaking point.

Procaccino's last term continued to go from worse to worse, presiding over a crime ridden city, covered in muck and grime from an umpteenth sanitation strike while "white flight" increased exponentially leaving a poor, desolate city behind. The final nail in the coffin was the cities bankruptcy and Mayor Procaccino had to go cap in hand to the Federal government for a bailout, one of the conditions being he was not to run for re-election. Frankly this suited Mario as he was worn down, tired and miserable.

So in 1979 he packed up and left the Mayor's official residence, the New York Post running with a front page of a tearful, broken Procaccino and a play on his long discarded nickname "Out Mario".
 
Last edited:

TheHatMan98

Well-known member
1933 - 1941: Joseph V. McKee (Recovery Party)[1]
1941 - 1957: Thomas E. Dewey (Republican-Liberal) [2]
1957 - 1960: Franklin Delano Roosevelt Jr. (Liberal Party) [3]
1960 - 1968: John Lindsay (Republican Party) [4]
1968 - 1980: Mario Procaccino (Democrat Party) [5]
1980 - 1984: William F. Buckley Jr. (Republican Party/Conservative Party) [6]
1984 - 1992:
1992 - 1994:
1994 - 1998:
1998 - 2010:
2010 - 2018:
2018 - XXXX:

[1] Following Jimmy Walker's scandal induced resignation and exile to Europe Joseph McKee had actually been acting Mayor for 4 months, before a special election had resulted in the Tammany Hall backed Joseph O'Brien taking over to complete the remaining year left of Walkers original term. McKee had been content to sit out the 1933 contest, which was to pit O'Brien against the Republican nominee Fiorello La Guardia. However cajoling from Bronx Democrat boss Ed Flynn and some secret encouragement from FDR, who wanted to break the back of Tammany in New York, convinced McKee to run as a 3rd Party candidate for the Recovery Party. No-one expected him to win, he was simply a spoiler to draw votes off O'Brien and let the liberal La Guardia win. However a combination of Republican infighting and indecision on supporting an Italian-American and middle class resentment of Tammany Hall influence ended up with McKee winning a squeaker.

McKee proved an able administrator, having been in the halls of power in NYC for sometime. Working closely with advisers such as Robert Moses and with close contact with the Democratic leadership, up to and including the President McKee was able to successfully bid for a large amount of the Civil Works Administration budget, some 25% of the national total in fact. Billions were poured into New York and massive public works programs were undertaken. NYC became a shining example of the new America being shaped by the New Deal and McKee was able to tie his coattails to those of the President.

However McKee was less successful in combating the graft that was a hold over from Walkers time. While he was never personally linked to corruption a number of his aides were caught up in a bribery scandal halfway through his second term and further investigation would expose a culture of kickbacks and patronage within the middle management of Civic Authority. McKee tried to avoid responsibility but his claims of having no knowledge of these crimes lacked credibility. While he was publicly claiming he would fight for a third term in private he was instructed by FDR's advisors to step down at the end of his second term to avoid further embarrassment to the White House. McKee eventually gave in and announced his 2nd term would be his last, leaving the Big Apple to his successor gleaming but with still a rotten core.

[2] For better or worse, few men have done more for New York City than Tom Dewey. The wunderkind mobbuster turned presidential hopefull had been beaten bloody by the Roosevelt machine the year before, but when it came to take on organized crime and corruption the New York Republican Party could not have asked for a better man. Waltzing through the 1941 election easily swating aside Tammany Democrats and starry-eyed American Labor types (the Recovery Party failing to field a candidate) left and right he carried all five borroughs and won over 60% of the vote.

The early Dewey years were in many ways a continuation of his DA days. Corrupt officials were cleaned out, the payrolls empitied of patronage jobs and the old boys network of fat, mob-connected irishmen given the boot. While the 1947 Academy Awards favorite The Mayor (starring Humphrey Bogart in his second role portraying a Dewey stand-in) took some liberites in its portrayal of a crusading young mayor who survives assassins and personally oversees the arrest of mafia-owned civil servants you wouldn't know it by asking New Yorkers who remember the early 40's. For a certain kind of New Yorker Thomas Dewey symbolises everything a politician is supposed to be. Had he died around 1947 he would likely have been remembered like that by all.

A WASP Republican who never really left his small-c conservative midwesterness behind in a city that was none of those of things, it should come as no suprise that conflicts arose between the Mayor and his constituencies. In many respects Dewey continued of the liberal policies of his predecessors, which in combination of his work cleaning out city government and his statues as a national hero earned him reelection not only in 1945 but two more times after that. But as the years worse on the city began to chafe under his rule. Patronage might breed corrutpion and graft, but it also gave individual communities a say and stake in goverment. Tammany had based its rule as much on responsivness to local needs as on crime, and under Mayor Dewey city governance became an increasingly top-down affair, where experts and up-state apparatchiks held sway. Irish and Italian community leaders found themselves shut out, and as the years passed they were joined by their Jewish and Black counterparts. Tom Dewey might have been a friend of Harlem and New York Jewery, but there existed a strong cultural divide between the Mayor and his working-class constituents, Dewey's genuine good intentions notwithstanding. On the surface the city bloomed, with ultra-modern infrastructure projects and nation-leading social programs, but below discontent grew. Jokes that the only difference between Dewey's people and the goons they had replaced was that none of the new men came from NYC were not strictly speaking accurate, but they spoke of the sentiment that delivered the shock results of 1957. On the morning of November 6 Frances Dewey delivered a terse concession speech. Her husband, All America's Mayor, had locked himself into his private office and wouldn't be presentable to the world for another few days.

[3] The election of Roosevelt the younger surprised many, not only for the defeat it inflicted on Thomas Dewey, but also that it dealt the final blow for Tammany Hall that led to its dissolving in 1959. But the common theory remains that this would have happened to whoever managed to coalesce the factions that formed around the Liberal Party of NY in 1957, and the party itself might have been better off for it. FDR jr had sought the nomination as a vehicle to get his political career back on track, which had somewhat staggered after his Father's death and his failure in 1949 to win a seat in the House of Reps. And the Democrats outside the Tammany machine were by then desperate to break its back for good and all: they had seen its incompetence and lethargy to act during McKee's tenure and saw first hand the weight of corruption embedded in it as Dewey sent more than a few of its mobbed up members to the Big House. So the remaining Recovery Party, every Democrat that wasn't Irish or on the Mafia payroll, and even the American Labor Party each put their two dollars worth behind Roosevelt to see what would happen.

Through a combination of the family name, a hard fought grass roots level campaign and an electorate tired of its incumbent the Liberal Party won, or Roosevelt had won - which quickly became the problem of the day. Despite attempts to paint itself a NYC's New Deal Coalition, the Roosevelt jr Mayoral ticket was nothing so stable, and cracks quickly began to appear. Part of the problem was that the candidate himself did not see his new office as a permanent one, merely a stepping stone for higher office, and he had failed to provide clear direction for what his plans for the city were to be, which consequently meant that as policy slowly trickled out of the Mayor's office it almost always failed to please.

When "business as usual" was planned for the economy, the union support and ALP flipped its collective lid: the top down nature of Dewey's tenure had created an increasing wage gap, especially in Construction workers, which the Unions demanded needing addressing. Eventually, Mayor Roosevelt promised to do something (what was never established) the Democrat fellow travellers in his camp forced him to put the breaks on it. The late 50s were boom time for America and everyone knew, who really cared if Unions were moaning a small wage? It would probably fix itself in a few months. Even on FDR jr's specialist area of civil rights, his Office bungled it again as the racial and ethnic issues of America effectively became a pressure cooker in New York: his continuation of Dewey's crime policies meant that Italian 'Community Leaders' could not be persuaded to sit down and ease off their antagonism of African-Americans; who, with the South and MLK in superdrive by now, were tired of being talked down to by rich white men, no matter who his daddy was; the Irish remained in the pocket of the individuals that had been the Tammany machine, who promptly defended the Italian's right to demonstrate against 'black infringement'.

By 1960, Roosevelt jr could see the cracks had started leaking, as crime rose for the first time in years and a new President who ready to do something on civil rights - no matter the cost - and a local economy showing the signs that it might be overheating. So he took the first out he could find, eventually his brothers James and John worked to get him a nomination for a seat in the House. Uprooting to the other side of the country was not Junior's preferred option, but he felt it better to go sooner than later knowing that he hadn't exactly improved the city that he had been custodian of for three years. Announcing his resignation, an emergency election was called, and the only thing immediately clear is that Liberal Party was going to suffer the most, as the ALP cut all ties and (with Tammany Hall officially dead and buried) the Democrats tried to get their house back in order and decide what their post-Tammany future meant.


[4] The Republicans wanted to head the Democrats off at the pass and sent in Lindsay, a man making a name for himself in the Department of Justice with civil rights, as someone who might filch part of that constituency. He turned out to be far more liberal than they'd expected - and having got straight to such a powerful position, quite starry-eyed about that power and uninclined to play internal politics. Lindsay pushed hard on civil rights, pleasing the president; gave school boards more power so the communities could have more say; and pushed to raise tax for both civil rights reforms and to boost the police against crime.

All three things at once was a tall order. Teacher's unions, his own party people, the Italian communities, black activist groups, and the police - all needed reassuring. They couldn't all have it. Lindsay talked to the teachers and the Italians, assuming the other three would be fine. The result was that for the rest of his term, much of the New York Republicans were bitterly at odds with Lindsay, forcing him to work with the Liberals (and have secret backdoor deals with some Democrats without being seen to deal with the party, which crossed the line into bribes). The rise in crime was suppressed, civil rights and community relations improved for black New Yorkers... and after that, he struggled to get anything else done. This didn't harm him in the 1964 election, as he was able to promote himself more than his party, but his second would be dogged with inability to get to grips with poverty and a slow rise in crime once more.

If he'd fixed relations with his own party, he would later admit, things could have been fixed, or if he'd defected to the Liberals and openly worked with Democrats. But things were too far gone for his pride to take the former - HE'D been elected becasue of what HE did, not the party! - and he was too stubborn for the latter. New Yorkers assumed he was doing his best and he was seen as keeping riots from hitting the city after Doctor King's murder, but they wanted a mayor who had the power to get more done.

[5] For the first time in over 30 years the Democrats were back, led back to the promised land by the popular city comptroller Mario Procaccino. The Democrats had run a targeted campaign at the urban working class promising an increased standard of living, improved law and order to deal and a move back towards, as Procaccino called them, traditional values. What this actually meant was nebulous but it was enough to win over wavering Democrat voters outside Procaccino's core vote in Brooklyn and the Bronx, though it was another tight race, with the Dems only winning by 1,543 votes.

Procaccino barely had time to make himself comfortable in City Hall before he was hit with his first crisis, the 1969 Nor'easter storm. NYC took the brunt of the winter blast and for two days the city was in a state of paralysis. Realizing this first test would set the tone for his mayoral-ship Procaccino was dynamic and forceful in his response, demanding round the clock work by municipal employees to help get the city up and running. Mario himself was no slouch, visiting each Borough frequently and never afraid to be seen to pick up a shovel and mucking in with the residents. His quick response and that of the city infrastructure as a whole was seen as exemplary and Procaccino's warm and folksy manner won him a great deal of affection, quickly becoming known as "Our Mario".

However it wasn't all plain sailing for Mario, his condoning of the "Hard Hat" riot and apparent dismissal of suspected police brutality in Black neighborhoods contrasted poorly with Mayor Lindsay's more deft handling of the citys racial issues. It didn't seem to hurt with his base however and he was able to turn the tables on what he called his "Limousine Liberal" critics, painting them as an out of touch elite, blind to the concerns of the common man. In fact he was re-elected with a much increased majority in 1972, the future looking rosy.

However it was in his second term that chickens came home to roost. The price for the rapid response to the Winter of 68/69 had been achieved by agreements with the unions for large pay increases and improved terms and conditions, this in conjunction with increased funding for the police and local communities (the ones who supported the Democrats anyway) put a massive strain on an already loaded budget. The New York deficit began to spiral out of control and happening snap bang in the middle of the growing energy crisis threw the city into a full scale emergency. City Hall responded with panic and began a general reduction of funding to all services, Procaccino gambled he could sell it as everyone taking a hit for the good of the city, he was wrong.

The already frayed social bonds between the various communities finally began to break down in earnest, crime shot up and strikes erupted. New York had been unknowingly sitting on a powder keg for at least a decade, with the lid kept on by unsustainable social spending. As the money ran out old grievances spilled out into the open, few will forget Walter Cronkite's famous line "ladies and gentlemen, the Bronx is burning" while footage showed striking cops aimlessly watching widespread looting and wanton violence. In a notorious case the transport polices inept bungling of a bizarre subway hijack led to the massacre of 20 people and the escape of the hostage takers with the one million dollar ransom. All this played out on TV screens across America, leading New York to be dubbed "America's shame".

Procaccino should have been a goner in '76 election, his attempts to tie his election campaign to the national bicentennial seen a cynical attempt to deny any attachment to NYC. Two things went in his favour however. One was the quixotic independent campaign of John Lindsay, looking to come back and, as he put it, "save my city", this led to a split in the Republican-Liberal vote. The other would not be known about until long after Procaccino's death, his quid pro quo with organised crime to push out the Irish and Italians vote in exchange for a hands off policy on their interests, especially around the seedy 42nd Street and Times Square grindhouse district. This was capped off by a now known to be staged assassination attempt during a Brooklyn street festival by an apparent "Black Nationalist" (in reality a paid ex-con) to garner sympathy. The unfortunate side effect being a revenge mass shooting in Harlem leaving 12 dead and racial tension once again pushed to breaking point.

Procaccino's last term continued to go from worse to worse, presiding over a crime ridden city, covered in muck and grime from an umpteenth sanitation strike while "white flight" increased exponentially leaving a poor, desolate city behind. The final nail in the coffin was the cities bankruptcy and Mayor Procaccino had to go cap in hand to the Federal government for a bailout, one of the conditions being he was not to run for re-election. Frankly this suited Mario as he was worn down, tired and miserable.

So in 1979 he packed up and left the Mayor's official residence, the New York Post running with a front page of a tearful, broken Procaccino and a play on his long discarded nickname "Out Mario".

[6] The 1980 mayoral election was not only a battle for 'the soul of New York', but also for the soul of the Republican Party. 'Out Mario' meant that the Democrats were out of the running for a chance of office, which to the opportunistic, beacon of the American conservatives was a chance to wrestle control of the Republican Party in New York away from its liberal faction. The contest was hard fought, but decision of the liberal Republicans to put up David Rockefeller was felt a cynical ploy acting on Nelson's death, who David certainly wasn't, so naturally Buckley dominated the debates, effectively campaign on the need for a "conservative revolution in city finances", dodging the negative connotations of the race question while promising to do whatever was necessary to bring back law & order, finally avoiding the Rockefeller nepotism accusations by keeping his brother the Senator at arms length for the duration.

In his own way, Buckley more or less fulfilled his exact promises of his election. City spending was cut so thoroughly to the bone - making the slow, fazed reductions of previous years seem tame - that it sent an almost immediate shock throughout the city, which initially exacerbated every other problem it had going for it: Harlem and the Bronx blew up in another spout of racial violence; those small business in with organised crime could no longer afford to pay their protection without city financial support, which led to a spike in arson, shootings, 'bust-outs' and suicides; finally a left-wing protest turned into an all out riot on Wall Street. Not that Buckley especially minded, he had planned for it and considered all these to be his enemy, and a NYPD suddenly flush with cash from cut services rolled in and put the smackdown on everyone. Even national guard elements were mobilised to support the police as they restored order, but things admittedly getting out of hand with over zealous police - NYPD's breakup of protesters outside the New York Stock Exchange memorised as the Second Wall Street Crash. This kind of hardball, 'walk the line' police work continued and remains perhaps the most personally contentious part Buckley's term in office for many, but the man himself stood by his record as for every black kid that got "a bit too much of a kicking", he could at least hold up another Frank Lucas or Angelo Bruno to show his war on crime was working.

As the city began to prove a safer place, investment returned to NYC, which Mayor Buckley was glad to endorse and support. He even threw in sweeteners to help in the selling off of City services, which had already been going underfunded enough to make most of them 'fiscally irresponsible'. The Market rolled in and by 1983, for better or worse, New York had gone from being almost Fabian or social democratic to a Friedmanite's wet dream. Although it took a backseat for the most part, Buckley also became increasingly determined to increase the power of Church and the Family, which he found surprising aid from the city's Synagogues and Black Churches. This helped breach the gap Buckley had between himself and the City minorities, and meant he could tackle the inequality and poverty problem of NYC without having to resort to state or federal welfare, as Buckley ensure the religious charities had a steady flow of charitable, mega-bucks donations through every connection he could pull - however this had the unforeseen effect of contributing to the stigma against homosexuals and transgender peoples as the AIDS crisis deepened.

Buckley shocked many when he refused to run for another term in 1984, claiming he had missed his time on television and Firing Line. He returned for another series of his celebrated programme before standing as Republican candidate for Governor of New York state. He held the position until his retirement in 1998.
 

Charles EP M.

Well-known member
Published by SLP
1933 - 1941: Joseph V. McKee (Recovery Party)[1]
1941 - 1957: Thomas E. Dewey (Republican-Liberal) [2]
1957 - 1960: Franklin Delano Roosevelt Jr. (Liberal Party) [3]
1960 - 1968: John Lindsay (Republican Party) [4]
1968 - 1980: Mario Procaccino (Democrat Party) [5]
1980 - 1984: William F. Buckley Jr. (Republican Party/Conservative Party) [6]
1984 - 1992: David Dinkins (Liberal Party) [7]
1992 - 1994:
1994 - 1998:
1998 - 2010:
2010 - 2018:
2018 - XXXX:

[1] Following Jimmy Walker's scandal induced resignation and exile to Europe Joseph McKee had actually been acting Mayor for 4 months, before a special election had resulted in the Tammany Hall backed Joseph O'Brien taking over to complete the remaining year left of Walkers original term. McKee had been content to sit out the 1933 contest, which was to pit O'Brien against the Republican nominee Fiorello La Guardia. However cajoling from Bronx Democrat boss Ed Flynn and some secret encouragement from FDR, who wanted to break the back of Tammany in New York, convinced McKee to run as a 3rd Party candidate for the Recovery Party. No-one expected him to win, he was simply a spoiler to draw votes off O'Brien and let the liberal La Guardia win. However a combination of Republican infighting and indecision on supporting an Italian-American and middle class resentment of Tammany Hall influence ended up with McKee winning a squeaker.

McKee proved an able administrator, having been in the halls of power in NYC for sometime. Working closely with advisers such as Robert Moses and with close contact with the Democratic leadership, up to and including the President McKee was able to successfully bid for a large amount of the Civil Works Administration budget, some 25% of the national total in fact. Billions were poured into New York and massive public works programs were undertaken. NYC became a shining example of the new America being shaped by the New Deal and McKee was able to tie his coattails to those of the President.

However McKee was less successful in combating the graft that was a hold over from Walkers time. While he was never personally linked to corruption a number of his aides were caught up in a bribery scandal halfway through his second term and further investigation would expose a culture of kickbacks and patronage within the middle management of Civic Authority. McKee tried to avoid responsibility but his claims of having no knowledge of these crimes lacked credibility. While he was publicly claiming he would fight for a third term in private he was instructed by FDR's advisors to step down at the end of his second term to avoid further embarrassment to the White House. McKee eventually gave in and announced his 2nd term would be his last, leaving the Big Apple to his successor gleaming but with still a rotten core.

[2] For better or worse, few men have done more for New York City than Tom Dewey. The wunderkind mobbuster turned presidential hopefull had been beaten bloody by the Roosevelt machine the year before, but when it came to take on organized crime and corruption the New York Republican Party could not have asked for a better man. Waltzing through the 1941 election easily swating aside Tammany Democrats and starry-eyed American Labor types (the Recovery Party failing to field a candidate) left and right he carried all five borroughs and won over 60% of the vote.

The early Dewey years were in many ways a continuation of his DA days. Corrupt officials were cleaned out, the payrolls empitied of patronage jobs and the old boys network of fat, mob-connected irishmen given the boot. While the 1947 Academy Awards favorite The Mayor (starring Humphrey Bogart in his second role portraying a Dewey stand-in) took some liberites in its portrayal of a crusading young mayor who survives assassins and personally oversees the arrest of mafia-owned civil servants you wouldn't know it by asking New Yorkers who remember the early 40's. For a certain kind of New Yorker Thomas Dewey symbolises everything a politician is supposed to be. Had he died around 1947 he would likely have been remembered like that by all.

A WASP Republican who never really left his small-c conservative midwesterness behind in a city that was none of those of things, it should come as no suprise that conflicts arose between the Mayor and his constituencies. In many respects Dewey continued of the liberal policies of his predecessors, which in combination of his work cleaning out city government and his statues as a national hero earned him reelection not only in 1945 but two more times after that. But as the years worse on the city began to chafe under his rule. Patronage might breed corrutpion and graft, but it also gave individual communities a say and stake in goverment. Tammany had based its rule as much on responsivness to local needs as on crime, and under Mayor Dewey city governance became an increasingly top-down affair, where experts and up-state apparatchiks held sway. Irish and Italian community leaders found themselves shut out, and as the years passed they were joined by their Jewish and Black counterparts. Tom Dewey might have been a friend of Harlem and New York Jewery, but there existed a strong cultural divide between the Mayor and his working-class constituents, Dewey's genuine good intentions notwithstanding. On the surface the city bloomed, with ultra-modern infrastructure projects and nation-leading social programs, but below discontent grew. Jokes that the only difference between Dewey's people and the goons they had replaced was that none of the new men came from NYC were not strictly speaking accurate, but they spoke of the sentiment that delivered the shock results of 1957. On the morning of November 6 Frances Dewey delivered a terse concession speech. Her husband, All America's Mayor, had locked himself into his private office and wouldn't be presentable to the world for another few days.

[3] The election of Roosevelt the younger surprised many, not only for the defeat it inflicted on Thomas Dewey, but also that it dealt the final blow for Tammany Hall that led to its dissolving in 1959. But the common theory remains that this would have happened to whoever managed to coalesce the factions that formed around the Liberal Party of NY in 1957, and the party itself might have been better off for it. FDR jr had sought the nomination as a vehicle to get his political career back on track, which had somewhat staggered after his Father's death and his failure in 1949 to win a seat in the House of Reps. And the Democrats outside the Tammany machine were by then desperate to break its back for good and all: they had seen its incompetence and lethargy to act during McKee's tenure and saw first hand the weight of corruption embedded in it as Dewey sent more than a few of its mobbed up members to the Big House. So the remaining Recovery Party, every Democrat that wasn't Irish or on the Mafia payroll, and even the American Labor Party each put their two dollars worth behind Roosevelt to see what would happen.

Through a combination of the family name, a hard fought grass roots level campaign and an electorate tired of its incumbent the Liberal Party won, or Roosevelt had won - which quickly became the problem of the day. Despite attempts to paint itself a NYC's New Deal Coalition, the Roosevelt jr Mayoral ticket was nothing so stable, and cracks quickly began to appear. Part of the problem was that the candidate himself did not see his new office as a permanent one, merely a stepping stone for higher office, and he had failed to provide clear direction for what his plans for the city were to be, which consequently meant that as policy slowly trickled out of the Mayor's office it almost always failed to please.

When "business as usual" was planned for the economy, the union support and ALP flipped its collective lid: the top down nature of Dewey's tenure had created an increasing wage gap, especially in Construction workers, which the Unions demanded needing addressing. Eventually, Mayor Roosevelt promised to do something (what was never established) the Democrat fellow travellers in his camp forced him to put the breaks on it. The late 50s were boom time for America and everyone knew, who really cared if Unions were moaning a small wage? It would probably fix itself in a few months. Even on FDR jr's specialist area of civil rights, his Office bungled it again as the racial and ethnic issues of America effectively became a pressure cooker in New York: his continuation of Dewey's crime policies meant that Italian 'Community Leaders' could not be persuaded to sit down and ease off their antagonism of African-Americans; who, with the South and MLK in superdrive by now, were tired of being talked down to by rich white men, no matter who his daddy was; the Irish remained in the pocket of the individuals that had been the Tammany machine, who promptly defended the Italian's right to demonstrate against 'black infringement'.

By 1960, Roosevelt jr could see the cracks had started leaking, as crime rose for the first time in years and a new President who ready to do something on civil rights - no matter the cost - and a local economy showing the signs that it might be overheating. So he took the first out he could find, eventually his brothers James and John worked to get him a nomination for a seat in the House. Uprooting to the other side of the country was not Junior's preferred option, but he felt it better to go sooner than later knowing that he hadn't exactly improved the city that he had been custodian of for three years. Announcing his resignation, an emergency election was called, and the only thing immediately clear is that Liberal Party was going to suffer the most, as the ALP cut all ties and (with Tammany Hall officially dead and buried) the Democrats tried to get their house back in order and decide what their post-Tammany future meant.


[4] The Republicans wanted to head the Democrats off at the pass and sent in Lindsay, a man making a name for himself in the Department of Justice with civil rights, as someone who might filch part of that constituency. He turned out to be far more liberal than they'd expected - and having got straight to such a powerful position, quite starry-eyed about that power and uninclined to play internal politics. Lindsay pushed hard on civil rights, pleasing the president; gave school boards more power so the communities could have more say; and pushed to raise tax for both civil rights reforms and to boost the police against crime.

All three things at once was a tall order. Teacher's unions, his own party people, the Italian communities, black activist groups, and the police - all needed reassuring. They couldn't all have it. Lindsay talked to the teachers and the Italians, assuming the other three would be fine. The result was that for the rest of his term, much of the New York Republicans were bitterly at odds with Lindsay, forcing him to work with the Liberals (and have secret backdoor deals with some Democrats without being seen to deal with the party, which crossed the line into bribes). The rise in crime was suppressed, civil rights and community relations improved for black New Yorkers... and after that, he struggled to get anything else done. This didn't harm him in the 1964 election, as he was able to promote himself more than his party, but his second would be dogged with inability to get to grips with poverty and a slow rise in crime once more.

If he'd fixed relations with his own party, he would later admit, things could have been fixed, or if he'd defected to the Liberals and openly worked with Democrats. But things were too far gone for his pride to take the former - HE'D been elected becasue of what HE did, not the party! - and he was too stubborn for the latter. New Yorkers assumed he was doing his best and he was seen as keeping riots from hitting the city after Doctor King's murder, but they wanted a mayor who had the power to get more done.

[5] For the first time in over 30 years the Democrats were back, led back to the promised land by the popular city comptroller Mario Procaccino. The Democrats had run a targeted campaign at the urban working class promising an increased standard of living, improved law and order to deal and a move back towards, as Procaccino called them, traditional values. What this actually meant was nebulous but it was enough to win over wavering Democrat voters outside Procaccino's core vote in Brooklyn and the Bronx, though it was another tight race, with the Dems only winning by 1,543 votes.

Procaccino barely had time to make himself comfortable in City Hall before he was hit with his first crisis, the 1969 Nor'easter storm. NYC took the brunt of the winter blast and for two days the city was in a state of paralysis. Realizing this first test would set the tone for his mayoral-ship Procaccino was dynamic and forceful in his response, demanding round the clock work by municipal employees to help get the city up and running. Mario himself was no slouch, visiting each Borough frequently and never afraid to be seen to pick up a shovel and mucking in with the residents. His quick response and that of the city infrastructure as a whole was seen as exemplary and Procaccino's warm and folksy manner won him a great deal of affection, quickly becoming known as "Our Mario".

However it wasn't all plain sailing for Mario, his condoning of the "Hard Hat" riot and apparent dismissal of suspected police brutality in Black neighborhoods contrasted poorly with Mayor Lindsay's more deft handling of the citys racial issues. It didn't seem to hurt with his base however and he was able to turn the tables on what he called his "Limousine Liberal" critics, painting them as an out of touch elite, blind to the concerns of the common man. In fact he was re-elected with a much increased majority in 1972, the future looking rosy.

However it was in his second term that chickens came home to roost. The price for the rapid response to the Winter of 68/69 had been achieved by agreements with the unions for large pay increases and improved terms and conditions, this in conjunction with increased funding for the police and local communities (the ones who supported the Democrats anyway) put a massive strain on an already loaded budget. The New York deficit began to spiral out of control and happening snap bang in the middle of the growing energy crisis threw the city into a full scale emergency. City Hall responded with panic and began a general reduction of funding to all services, Procaccino gambled he could sell it as everyone taking a hit for the good of the city, he was wrong.

The already frayed social bonds between the various communities finally began to break down in earnest, crime shot up and strikes erupted. New York had been unknowingly sitting on a powder keg for at least a decade, with the lid kept on by unsustainable social spending. As the money ran out old grievances spilled out into the open, few will forget Walter Cronkite's famous line "ladies and gentlemen, the Bronx is burning" while footage showed striking cops aimlessly watching widespread looting and wanton violence. In a notorious case the transport polices inept bungling of a bizarre subway hijack led to the massacre of 20 people and the escape of the hostage takers with the one million dollar ransom. All this played out on TV screens across America, leading New York to be dubbed "America's shame".

Procaccino should have been a goner in '76 election, his attempts to tie his election campaign to the national bicentennial seen a cynical attempt to deny any attachment to NYC. Two things went in his favour however. One was the quixotic independent campaign of John Lindsay, looking to come back and, as he put it, "save my city", this led to a split in the Republican-Liberal vote. The other would not be known about until long after Procaccino's death, his quid pro quo with organised crime to push out the Irish and Italians vote in exchange for a hands off policy on their interests, especially around the seedy 42nd Street and Times Square grindhouse district. This was capped off by a now known to be staged assassination attempt during a Brooklyn street festival by an apparent "Black Nationalist" (in reality a paid ex-con) to garner sympathy. The unfortunate side effect being a revenge mass shooting in Harlem leaving 12 dead and racial tension once again pushed to breaking point.

Procaccino's last term continued to go from worse to worse, presiding over a crime ridden city, covered in muck and grime from an umpteenth sanitation strike while "white flight" increased exponentially leaving a poor, desolate city behind. The final nail in the coffin was the cities bankruptcy and Mayor Procaccino had to go cap in hand to the Federal government for a bailout, one of the conditions being he was not to run for re-election. Frankly this suited Mario as he was worn down, tired and miserable.

So in 1979 he packed up and left the Mayor's official residence, the New York Post running with a front page of a tearful, broken Procaccino and a play on his long discarded nickname "Out Mario".

[6] The 1980 mayoral election was not only a battle for 'the soul of New York', but also for the soul of the Republican Party. 'Out Mario' meant that the Democrats were out of the running for a chance of office, which to the opportunistic, beacon of the American conservatives was a chance to wrestle control of the Republican Party in New York away from its liberal faction. The contest was hard fought, but decision of the liberal Republicans to put up David Rockefeller was felt a cynical ploy acting on Nelson's death, who David certainly wasn't, so naturally Buckley dominated the debates, effectively campaign on the need for a "conservative revolution in city finances", dodging the negative connotations of the race question while promising to do whatever was necessary to bring back law & order, finally avoiding the Rockefeller nepotism accusations by keeping his brother the Senator at arms length for the duration.

In his own way, Buckley more or less fulfilled his exact promises of his election. City spending was cut so thoroughly to the bone - making the slow, fazed reductions of previous years seem tame - that it sent an almost immediate shock throughout the city, which initially exacerbated every other problem it had going for it: Harlem and the Bronx blew up in another spout of racial violence; those small business in with organised crime could no longer afford to pay their protection without city financial support, which led to a spike in arson, shootings, 'bust-outs' and suicides; finally a left-wing protest turned into an all out riot on Wall Street. Not that Buckley especially minded, he had planned for it and considered all these to be his enemy, and a NYPD suddenly flush with cash from cut services rolled in and put the smackdown on everyone. Even national guard elements were mobilised to support the police as they restored order, but things admittedly getting out of hand with over zealous police - NYPD's breakup of protesters outside the New York Stock Exchange memorised as the Second Wall Street Crash. This kind of hardball, 'walk the line' police work continued and remains perhaps the most personally contentious part Buckley's term in office for many, but the man himself stood by his record as for every black kid that got "a bit too much of a kicking", he could at least hold up another Frank Lucas or Angelo Bruno to show his war on crime was working.

As the city began to prove a safer place, investment returned to NYC, which Mayor Buckley was glad to endorse and support. He even threw in sweeteners to help in the selling off of City services, which had already been going underfunded enough to make most of them 'fiscally irresponsible'. The Market rolled in and by 1983, for better or worse, New York had gone from being almost Fabian or social democratic to a Friedmanite's wet dream. Although it took a backseat for the most part, Buckley also became increasingly determined to increase the power of Church and the Family, which he found surprising aid from the city's Synagogues and Black Churches. This helped breach the gap Buckley had between himself and the City minorities, and meant he could tackle the inequality and poverty problem of NYC without having to resort to state or federal welfare, as Buckley ensure the religious charities had a steady flow of charitable, mega-bucks donations through every connection he could pull - however this had the unforeseen effect of contributing to the stigma against homosexuals and transgender peoples as the AIDS crisis deepened.

Buckley shocked many when he refused to run for another term in 1984, claiming he had missed his time on television and Firing Line. He returned for another series of his celebrated programme before standing as Republican candidate for Governor of New York state. He held the position until his retirement in 1998.


[7] With the Democrats still in disarray and the Republicans scrambling to replace Buckley, the Liberals had their shot and they had their man: Dinkins had been a Democrat until he'd switched parties in dismay at Procaccino's mayoralty, and he still had ties to the black community from that time. He promised to retain the fall in crime "with dignity", and to try and bring harmony to the city.

First, he began to increase the city's welfare programs, upped the funding of the services Buckley hadn't sold off, and planned a renewal project of run-down housing. Middle-class taxpayers were unhappy about paying, the churches were unhappy at being cut out (and Dinkins made sure to schmooze the black ones), but the people seeing improvements to their neighbourhoods sure appreciated it. A slow, steady transformation of the city began - and ended in 1986, when Buckley became governor.

The rest of Dinkins' term is infamous in New York political history. The mayor and the governor disagreed on nearly everything, but the mayor needed to get the extra cash from the governor, and there constant fights, constant deals, constant sudden changes of policy, constant attempts to raise city-specific revenue. (Dinkins took advantage of rap's popularity and New York origins to make it easier for rap concerts to take place - so the city could tax the damn things) Cartoonists and SNL sketches compared Dinkins and Buckley to the Cold War powers engaged in SALT negotiations. The city bodged along under this, gradually changing but never in the way either men wanted it.

There were two exceptions to this. The first was AIDS and the need for better treatment clinics & education, a fight Dinkins won by starting a public campaign about the risk of AIDS infecting anyone. "It Can Happen Here" said the famous posters, and New Yorkers were shocked - it wasn't just the gays and junkies?! - and Buckley bowed to the public fear. (This, due to taking place in the country's media hub, is also responsible for bouncing the president into approving similar measures)

Exception two was a big crackdown on the mobs after the horrific Times Square Massacre in '89. Buckley and Dinkins had both followed Procaccino's "hands off" approach, taking the tax revenue and getting used to the idea the Square, often seen as an eyesore, was 'contained' - up until a mob shootout killed seventeen people, eleven of them innocent bystanders. Sickened by what they'd allowed to fester, both men ordered the police to blitz the area. The resulting prosecutions gave rise to three smaller-scale shootings of the next two years but also broke the back of the mafia in the city. Dinkins hoped to greatly renovate Times Square after this but there was only the money for half of it.

If there hadn't been a national recession in 1992, Dinkins may have won his fourth term but there was - and it meant the renovated half of Times Square became a renovated quarter - and more people needed those welfare services. Unable to get extra cash, Dinkins had to spend more money than the city had available and this left him open to attacks that he would Bankrupt The City and Raise Your Taxes.
 
1933 - 1941: Joseph V. McKee (Recovery Party)[1]
1941 - 1957: Thomas E. Dewey (Republican-Liberal) [2]
1957 - 1960: Franklin Delano Roosevelt Jr. (Liberal Party) [3]
1960 - 1968: John Lindsay (Republican Party) [4]
1968 - 1980: Mario Procaccino (Democrat Party) [5]
1980 - 1984: William F. Buckley Jr. (Republican Party/Conservative Party) [6]
1984 - 1992: David Dinkins (Liberal Party) [7]
1992 - 1994: Guy Molinari (Republican Party) [8]
1994 - 1998:
1998 - 2010:
2010 - 2018:
2018 - XXXX:

[1] Following Jimmy Walker's scandal induced resignation and exile to Europe Joseph McKee had actually been acting Mayor for 4 months, before a special election had resulted in the Tammany Hall backed Joseph O'Brien taking over to complete the remaining year left of Walkers original term. McKee had been content to sit out the 1933 contest, which was to pit O'Brien against the Republican nominee Fiorello La Guardia. However cajoling from Bronx Democrat boss Ed Flynn and some secret encouragement from FDR, who wanted to break the back of Tammany in New York, convinced McKee to run as a 3rd Party candidate for the Recovery Party. No-one expected him to win, he was simply a spoiler to draw votes off O'Brien and let the liberal La Guardia win. However a combination of Republican infighting and indecision on supporting an Italian-American and middle class resentment of Tammany Hall influence ended up with McKee winning a squeaker.

McKee proved an able administrator, having been in the halls of power in NYC for sometime. Working closely with advisers such as Robert Moses and with close contact with the Democratic leadership, up to and including the President McKee was able to successfully bid for a large amount of the Civil Works Administration budget, some 25% of the national total in fact. Billions were poured into New York and massive public works programs were undertaken. NYC became a shining example of the new America being shaped by the New Deal and McKee was able to tie his coattails to those of the President.

However McKee was less successful in combating the graft that was a hold over from Walkers time. While he was never personally linked to corruption a number of his aides were caught up in a bribery scandal halfway through his second term and further investigation would expose a culture of kickbacks and patronage within the middle management of Civic Authority. McKee tried to avoid responsibility but his claims of having no knowledge of these crimes lacked credibility. While he was publicly claiming he would fight for a third term in private he was instructed by FDR's advisors to step down at the end of his second term to avoid further embarrassment to the White House. McKee eventually gave in and announced his 2nd term would be his last, leaving the Big Apple to his successor gleaming but with still a rotten core.

[2] For better or worse, few men have done more for New York City than Tom Dewey. The wunderkind mobbuster turned presidential hopefull had been beaten bloody by the Roosevelt machine the year before, but when it came to take on organized crime and corruption the New York Republican Party could not have asked for a better man. Waltzing through the 1941 election easily swating aside Tammany Democrats and starry-eyed American Labor types (the Recovery Party failing to field a candidate) left and right he carried all five borroughs and won over 60% of the vote.

The early Dewey years were in many ways a continuation of his DA days. Corrupt officials were cleaned out, the payrolls empitied of patronage jobs and the old boys network of fat, mob-connected irishmen given the boot. While the 1947 Academy Awards favorite The Mayor (starring Humphrey Bogart in his second role portraying a Dewey stand-in) took some liberites in its portrayal of a crusading young mayor who survives assassins and personally oversees the arrest of mafia-owned civil servants you wouldn't know it by asking New Yorkers who remember the early 40's. For a certain kind of New Yorker Thomas Dewey symbolises everything a politician is supposed to be. Had he died around 1947 he would likely have been remembered like that by all.

A WASP Republican who never really left his small-c conservative midwesterness behind in a city that was none of those of things, it should come as no suprise that conflicts arose between the Mayor and his constituencies. In many respects Dewey continued of the liberal policies of his predecessors, which in combination of his work cleaning out city government and his statues as a national hero earned him reelection not only in 1945 but two more times after that. But as the years worse on the city began to chafe under his rule. Patronage might breed corrutpion and graft, but it also gave individual communities a say and stake in goverment. Tammany had based its rule as much on responsivness to local needs as on crime, and under Mayor Dewey city governance became an increasingly top-down affair, where experts and up-state apparatchiks held sway. Irish and Italian community leaders found themselves shut out, and as the years passed they were joined by their Jewish and Black counterparts. Tom Dewey might have been a friend of Harlem and New York Jewery, but there existed a strong cultural divide between the Mayor and his working-class constituents, Dewey's genuine good intentions notwithstanding. On the surface the city bloomed, with ultra-modern infrastructure projects and nation-leading social programs, but below discontent grew. Jokes that the only difference between Dewey's people and the goons they had replaced was that none of the new men came from NYC were not strictly speaking accurate, but they spoke of the sentiment that delivered the shock results of 1957. On the morning of November 6 Frances Dewey delivered a terse concession speech. Her husband, All America's Mayor, had locked himself into his private office and wouldn't be presentable to the world for another few days.

[3] The election of Roosevelt the younger surprised many, not only for the defeat it inflicted on Thomas Dewey, but also that it dealt the final blow for Tammany Hall that led to its dissolving in 1959. But the common theory remains that this would have happened to whoever managed to coalesce the factions that formed around the Liberal Party of NY in 1957, and the party itself might have been better off for it. FDR jr had sought the nomination as a vehicle to get his political career back on track, which had somewhat staggered after his Father's death and his failure in 1949 to win a seat in the House of Reps. And the Democrats outside the Tammany machine were by then desperate to break its back for good and all: they had seen its incompetence and lethargy to act during McKee's tenure and saw first hand the weight of corruption embedded in it as Dewey sent more than a few of its mobbed up members to the Big House. So the remaining Recovery Party, every Democrat that wasn't Irish or on the Mafia payroll, and even the American Labor Party each put their two dollars worth behind Roosevelt to see what would happen.

Through a combination of the family name, a hard fought grass roots level campaign and an electorate tired of its incumbent the Liberal Party won, or Roosevelt had won - which quickly became the problem of the day. Despite attempts to paint itself a NYC's New Deal Coalition, the Roosevelt jr Mayoral ticket was nothing so stable, and cracks quickly began to appear. Part of the problem was that the candidate himself did not see his new office as a permanent one, merely a stepping stone for higher office, and he had failed to provide clear direction for what his plans for the city were to be, which consequently meant that as policy slowly trickled out of the Mayor's office it almost always failed to please.

When "business as usual" was planned for the economy, the union support and ALP flipped its collective lid: the top down nature of Dewey's tenure had created an increasing wage gap, especially in Construction workers, which the Unions demanded needing addressing. Eventually, Mayor Roosevelt promised to do something (what was never established) the Democrat fellow travellers in his camp forced him to put the breaks on it. The late 50s were boom time for America and everyone knew, who really cared if Unions were moaning a small wage? It would probably fix itself in a few months. Even on FDR jr's specialist area of civil rights, his Office bungled it again as the racial and ethnic issues of America effectively became a pressure cooker in New York: his continuation of Dewey's crime policies meant that Italian 'Community Leaders' could not be persuaded to sit down and ease off their antagonism of African-Americans; who, with the South and MLK in superdrive by now, were tired of being talked down to by rich white men, no matter who his daddy was; the Irish remained in the pocket of the individuals that had been the Tammany machine, who promptly defended the Italian's right to demonstrate against 'black infringement'.

By 1960, Roosevelt jr could see the cracks had started leaking, as crime rose for the first time in years and a new President who ready to do something on civil rights - no matter the cost - and a local economy showing the signs that it might be overheating. So he took the first out he could find, eventually his brothers James and John worked to get him a nomination for a seat in the House. Uprooting to the other side of the country was not Junior's preferred option, but he felt it better to go sooner than later knowing that he hadn't exactly improved the city that he had been custodian of for three years. Announcing his resignation, an emergency election was called, and the only thing immediately clear is that Liberal Party was going to suffer the most, as the ALP cut all ties and (with Tammany Hall officially dead and buried) the Democrats tried to get their house back in order and decide what their post-Tammany future meant.


[4] The Republicans wanted to head the Democrats off at the pass and sent in Lindsay, a man making a name for himself in the Department of Justice with civil rights, as someone who might filch part of that constituency. He turned out to be far more liberal than they'd expected - and having got straight to such a powerful position, quite starry-eyed about that power and uninclined to play internal politics. Lindsay pushed hard on civil rights, pleasing the president; gave school boards more power so the communities could have more say; and pushed to raise tax for both civil rights reforms and to boost the police against crime.

All three things at once was a tall order. Teacher's unions, his own party people, the Italian communities, black activist groups, and the police - all needed reassuring. They couldn't all have it. Lindsay talked to the teachers and the Italians, assuming the other three would be fine. The result was that for the rest of his term, much of the New York Republicans were bitterly at odds with Lindsay, forcing him to work with the Liberals (and have secret backdoor deals with some Democrats without being seen to deal with the party, which crossed the line into bribes). The rise in crime was suppressed, civil rights and community relations improved for black New Yorkers... and after that, he struggled to get anything else done. This didn't harm him in the 1964 election, as he was able to promote himself more than his party, but his second would be dogged with inability to get to grips with poverty and a slow rise in crime once more.

If he'd fixed relations with his own party, he would later admit, things could have been fixed, or if he'd defected to the Liberals and openly worked with Democrats. But things were too far gone for his pride to take the former - HE'D been elected becasue of what HE did, not the party! - and he was too stubborn for the latter. New Yorkers assumed he was doing his best and he was seen as keeping riots from hitting the city after Doctor King's murder, but they wanted a mayor who had the power to get more done.

[5] For the first time in over 30 years the Democrats were back, led back to the promised land by the popular city comptroller Mario Procaccino. The Democrats had run a targeted campaign at the urban working class promising an increased standard of living, improved law and order to deal and a move back towards, as Procaccino called them, traditional values. What this actually meant was nebulous but it was enough to win over wavering Democrat voters outside Procaccino's core vote in Brooklyn and the Bronx, though it was another tight race, with the Dems only winning by 1,543 votes.

Procaccino barely had time to make himself comfortable in City Hall before he was hit with his first crisis, the 1969 Nor'easter storm. NYC took the brunt of the winter blast and for two days the city was in a state of paralysis. Realizing this first test would set the tone for his mayoral-ship Procaccino was dynamic and forceful in his response, demanding round the clock work by municipal employees to help get the city up and running. Mario himself was no slouch, visiting each Borough frequently and never afraid to be seen to pick up a shovel and mucking in with the residents. His quick response and that of the city infrastructure as a whole was seen as exemplary and Procaccino's warm and folksy manner won him a great deal of affection, quickly becoming known as "Our Mario".

However it wasn't all plain sailing for Mario, his condoning of the "Hard Hat" riot and apparent dismissal of suspected police brutality in Black neighborhoods contrasted poorly with Mayor Lindsay's more deft handling of the citys racial issues. It didn't seem to hurt with his base however and he was able to turn the tables on what he called his "Limousine Liberal" critics, painting them as an out of touch elite, blind to the concerns of the common man. In fact he was re-elected with a much increased majority in 1972, the future looking rosy.

However it was in his second term that chickens came home to roost. The price for the rapid response to the Winter of 68/69 had been achieved by agreements with the unions for large pay increases and improved terms and conditions, this in conjunction with increased funding for the police and local communities (the ones who supported the Democrats anyway) put a massive strain on an already loaded budget. The New York deficit began to spiral out of control and happening snap bang in the middle of the growing energy crisis threw the city into a full scale emergency. City Hall responded with panic and began a general reduction of funding to all services, Procaccino gambled he could sell it as everyone taking a hit for the good of the city, he was wrong.

The already frayed social bonds between the various communities finally began to break down in earnest, crime shot up and strikes erupted. New York had been unknowingly sitting on a powder keg for at least a decade, with the lid kept on by unsustainable social spending. As the money ran out old grievances spilled out into the open, few will forget Walter Cronkite's famous line "ladies and gentlemen, the Bronx is burning" while footage showed striking cops aimlessly watching widespread looting and wanton violence. In a notorious case the transport polices inept bungling of a bizarre subway hijack led to the massacre of 20 people and the escape of the hostage takers with the one million dollar ransom. All this played out on TV screens across America, leading New York to be dubbed "America's shame".

Procaccino should have been a goner in '76 election, his attempts to tie his election campaign to the national bicentennial seen a cynical attempt to deny any attachment to NYC. Two things went in his favour however. One was the quixotic independent campaign of John Lindsay, looking to come back and, as he put it, "save my city", this led to a split in the Republican-Liberal vote. The other would not be known about until long after Procaccino's death, his quid pro quo with organised crime to push out the Irish and Italians vote in exchange for a hands off policy on their interests, especially around the seedy 42nd Street and Times Square grindhouse district. This was capped off by a now known to be staged assassination attempt during a Brooklyn street festival by an apparent "Black Nationalist" (in reality a paid ex-con) to garner sympathy. The unfortunate side effect being a revenge mass shooting in Harlem leaving 12 dead and racial tension once again pushed to breaking point.

Procaccino's last term continued to go from worse to worse, presiding over a crime ridden city, covered in muck and grime from an umpteenth sanitation strike while "white flight" increased exponentially leaving a poor, desolate city behind. The final nail in the coffin was the cities bankruptcy and Mayor Procaccino had to go cap in hand to the Federal government for a bailout, one of the conditions being he was not to run for re-election. Frankly this suited Mario as he was worn down, tired and miserable.

So in 1979 he packed up and left the Mayor's official residence, the New York Post running with a front page of a tearful, broken Procaccino and a play on his long discarded nickname "Out Mario".

[6] The 1980 mayoral election was not only a battle for 'the soul of New York', but also for the soul of the Republican Party. 'Out Mario' meant that the Democrats were out of the running for a chance of office, which to the opportunistic, beacon of the American conservatives was a chance to wrestle control of the Republican Party in New York away from its liberal faction. The contest was hard fought, but decision of the liberal Republicans to put up David Rockefeller was felt a cynical ploy acting on Nelson's death, who David certainly wasn't, so naturally Buckley dominated the debates, effectively campaign on the need for a "conservative revolution in city finances", dodging the negative connotations of the race question while promising to do whatever was necessary to bring back law & order, finally avoiding the Rockefeller nepotism accusations by keeping his brother the Senator at arms length for the duration.

In his own way, Buckley more or less fulfilled his exact promises of his election. City spending was cut so thoroughly to the bone - making the slow, fazed reductions of previous years seem tame - that it sent an almost immediate shock throughout the city, which initially exacerbated every other problem it had going for it: Harlem and the Bronx blew up in another spout of racial violence; those small business in with organised crime could no longer afford to pay their protection without city financial support, which led to a spike in arson, shootings, 'bust-outs' and suicides; finally a left-wing protest turned into an all out riot on Wall Street. Not that Buckley especially minded, he had planned for it and considered all these to be his enemy, and a NYPD suddenly flush with cash from cut services rolled in and put the smackdown on everyone. Even national guard elements were mobilised to support the police as they restored order, but things admittedly getting out of hand with over zealous police - NYPD's breakup of protesters outside the New York Stock Exchange memorised as the Second Wall Street Crash. This kind of hardball, 'walk the line' police work continued and remains perhaps the most personally contentious part Buckley's term in office for many, but the man himself stood by his record as for every black kid that got "a bit too much of a kicking", he could at least hold up another Frank Lucas or Angelo Bruno to show his war on crime was working.

As the city began to prove a safer place, investment returned to NYC, which Mayor Buckley was glad to endorse and support. He even threw in sweeteners to help in the selling off of City services, which had already been going underfunded enough to make most of them 'fiscally irresponsible'. The Market rolled in and by 1983, for better or worse, New York had gone from being almost Fabian or social democratic to a Friedmanite's wet dream. Although it took a backseat for the most part, Buckley also became increasingly determined to increase the power of Church and the Family, which he found surprising aid from the city's Synagogues and Black Churches. This helped breach the gap Buckley had between himself and the City minorities, and meant he could tackle the inequality and poverty problem of NYC without having to resort to state or federal welfare, as Buckley ensure the religious charities had a steady flow of charitable, mega-bucks donations through every connection he could pull - however this had the unforeseen effect of contributing to the stigma against homosexuals and transgender peoples as the AIDS crisis deepened.

Buckley shocked many when he refused to run for another term in 1984, claiming he had missed his time on television and Firing Line. He returned for another series of his celebrated programme before standing as Republican candidate for Governor of New York state. He held the position until his retirement in 1998.


[7] With the Democrats still in disarray and the Republicans scrambling to replace Buckley, the Liberals had their shot and they had their man: Dinkins had been a Democrat until he'd switched parties in dismay at Procaccino's mayoralty, and he still had ties to the black community from that time. He promised to retain the fall in crime "with dignity", and to try and bring harmony to the city.

First, he began to increase the city's welfare programs, upped the funding of the services Buckley hadn't sold off, and planned a renewal project of run-down housing. Middle-class taxpayers were unhappy about paying, the churches were unhappy at being cut out (and Dinkins made sure to schmooze the black ones), but the people seeing improvements to their neighbourhoods sure appreciated it. A slow, steady transformation of the city began - and ended in 1986, when Buckley became governor.

The rest of Dinkins' term is infamous in New York political history. The mayor and the governor disagreed on nearly everything, but the mayor needed to get the extra cash from the governor, and there constant fights, constant deals, constant sudden changes of policy, constant attempts to raise city-specific revenue. (Dinkins took advantage of rap's popularity and New York origins to make it easier for rap concerts to take place - so the city could tax the damn things) Cartoonists and SNL sketches compared Dinkins and Buckley to the Cold War powers engaged in SALT negotiations. The city bodged along under this, gradually changing but never in the way either men wanted it.

There were two exceptions to this. The first was AIDS and the need for better treatment clinics & education, a fight Dinkins won by starting a public campaign about the risk of AIDS infecting anyone. "It Can Happen Here" said the famous posters, and New Yorkers were shocked - it wasn't just the gays and junkies?! - and Buckley bowed to the public fear. (This, due to taking place in the country's media hub, is also responsible for bouncing the president into approving similar measures)

Exception two was a big crackdown on the mobs after the horrific Times Square Massacre in '89. Buckley and Dinkins had both followed Procaccino's "hands off" approach, taking the tax revenue and getting used to the idea the Square, often seen as an eyesore, was 'contained' - up until a mob shootout killed seventeen people, eleven of them innocent bystanders. Sickened by what they'd allowed to fester, both men ordered the police to blitz the area. The resulting prosecutions gave rise to three smaller-scale shootings of the next two years but also broke the back of the mafia in the city. Dinkins hoped to greatly renovate Times Square after this but there was only the money for half of it.

If there hadn't been a national recession in 1992, Dinkins may have won his fourth term but there was - and it meant the renovated half of Times Square became a renovated quarter - and more people needed those welfare services. Unable to get extra cash, Dinkins had to spend more money than the city had available and this left him open to attacks that he would Bankrupt The City and Raise Your Taxes.

[8] There was little love lost between the King of State Island and the rest of the city, and few suspected that Guy Molinari would ever attempt to and much less succeed to run in an election where the vast majority of the voters lived in the degenerate jungle that was New York City outside Richmond County. But then 1992 rolled around, and Molinari, as chief of the most Republican section of a largely Democratic city (on the federal lever, at least) found himself without suitable recruits to send against Dinkins. Had any other man been Mayor they would just have drummed up some poor fool to send to the slaughter, but Molinari hated the incumbent with a fervor not seen in mayoral politics since the days of Lindsay and Procaccino and would be damned if he saw Dinkin sail smoothly to reelection. So he ran himself, fully expecing to lose but hoping to get some solid hits on the way. Then the recession hit.

Molinari might have been a Staten Island Republican, but he also had a well deserved reputation for practically sweating effective (if ruthless) public administration. He'd clean up Time Square and keep city services running without spending money he didn't have on shit we don't need. His social conservatism might not have played well on Manhattan, but no one runs against David Dinkins expecting to take Harlem and the Greenwich Village, and it was often low-key enough to find itself quite at home in outer boroughs. So after a surprisingly mellow and issues-focused campaign Walked into office on 40% of the vote (more than enough in a race where the city's four "main" parties as well one independent all won at least a tenth of the vote).

Mayor Molinari was no revolutionary, and once all Dinkin's apparatchiks were replaced by sound Republicans he sat out to do exactly what he promised. A strict regimen of austerity was enacted to get the city's finances back in order, and spending was cut to get the books out the red, but the reforms were not at all as strict as many had feared and/or hoped, and the Mayor would find broad popular support for his policies. There is today nothing suggestion we will not be reelected when that time co-

"We now return to the main news of this morning, the apparent bombing of the O'Dwyer Center and the 1994 World Exposition in New York City. The White House just confirmed that among the casulties were both Vice President Dianne Feinstein and New York City Mayor Guy Molinari. President Ravenel, currently in the air, is expected to speak to the nation shortly. We will continue to follow the development in New York as reports come in."